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He has gained, over the years, very wide reputation all over India, USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Europe,  and Australia, for his correct calculations for birth chart and other astrological charts and also for accuracy of predictions. DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen. The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive. The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub).
For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder.
At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver. 1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed. The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China. The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful.
Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder. Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian. Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan].
Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers.
A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels. The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507. According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer.
Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment. Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared. In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author. Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade. Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world.
But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom. Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250. The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further. The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead. On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non.
Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north.
Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red.
Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery. Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339).
Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs. The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo.
Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe. In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods.
Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written. There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones.
Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey. The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas. Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii.
Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia.
The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba).
On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him. In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors. Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester.
The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian.
All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others. Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity. But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame.
Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay . Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim. No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America. Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America. An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife). This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along.
Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship.
Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean. The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible. That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S. Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination. Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch. Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp. Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St. The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself.
The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography.
DESCRIPTION: The Stiftsbibliothek at Zeitz in Germany possesses a large folio manuscript atlas of Ptolemaic maps, with accompanying commentary, dated 1470. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. At the first glance, the map reminds us of Andreas Walspergera€™s circular map of 1448 (#245), which also has the sea in green and lacks the compass lines.
The complete divergence from the portolan charts is noteworthy in other respects also, as is the renunciation of their geographical advances, i.e. In the light of this increase of topographical data it is surprising to note the negligent treatment of the North, especially in the Zeitz map, considering that the atlas also contains the much more detailed map of the North by Nicolaus Germanus. While the anonymous author of the Zeitz map drew the geographical outlines exactly as Walsperger did, he follows his own path as regards the number and wording of the legends.
The Zeitz map has a much smaller number of cities in Europe than Walsperger, only about 70, and moreover, its selection is different. Moreover, names have been added which are not found even in the most detailed portolan maps such as Dalorto, Dulcert, Pizigani; thus kempem (Kampen on the Zuidersee), and kamen (Caumont near the mouth of the Rhone?). There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger. One cannot consider so late a Ptolemaic document without remembering the substantial inroads made by the a€?modernizationa€? of Ptolemy, which originally consisted in the adding of newer maps (for the first time in 1427, the map of the North by Claudius Clavus in the Nancy Codex) and which left traces in almost all later editions. The Zeitz manuscript still retains the old rectangular form for the land maps, including the map of the North. The map of the North shows Greenland erroneously as belonging to Europe or Asia, but otherwise it is placed correctly long beyond and to the southwest of Iceland. Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger. As shown by the reproduction, the Ptolemaic world map in Zeitz is drawn on the conical projection which Ptolemy described as the easier one and had primarily discussed. Another innovation which appears together with the trapezoidal form as used by Nicholas Germanus is the shape of the Jutland peninsula.
The written text includes, in addition to the explanations pertaining to each map and discussed above, the a€?Ptouincie seu Satrapiea€?, always placed after the last map (Taprobana).
The words octauus et ultimus liber suggest the question whether the whole is only a fragment and whether the eighth Book, short in itself, or even the complete work had existed.
18.A  Here is said to be close to the sea a statue of Pallax, which has nine heads, three human heads and six heads of serpents.
22.A  The Gulf of Arabia in which many islands and innumerable red cliffs for which reason it is called the Red Sea. 28.A  Island on which lived the Brahmans?, naked, black and devout people [from the Alexander legend].
43.A  The wicked people of the Scythians who are always on the move because of the severe cold. There are far fewer city pictures and other illustrations in the Zeitz map than in Walsperger.A  We see only the crescent on the Mountains of the Moon in South Africa, the monastery of St.
Quite unusual is the Ptolemaic world map which is pasted in two parts on the inner sides of the covers where there is scarcely sufficient space for it, suggesting that it had originally been larger.A  It does not comprise, as usual, the 180 degrees of the Ptolemaic Orbis terrarum, but only 90 degrees up to the middle of the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Persia.
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He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G.
It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented. This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether.
Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth.
The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507.
The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries.
Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited. Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China.
We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized.
Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him. He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers.
Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions.
One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design.
This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay.
He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world.
Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese. Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior. Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer. He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them. Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St. Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land.
The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense. It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread. Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil.
Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim.
These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries. Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland. And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand.
But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country.
It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii.
This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John.
Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards. The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo.
Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia.
Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits. The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route.
12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country. The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent.
If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author. However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars. In addition to the Ptolemaic world map on the conical projection, there is as the fourth TabulA¦ modernA¦ a circular map in the manner of the portolan [nautical] charts, but without the network of rhumb lines typical of the latter.
Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East. We must recall however that other atlases also often give different forms to a specific area. It is true that he takes over almost all the legends, about 30 in number, but he gives them in shorter or more detailed form and adds to them at least 18 new ones, and in some of the legends taken over from Walsperger he also shows that he is using his own knowledge. There are in this desert innumerable lions, tigers, centaurs and various large unnamed animals.
Island of Jupiter or Immortal Island where nobody dies but in old age is expelled and deprived of life. Here are black naked forest people who live on the fruit of a (certain) tree and therefore worship that tree. In the river Nile and its lakes there is plenty of purest gold, but there are many serpents and great crocodiles. Here the people are so obedient to their masters that they hang themselves quickly rather than provoke their mastera€™s wrath. On the coast of Scotland are trees on which grow geese suspended like pears, and as soon as they fall down they swim to the water and live.
In England he stresses Winchelsea which at that time was in fact the most important of the Cinqueports, and Canterbury, giving a Germanized spelling to both, i.e. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map. Ptolemya€™s land maps were rectangular with equidistant meridians and parallels of latitudes, or as Fischer put it: a€?on a modified Marinus-projectiona€?. Italy, as in numerous manuscripts and the Ulm editions, still has the old Ptolemaic sloping position, while Berlinghieri gives the peninsula its correct southeastern direction as all portolan maps had done long before. It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.
It is true that the printed Ulm and Berlinghieri editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher, have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5). The more difficult one, which was nevertheless recommended by Ptolemy, described by Fischer as a a€?modifieda€? conical projection with circular meridians, latitude parallels and borders is known to us from some printed editions (Berlinghieri, Ulm, etc.).


In Ptolemy it was an almost rectilinear lozenge, strongly bent eastwards, with a head placed on it. It is another enumeration of the most important provinces, 94 in number mostly identical with the chapter titles, and of their longitudes and latitudes. Fischer expresses the opinion that it comes from Italy since the former owner, the Naumburg Bishop Joh.
Catherine on Mount Sinai, the Iron Tower as the passage to India (Legend 37), Noaha€™s Ark on Mount Ararat. The atlas contains the usual 27 maps and, as Tabulae modernae, Spain, Italy, the Northern areas, and the circular world map.A  Here too the maps usually extend over two pages, but do not, as in later editions, consist of one piece, being drawn in two halves. It thus represents the so-called Zamoiski-type, referred to by Fischer as the second version, while the Wolfegg MSS by Nicolaus Germanus and the Ulm editions which are close to it constitute the third version according to which Greenland is mistakenly placed north of Norway.A  Fischer discussed the dating of the map of the North and held that it could not be dated before 1474 since Holstein became a duchy only in that year.
The 57th longitude degree is drawn in red like the climate lines and thus is especially marked in the series (every five degrees).
It is true that the printed Ulm and BerlinghieriA  editions are the only ones known whose world maps logically show at the equator square meshes of the five-degree network, while others, as far as can be judged from the reproductions by Fisher,A  have transverse oblongs (approxi-mately 4:5).A  In the Zeitz map the mesh, if the meridian is prolonged to reach the equator, has a height of five degrees of latitude equal to eight degrees of longitude! It has also occurred that the text and the maps were separated.A  In such a case it would seem in no wise impossible that these words were included without special thought, in other words that the Zeitz manuscript also originally contained only the maps. Now for about two decades he authored 'THE COMING WEEK', the Weekly Astrological Predictions Column for the premier English Language Daily News Paper, The Hindustan Times, published from New Delhi. Parsai, born October 11, 1922, belongs to a family widely known for several centuries now, to be astrologers to the Indian Royalties like Rajas, Maharajas, Nawabs, and Chieftains. Parsai was born in July of 1960 and he started learning astrology from his father Pandit K.
Parsai, he has authored many books on astrology including Star Guide to Predictive Astrology, Star Guide to Elections (Hindi Edition) and Start Guide to Nirayan Tables. From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland.
Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces. The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492. Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere.
The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries.
No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe.
To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage.
The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus.
Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior. A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe. The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°.
That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C. Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548).
In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith. But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is.
Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca.
His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea.
There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither.
It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland. We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter.
It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island. Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.
1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar.
Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa. 8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols. The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others.
He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment. It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more. It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts.
The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer.
It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer. However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed!
The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated. It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found.
The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer. The circular world map has a diameter of 45.7 cm (44 cm wide and 57 cm high), there are minor cuts on the sides, but originally it must have been complete as indicated by the fact that on the left side, where the sheet has been enlarged by pasting on a narrow strip of paper, parts of the legend have been lost. But among the maps contemporary with that of the Zeitz mappa mundi is the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, the Benedetto Cotruglia€™s De navigatione world map of 1465 (#250) and the Fra Mauro mappa mundi (#249) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South.
Likewise, the limits of the terrestrial disc as determined by the circle are the same, the only difference being that in Walsperger this circle is drawn eccentrically and does not define the limits of the map, and, moreover, it is not complete, being interrupted by the seas.
Thus, to the legend according to which the wife is buried alive on her husbanda€™s death, he adds the critical remark that Strabo had stated that the wife was burnt (Legend 35). In their stead Donnus Nicolaus Germanus, who worked in Florence, introduced from 1466, not only for the Tabulae modernae but also for the actual Ptolemaic maps, the trapezoid form with slanting meridians, retaining however the horizontal latitudes (the so-called Donis projection). Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth, Germanus gives Jutland the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions. While Walsperger lists kA¶ppenhan in Denmark, Zeitz considers the southern outer port of DragA¶r? Winkelse and Candelburg.A  This divergence from the portolan maps is striking, as Canterbury was called a€?sco pomas da€™conturbaa€? in the Pisan map and Winchelsea is spelled Ginalexo almost without any variation from the Luxor Atlas to at least FreducciA  in 1538 (London).
It is the only map to show Jews, with their pointed hats, confined in the mountains by Gog and Magog (Legend 40). In addition to the outer frame with degrees there are also two inner frames, also with indication of degrees, as was the case in the Nancy codex of 1427 and the Brussels Lat.
The map of Europe VIII (the area between the Baltic Sea and the Balkans) thus shows, despite the previous existence of the map of the North, only the island Scandia, while in the maps referred to above the entire southeast of Sweden with Bornholm and Gotland have been taken over from the map of the North.
Also the Zeitz map says a€?ducatusa€? but writes correctly a€?olsaciea€?.A  Later, after the date October 4, 1468, had been established in the Wolfegg manuscript, Fischer arrived at the conclusion that this type had existed earlier as confirmed by the Zeitz map. FischerA  discusses the Zeitz manuscript and calls it only a€?a peculiar and, indeed, incomplete world map which, as regards structure and execution, depends on the outline maps of the second Greek version of Ptolemya€?.
Although in this case, as in the case of the modern maps of Spain and Italy, the portolan maps had smoothed the road to truth,A  Germanus gives JutlandA  the form of a prancing caterpillar with an open mouth (the eastern mouth of the Lim Fjord?), which is familiar to us especially from the Ulm editions.
In the same publication Pandit Parsai gave the predictions for those whose birthday falls during the week of the newspaper publication. When he was 20, he joined the civil service initially in a princely state and later in the erstwhile political department of the British Crown in India and after India's independence with the Indian Government. The chart displays the three primary cycles for physical, emotional and intellectual cycles.
Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles. It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days. The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000. On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one. The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°.
Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn. Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g. An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°.
Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492.
It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara.
It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480. Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125. In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate. Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian.
At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea. Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia.
Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported.
He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St. It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. The map was also formerly folded, as can be seen from a mark passing through Jerusalem, the center of the map. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the South. In Walsperger, the circumference forming the northern limit, with an extensive stretch of sea beyond, makes Norway appear as a peninsula, although, as the Zeitz map shows, this was not the intention (in the Table, the southern part of Norway seems to be cut off by a sea inlet, while actually the separating feature is a mountain chain). In this connection, compare the Catalan-Estense map in Modena (#246), whose author, approximately contemporary with Walsperger (#245), used the old portolan chart as a basis and only enlarged it to east and south to about double the extent. And in contradiction to Walspergera€™s statement that in Norway the trolls (goblins) appeared in concrete shapes (in figuris) and aided people, the Zeitz map says (Legend 45) that, instead, they beat them but had never yet been seen. According to NordenskiA¶ld, Berlinghieria€™s printed edition is the only one to retain the rectangular form, and the Bologna edition is the only one that uses the pure conical projection with slanting meridians and bent parallels of latitude.
However, it appears already in the first version (which lacks the map of the North) in the Germania map and was then taken over into the map of the North. This opinion is contradicted by the fact that the script is Gothic, while contemporaneous manuscripts that came from Italy already show the antique. Also Truntbaym (elsewhere tronde = Trondhiem), rogel (Rochelle) and the frequent use of W instead of V (Wenecia, Wiena) must be cited as examples of Germanization.
As regards also the shape of the mountains, the number of cities and other symbols, Zeitz differs considerably, and on the whole appears to be executed with less care.
He retired the Civil Service as Director in the Cabinet Secretariat of the Government of India after 40 years of service.
There are certain Astrological principles and knowledge that is passed on from one generation to another which he further acquired from senior Pandit Parsai, who has knowledge and experience of over 70 years in the study and practice of Astrology.
Parsai has the understanding of applying the ancient principles and sutra's of Astrology to the modern times which helps him guide and explain Astrological events that current generation can understand and grasp in an easy manner. It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council].
The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design. Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac. But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy.
There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla.
But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256). To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea.
As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587.
Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan. His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr. Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all.
Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v.
We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327). This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering. The sea, as in all other maps of this atlas, is green, the mountain ranges grayish-brown or yellow, while the cities are represented by small filled red circles.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South.
The author of the latter map has, consequently, used either that of Walsperger or a source common to both.
But unlike this Modena map, which shows even fewer cities than most portolan charts, we find in the same area on both charts almost the same wealth of topographical data which is surprising (since the portolan charts never suggested anything of the kind) in the first Tabulae modernae of Spain and Italy appended by Donnus (Donis) Nicolaus Germanus. And the legend concerning trees that give birth to birds (Legend 46), which all other maps, including Walsperger, place near Ireland, is in Zeitz linked to Scotland. However the Zeitz Germania map retains the Ptolemaic rectangular shape of the land map and Jutlanda€™s old shape, although it shows the new form in the map of the North. Much more weight attaches to the germanization of city names, referred to above, which we find also in Walsperger who worked in Constance.
Directly outside the gate holding them in are the characteristic legends a€?here the pygmies fight with the cranesa€? (a reference to the ancient tale of the pygmies and the cranes) and a€?here men eat the flesh of mena€?.
This usage presumably had its origin in the difficulty of obtaining large sheets of vellum of double size for the often used format of a€?fol. In the family tradition, he started learning and practicing the science of Astrology and the art of predictions along side with his school and college education.
During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal.
The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably. The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply.
The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command. MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean. Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe.
Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia. He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe. Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v. The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there.
This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief. As he had renounced Walspergera€™s scientific additions (celestial spheres, climates, polar legends, etc.), which partly fill the seas, he could also do without the now empty ocean space and close the two circles.
Especially in the German region we find names of quite insignificant places like Ragnit, the only town of the district of the same name in the former East Prussia. The author of the Zeitz map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands. Finally, the correction of a€?olfaciea€? into a€?olsaciea€?, as stated above, speaks for a German rather than an Italian author. The author of the ZeitzA  map gives the islands of the Indian Ocean names different from Walsperger in part (Insula Jabadum, Orgia, Insula preciossissima); he also shows Imaus mons, the Magnus sinus and other details absent from Walsperger, and places the Amazons not on the continent but on one of these islands. Within the enclosure is a crowd of people, the only ones depicted on the entire map, wearing pointed hats - a clear though exaggerated reference to the a€?Jewa€™s hata€? of medieval custom.
A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.
The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot. Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly. One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe. A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible.
The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book. Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem. His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer.
As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest.
Like Walsperger, he represents Europe as having a a€?cata€™s backa€? in the north, Jutland with the same pronounced contraction, Sweden as an island, and finally, the Baltic Sea in the same form, different from that in the portolan charts. Finally it is also very remarkable that he re-establishes the island of Meroe in the Nile, common to all old maps from Ptolemy, but replaced in Walsperger by a lacus Meroys. The confusion of Gog and Magog with the Ten Lost Tribes is not surprising unless contrasted with the careful scholarship of a Fra Mauro (#249). Some maps or half-maps as well as explanations are lacking, and others have been mis-bound. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean. On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him.


We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon.
It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt. Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367). Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative. He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed.
Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. Although this map derives, along with Walspergera€™s 1448 map, from a common original, circular in form, made around 1425 at the abbey of Klosterneuburg, and therefore is not Ptolemaic in origin, some Ptolemaic maps adopted the legend of the enclosed Jews, which, along with Gog and Magog, was passed down well into the 16th century. If, as is the case with the Ptolemaic Ulm editions of 1482 and 1486, the explanations (contents, length of the day, and the distance in hours from Alexandria) for each map are on the recto of the specific double-map-sheet, such mis-binding would be immaterial. This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Benefic Effects of Sun in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan SUN is in the house of its natural friend Jupiter. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil. The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him. Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy.
The former is called the Nile in some cases only, while the one flowing in the northeasterly direction is always called the Nile.A  The use of affrorum being presumably explained by a legend on Africa in some portolan maps. This longevity may have been based on a sense of Biblical authorization, the extreme distance at which these peoples were placed a€“ a€?orientalizeda€? and a€?septentrion-ateda€? to the far end of Asia - or a popularity exceeding that of other medieval legends. However, as stated above, we have here individual sheets pasted on a guard, and the explanation to each map is on the back of the preceding map.A  As a result of such mis-binding, for instance, not only is the explanation to Tab.
This program tells us in detail the accurate astronomical locations of planets at the time ofan individual's birth.
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher. It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge. Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia. Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. Jupiter is in the Nakshatra of its natural friend Mars.Malefic Effects of Moon in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Salman Khan Moon is NEAR the Raashi-Sandi. We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape.
This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved. This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it. This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known. The Ptolemaic text reads: Beginning from here an island, meroe regio, is formed by the Nile in the west and by the Astabora River which flows from the east.
This program tells us in detail the accurate astronomical locations of planets at the time of an individual's birth. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification.
Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others. Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St. The Dispositor of the Moon is SATURN.Benefic Effects of Moon in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan The Dispositor of the Moon is SATURN. This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Benefic Effects of Sun in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan SUN is in the Nakshatra of its natural friend Mars.
How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century. As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support. Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid. Navamsa-Mercury is in the house of its natural friend Sun.Malefic Effects of Moon in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan Moon is the Lord of 6th House. The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends.
Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.
The designer seamlessly binds both a flow chart diagram and workflow details together to help break Workflow Maps into easy to manage steps with so little effort. Navamsa-Mars is the Lord of 6th House.Benefic Effects of Mercury in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Mercury is in the Nakshatra lorded by itself.
Navamsa-Venus is the Lord of 8th House.Benefic Effects of Moon in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan The Dispositor of the Moon is VENUS.
The Dispositor of the Venus is SATURN.Benefic Effects of Venus in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Venus is in the house of its natural friend Saturn. This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Benefic Effects of Mercury in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Mercury is in its own Sign. Navamsa-Mercury is in the house of its natural friend Sun.Malefic Effects of Venus in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh BachchanVenus is in its Debilitation Sign. Saturn is in its Mool Trikona.Malefic Effects of Mars in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Salman Khan Mars is the Lord of 8th House.
The Dispositor of the Mars is SATURN.Benefic Effects of Mars in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Mars is in its Exaltation Sign.
Saturn is in its Mool Trikona.Malefic Effects of Jupiter in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Salman Khan Jupiter is in the house of its natural enemy Mercury. This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Benefic Effects of Venus in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Venus is in the house of its natural friend Mercury. Navamsa-Mercury is in the house of its natural friend Sun.Malefic Effects of Mars in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan Mars is in the house of its natural enemy Mercury.
This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Navamsa-Mars is in its Debilitation Sign.
Navamsa-Mercury is the Lord of 8th House.Benefic Effects of Jupiter in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Jupiter is in the Nakshatra of its natural friend Mars. This placement is ultimately not good for any planet.Benefic Effects of Mars in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Mars is in the Nakshatra of its natural friend Moon.
Saturn is in its Mool Trikona.Malefic Effects of Rahu in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Salman Khan Rahu is in the Nakshatra of its natural enemy Moon. Navamsa-Mercury is in the house of its natural friend Sun.Malefic Effects of Jupiter in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan Jupiter is in the 6th House. Navamsa-Venus is the Lord of 12th House.Benefic Effects of Rahu in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Rahu is in the house of its natural friend Venus. Moon is the Lord of 6th House.Benefic Effects of Jupiter in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Jupiter is in the house of its natural friend Moon. Navamsa-Venus is in the house of its natural friend Mercury.Malefic Effects of Ketu in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Salman Khan Ketu is in the 8th House. The Dispositor of the Jupiter is MOON.Malefic Effects of Saturn in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan Saturn is the Lord of 12th House. Navamsa-Mars is the Lord of 6th House.Benefic Effects of Ketu in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Salman Khan Ketu is in the house of its natural friend Mars. Navamsa-Venus is the Lord of 8th House.Benefic Effects of Saturn in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Saturn is in the house of its natural friend Venus.
Navamsa-Venus is in its own Sign.Malefic Effects of Rahu in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan Rahu is in the house of its natural enemy Sun.
If Mangal is in his exaltation rashi, in his Multrikon, in his own rashi, in Kendr, in Labh or Dhan Bhava with strength, in a benefic Amsh (Navamsh) and is associated with a benefic, there will be during his Dasha acquisition of kingdom (attainment of a high administrative or political position in Government, gain of wealth and land, recognition by Government), gain of wealth from foreign countries, and acquisition of conveyances and ornaments. If Mangal with strength is placed in a Kendr or in Sahaj Bhava, there will be gain of wealth through valour, victory over enemies, happiness from wife and children. There will, however, be a possibility of some unfavourable effects at the end of the Dasha.
Navamsa-SUN is the Lord of 6th House.Benefic Effects of Rahu in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan The Dispositor of the Rahu is Sun. If Mangal is in his debilitation rashi, weak, in an inauspicious Bhava (Ari, Randhr, or Vyaya) or is associated with or receives a drishti from malefics there will be, in his Dasha, loss of wealth, distress and similar unfavourable effects.
Navamsa-SUN is in its own Sign.Malefic Effects of Ketu in the Indian-Vedic Horoscope of Amitabh Bachchan The Dispositor of the Ketu is SATURN. Effects, like gains of wealth by the beneficence of the king, beneficence of Goddess Lakshmi, recovery of a lost kingdom and of wealth, birth of a son, will 6thse in the Antar Dasha of Mars in his own Dasha, if he is in a Kendra, in 5th, in 9th, in 11th, in 3rd, or in 2nd, or be associated with the Lord of Lagna. Navamsa-Saturn is the Lord of 12th House.Benefic Effects of Ketu in the Indian-Vedic Birth Chart of Amitabh Bachchan Ketu is in the house of its natural friend Saturn.
In order to clarify the effects of the Dasha of Rahu, I shall first mention the exaltation and debilitation rashis of Rahu and Ketu. Effects, like recognition from government, gain of house, land etc., happiness from son, extraordinary profits in business, bathing in holy rivers, like Ganges and foreign journeys, will be the auspicious effects in the Antar Dasha of Rahu in the Dasha of Mars, if Rahu is in his MulaTrikonaa, in his exaltation Rashi, in a Kendra, in 11th, 5th, or 9th and is associated with benefics. Some sages have expressed the view that Kanya is the own rashi of Rahu and Meen is the own rashi of Ketu.
If Rahu be associated with or receives a drishti from benefics, be in a benefic Rashi and be in Tanu, Bandhu, Yuvati, Karm, Labh, or Sahaj Bhava, there will be during his Dasha all kinds of comforts by the beneficence of the Government, acquisition of wealth through a foreign Government or sovereign, and felicity at home.
If Rahu is in Randhr or Vyaya Bhava, there will be during his Dasha all kinds of troubles and distress. If Rahu is associated with a malefic or a Marak (killer) grah or is in his debilitation rashi (Vrischik), there will be loss of position, destruction of his residential house, mental agony, trouble to wife and children and misfortune of getting bad food.
There will be loss of wealth at the commencement of the Dasha, some relief and gain of wealth in his own country, and distress and anxieties during the last portion of the Dasha. Acquisition of a house, land, well-being, gain of property, sound health, good reputation, gains of cattle, success in business, happiness to wife and children, reverence from government, gain of wealth etc.
Effects, like acquisition of a kingdom, enthusiasm, cordial relations with the king, happiness from wife and children and increase in property, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Rahu in the Dasha of Rahu, if Rahu is in Cancer, Scorpio, Virgo, or Sagittarius and is in 3rd, 6th, 10th, or 11th, or is conjunct with a Yoga Karak Planet in his exaltation Rashi.5-6.
There will be danger from thieves, distress from wounds, antagonism with government officials, destruction of kinsmen, distress to wife and children, if Rahu is in 8th, or 12th, or be associated with malefics. Loss of wealth, obstacles in work, defamation, distress to wife and children, heart disease, entrustment of governmental authority etc.
Danger from Yavana kings (foreign dignit6thes), loss of wealth, imprisonment, possibility of affliction with diseases, loss in agricultural production will result, if Saturn is in his debilitation Rashi, or in an enemy Rashi, or, if Saturn is in 8th, or in 12th.
Loss of wealth and distress to body will result, if Jupiter is in the 6th, the 8th, or the 12th from the Lord of the Dasha, or, if Jupiter is associated with malefics. Effects, like pleasure of the king for devotion in his service, auspicious functions, like celebration of marriage etc. Effects, like death, danger from the king and thieves, rheumatism, pains, danger from the enemy and members of the family, will be experienced, if Saturn is in the 8th, or the 12th from the Lord of the Dasha and is associated with malefics. There will be heart disease, defamation, quarrels, danger from enemies, foreign journeys, affliction with Gulma, unpalatable food and sorrows etc., if Saturn is in the 6th, the 8th, or the 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. Auspicious effects, like Raja Yoga, well being in the family, profits and gain of wealth in business, comforts of conveyances, marriage and other auspicious functions, increase in the number of cattle, gain of perfumes, comforts of bed, women etc., will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Mercury in the Dasha of Rahu, if Mercury is in his exaltation Rashi, in a Kendra, or in 5th and, if Mercury is endowed with strength. There will be journeys to foreign lands, increase in the number of enemies, affliction with many kind of ailments, antagonism with the king, quarrels with kinsmen etc., if Mercury be associated with the Lord of the Dasha.
Good results, like Raja Yoga, beneficence of the king and gain of wealth and reputation, will be realized particularly on Wednesday in the month of Mercury. Effects, like defamation, sinful thinking, harsh speech, danger from thieves, fire and the king, quarrels without reason, fear of attacks by thieves and dacoits (armed robber bands) during travels, will be derived, if Mercury is in the 6th, the 8th, or the 12th from Mars, or is associated with malefics. There will be opprobrium (Ninda) of deities and Brahmins by the native, loss of fortune, speaking lies, unwise actions, fear from snakes, thieves and the government, quarrels, distress to wife and children etc., if Mercury is in 6th, 8th, or 12th, or, if Mercury receives a Aspect from Saturn. Birth of a son, increase in reputation, beneficence of Goddess Lakshmi, gains of wealth from employees, attainment of the position of a Commander of an Army, friendship with the king, performance of oblations, gains of clothes and ornaments etc. There will also definitely be increase in the number of cattle, if Ketu is in a Kendra, or in a Trikona.
Gain of property, celebrations on the birth of a son, gain of wealth from the employer, acquisition of a house, land, villages etc. In the last part of the Dasha there will be functions of songs and dances and bathing in holy water. If Venus is connected with, or related to the Lord of 10th, there will be construction of wells, reservoirs etc. If Venus be the Lord of the 2nd, or the 7th, there will be pains in the body in his Antar Dasha. There will be diseases, quarrels, separation from ones son, or father, distress to kinsmen, disputes with coparceners, danger of death to oneself, or to ones employer, unhappiness to wife and children, pain in the stomach etc., if Venus is in 6th, 8th, or 12th, in his debilitation, or in an enemy Rashi, or, if Venus is associated with Saturn, Mars, or Rahu.
Effects, like acquisition of conveyances, gain of reputation, birth of a son, growth of wealth, amicable atmosphere in the family, sound health, potency, recognition by the the king, extraordinary profits in business and audience with the king etc. Effects, like danger from the wrath of Brahmins, snakes and the king, possibility of affliction with diseases, like stoppage of urine, diabetes, pollution of blood, anaemia, availability of only coarse food, nervous disorder, imprisonment, loss of wealth, as a result of penalties, or fines, imposed by government, will be derived, if Venus is associated with malefics in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be distress to wife and children, danger of premature death to oneself, if Venus is 2nds, or 7ths Lord. There will be attacks of fever, danger from snakes and poison and distress to son, if Sun be the Lord of the 2nd, or the 7th. There will be good reputation and encouragement and assistance by government, journeys to foreign countries, acquisition of the sovereignty of the country, gains of elephants, horses, clothes, ornaments, fulfillment of ambitions, happiness to children etc., if Sun is associated with, or receives a Aspect from Lagnas, 2nds, or 10ths Lord.
The effects, like death, distress to wife and children, loss of lands, wealth and cattle and danger of a war etc.
Well-being in every way and recognition from kings in foreign countries will be the results, if Sun is in a Kendra, in a Trikona, in the 3rd, or in the 11th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be the possibility of premature death, distress to the body and mental agony, if Moon is 2nds, or 7ths Lord. The remedial measures to be adopted to obtain relief from the above evil effects, are recitation of Mantras of the Goddess Durga and the Goddess Lakshmi. Beneficence of the Goddess Lakshmi, all-round success, increase in wealth and grains, good reputation and worship of deities will be the results, if Moon is in the 5th, 9th, in a Kendra, or in the 11th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be acquisition of red-coloured garments, journeys, audience with the king, well-being of children and employer, attainment of the position of a Commander of the Army, enthusiasm and gain of wealth through kinsmen, if Mars is in a Kendra, in the 5th, 9th, 3rd, or in the 11th from the Lord of the Dasha.
The remedial measure to obtain relief from the above evil effects is giving a cow, or a bull in charity. Now, I am going to describe the effects of the Dasha of Guru, the great benefic and preceptor of the Gods.
If Guru is in his exaltation rashi, in his own rashi, in his Multrikon, in Karm, Putr, or Dharm Bhava, in his own Navamsh, or in his exalted Navamsh, there will be during his Dasha: acquisition of kingdom (attainment of a high political or administrative position in Government), great felicity, recognition by Government, acquisition of conveyances and clothes, devotion to deities and Brahmins, happiness in respect of his wife and children, and success in the performance of religious sacrifices (oblations). If Guru is in his debilitation rashi, combust, associated with malefics or in Ari or Randhr Bhava, there will be during his Dasha loss of residential premises, anxiety, distress to children, loss of cattle and pilgrimage (visit to religious places).
During the later part of the Dasha there will be good effects like gain of wealth, awards from and recognition by Government. Effects, like sovereignty over many kings, very well endowed with riches, revered by the king, gains of cattle, clothes, ornaments, conveyances, construction of a new house and a decent mansion, opulence and glory, dawn of fortune, success in ventures, meetings with Brahmins and the king, extraordinary profits from the employer and happiness to wife and children, will be experienced in the Antar Dasha of Jupiter in his own Dasha, if Jupiter is in his exaltation Rashi, in his own Rashi, in a Kendra, or Trikona.4-5. Association with the menials, great distress, slander by coparceners, wrath of the employer, danger of premature death, separation from wife and children and loss of wealth and grains will be the results, if Jupiter is in his debilitation Rashi, in his debilitated Navamsa, or in 6th, 8th, or 12th. Loss of wealth, affliction with fever, mental agony, infliction of wounds to wife and children, inauspicious events at home, loss of cattle and employment, antagonism with kinsmen etc. Effects, like loss of wealth, antagonistic relations with kinsmen, obstacles in industrial ventures, pains in the body, danger from the members of the family etc.
There will be increase in the number of enemies, loss of enjoyment and comforts, loss in business, affliction with fever and dysentery, if Mercury receives a Aspect from Mars. There will be loss of wealth, journeys to foreign countries, danger from thieves while traveling, wounds, burning sensations, eye troubles, wanderings in foreign lands, if Mercury is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha, or, if Mercury is associated with a malefic without receiving a Aspect from a benefic.
There will be enjoyment, gains of wealth, conveyances and clothes at the commencement of the Antar Dasha, even if Mercury is associated with a malefic, but receives a Aspect from a benefic. Effects, like loss of wealth by the wrath of the king, imprisonment, diseases, loss of physical strength, antagonism with father and brother and mental agony, will be experienced, if Ketu be in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha, or be associated with malefics. There will be physical distress, if Ketu is 2nds, or 7ths Lord (or, if Ketu is in 2nd, or in 7th. There will be gain of wealth, happiness from wife, meeting with the king, increase in the number of children, conveyances and cattle, enjoyment of music, society with men of learning, availability of sweetish preparations, giving help and assistance to kinsmen etc., if Venus is in a Kendra, Trikona, or in the 2nd from the Lord of the Dasha.
Effects, like reverence from the king, opulence and glory, happiness from wife and children, availability of good food, gain of reputation by performance of good deeds, increase in the number of children and grandchildren, comforts by the beneficence of the king, religious and charitable inclinations etc., will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Moon in the Dasha of Jupiter, if Moon is in a Kendra, Trikona, or in 11th, or, if Moon is in her exaltation, or in her own Rashi and, if Moon is full and strong and in an auspicious House from the Lord of the Dasha. Effects, like the celebration of functions, such as marriage etc., gain of land, or villages, growth of strength and valor and success in all ventures, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Mars in the Dasha of Jupiter, if Mars is in his exaltation, in his own Rashi, or in his exalted, or own Navamsa.
Loss of wealth and house, eye trouble and other inauspicious effects will be the results, if Mars is in the 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha, or, if Mars is in his debilitation Rashi, associated with, or receiving a Aspect from malefics. Effects, like attachment to Yoga, gain of wealth and grains during the first five months, sovereignty over a village, or country, meeting with a foreign king, well-being in the family, journeys to distant lands, bathing in holy places, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Rahu in the Dasha of Jupiter, if Rahu is in his exaltation, in his own Rashi, in his MulaTrikonaa, or, if Rahu is in a Kendra, or Trikona, or, if Rahu receives a Aspect from the Lord of a Kendra, or, if Rahu is associated with, or receives a Aspect from a benefic. Now, I will describe to you the effects of the Dasha of Shani who is considered the vilest and most inferior amongst all the grahas. If Shani is in his exaltation rashi, in his own rashi, or in Multrikon or friendly rashi, in his own or exalted Navamsh and in Sahaj or Labh Bhava, there will be during his Dasha, recognition by Government, opulence and glory, name and fame, success in the educational sphere, acquisition of conveyances and ornaments, etc., gain of wealth, favours from Government, attainment of a high position like commander of an army, acquisition of a kingdom, benevolence of goddess Lakshmi, gain of property and birth of children. If Shani is in Ari, Randhr, or Vyaya Bhava, in his debilitation rashi, or combust, there will be during his Dasha, ill effects from poison, injury from weapons, separation from father, distress to wife and children, disaster as a result of displeasure of Government, imprisonment, etc.. If Shani receives a drishti from or is associated with a benefic, is placed in a Kendr or in a Trikon, in Dhanu or in Meen, there will be acquisition of a kingdom (attainment of a high position in Government), conveyances, and clothes.
Fear, or danger from the king, getting inflicted with injuries with some weapon, bleeding gums, dysentery etc. Acquisition of a kingdom, gain of wealth, headship of a village will be the effects at the commencement of the Dasha, if Mercury is in 6th, 8th, or 12th from Lagna, or from the Lord of the Dasha, or, if Mercury is associated with Sun, Mars and Rahu. Gain of physical strength and courage, religious thoughts, audience with the king (high dignit6thes of government, like president, prime minister, governor, ministers) and all kinds of enjoyments will be experienced, if Ketu is in a Kendra, in a Trikona, in the 3rd, or 11th from the Lord of the Dasha. Effects, like marriage, birth of a son, gain of wealth, sound health, well-being in the family, acquisition of a kingdom, enjoyments by the beneficence of the king, honors, gain of clothes, ornaments, conveyance and other desired objects, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Venus in the Dasha of Saturn, if Venus is in a Kendra, Trikona, or in 11th, associated with, or receiving a Aspect from benefics. If during the period of Antar Dasha of Venus Jupiter is favourable in transit, there will be dawn of fortune and growth of property.
There will be eye trouble, fevers, loss of good conduct, dental problems, heart disease, pain in arms, danger from drowning, or falling from a tree, antagonism towards relations with the officials of government and brothers, if Venus is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be heart disease, defamation, loss of position, mental agony, separation from close relatives, obstacles in industrial ventures, fevers, fears, loss of kinsmen, loss of articles, dear to the person, if Sun is in 8th, or 12th, or, if Sun is in the 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be great distress, wrath, separation from parents, ill health of children, losses in business, irregular meals, administration of medicines, if Moon is waning, if Moon is associated with, or receives Aspect from malefics, or, if Moon is in his debilitation Rashi, or, if Moon is in malefic Navamsa, or, if Moon is in the Rashi of a malefic Planet.
There will, however, be good effects and some gain of wealth at the commencement of the Antar Dasha. Effects, like sleepiness, lethargy, loss of position, loss of enjoyments, increase in the number of enemies, antagonism with kinsmen, will be experienced, if Moon is weak and is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. Effects, like enjoyments, gain of wealth, reverence from the king, gain of conveyances, clothes and ornaments, attainment of the position of a Commander of the Army, increase in agricultural and cattle wealth, construction of a new house, happiness to kinsmen, will be derived from the very commencement of the Antar Dasha of Mars in the Dasha of Saturn, if Mars is in his exaltation, in his own Rashi, or, if Mars is associated with Lagnas Lord, or with the Dasha Lord. Great distress, dependence on others and fear of premature death, may be expected, if Mars is in 2nd, or, if Mars is 7ths, or 8ths Lord.
Effects, like quarrels, mental agony, physical distress, agony, antagonism with the sons, danger from diseases, unnecessary expenditure, discord with close relations, danger from the government, foreign journeys, loss of house and agricultural lands, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Rahu in the Dasha of Saturn, if Rahu not be in his house of exaltation, or any other auspicious position. There will be acquisition of elephants, opulence and glory, cordial relations with the king, gains of valuable clothes, if Rahu is in Aries, Virgo, Cancer, Taurus, Pisces, or Sagittarius. Results, like death of the near relations, loss of wealth, antagonism with the government officials, failure in projects, journeys to foreign lands, affliction with diseases, like leprosy etc., will be experienced, if Jupiter is in his debilitation Rashi, or, if Jupiter is associated with malefics, or, if Jupiter is in 6th, 3rd, or 12th.
Antagonism with kinsmen, mental agony, quarrels, loss of position, losses in ventures, loss of wealth, as a result of imposition of fines, or penalties by government, imprisonment distress to wife and son will be the results, if Jupiter is weak and is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. Now, I am going to describe the effects of the Dasha of Buddh who is called a Kumar (in his teens) amongst all grahas. If Buddh is in his exaltation rashi, in his own rashi, in a friendly rashi or in Labh, Putr, or Dharm Bhava, there will be during his Dasha, acquisition of wealth, gain of reputation, improvement in knowledge, benevolence of Government, auspicious functions, happiness from wife and children, good health, availability of sweetish preparations, profits in business, etc..
If Buddh receives a drishti from a benefic, is in Dharm Bhava, or is the lord of Karm Bhava, the aforesaid beneficial results will be experienced in full and there will be great felicity all round. If Buddh is associated with a malefic, there will during his Dasha, punishment by Government, inimical relations with kinsmen, journey to a foreign country, dependence on others, and the possibility of urinary troubles. If Buddh is in Ari, Randhr, or Vyaya Bhava, there will be loss of wealth due to indulgence in lascivious activities, possibility of suffering from rheumatism and jaundice, danger of thefts, and malevolence of Government, loss of land and cattle, etc.. At the commencement of the Dasha of Buddh, there will be gains of wealth, betterment in the educational sphere, birth of children and, happiness.
Fall from a conveyance, distress to son, danger from the king, indulgence in sinful deeds, danger from scorpions etc., quarrels with the menials, sorrow, diseases and association with menials etc.
Heart disease, defamation, fevers, dysentery, separation from kinsmen, physical distress and agony will result, if Venus is weak in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord, or the Dasha. The Yoga becomes very strong for beneficial effects, if in the Antar Dasha of Moon in the Dasha of Mercury Moon is in a Kendra, or Trikona from Lagna, or, if Moon is in her exaltation, or in her own Rashi, associated with, or receiving a Aspect from Jupiter, or, if Moon is a Yoga Karak herself.
If Moon is in a Kendra, Trikona, in the 3rd, or 11th from the Lord of the Dasha, there will be at the commencement of the Antar Dasha visits to sacred shrines, patience, enthusiasm and gains of wealth from foreign countries.
There will be gain of wealth, physical felicity, birth of a son, good reputation, affectionate relations etc. Effects, like reverence from the king, good reputation, gain of wealth, visits to sacred shrines, performance of religious sacrifices and oblations, recognition, gain of clothes etc., are derived in the Antar Dasha of Rahu in the Dasha of Mercury, if Rahu is in a Kendra, or Trikona, or, if Rahu is in Aries, Aquarius, Virgo, or Taurus.
There will be some evil effects at the commencement of the Antar Dasha, but all will be well later. Pressure of hard work, as a government functionary, loss of position, fears, imprisonment, diseases, agony to self and kinsmen, heart disease, loss of reputation and wealth, will be the results, if Rahu is associated with a malefic, or malefics in the 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. There will be physical distress, if Jupiter is 2nds, or 7ths Lord, or, if Jupiter is in 2nd, or 7th. Effects, like well-being in the family, acquisition of a kingdom, enthusiasm, increase in cattle wealth, gain of a position, visits to sacred shrines etc., will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Saturn in the Dasha of Mercury, if Saturn is in his exaltation, his in his own Rashi, or in a Kendra, or Trikona, or in 11th.
Now, I will tell you about the Dasha of Ketu who is a headless trunk ('Kabandha') amongst all the grahas.
If Ketu is in a Kendr, a Trikon, or in Labh Bhava, in a benefic rashi, in his exaltation rashi, or in his own rashi, there will be during his Dasha, cordial relations with the king (Government), desired headship of a country or village, comforts of conveyances, happiness from children, gain from foreign countries, happiness from wife, and acquisition of cattle. If Ketu is in Sahaj, Ari, or Labh Bhava, there will be in his Dasha acquisition of a kingdom (attainment of a high position in Government), good relations with friends and opportunities for the acquisition of elephants. During the middle portion of the Dasha, there will be possibilities of fearfulness and in the last part there will be sufferings from ailments and journeys to distant places. If Ketu is in Dhan, Randhr, or Vyaya Bhava, or receives a drishti from a malefic, there will be imprisonment, destruction of kinsmen and residential premises, and anxieties, company of menials, and diseases. Effects, like happiness from wife and children, recognition from the king, but mental agony, gain of land, village etc.
There will be quarrels without any cause, loss of wealth, distress to cattle, if Venus is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha.
If Venus is in his debilitation Rashi, or, if Venus is associated with a debilitated Planet, or, if Venus is in 6th, or 8th, there will be quarrels with kinsmen, headaches, eye troubles, heart disease, defamation, loss of wealth and distress to cattle and wife. Danger from the king, separation from parents, journeys to foreign lands, distress from thieves, snakes and poison, punishment by government, antagonism with the friends, sorrows, danger from fever etc. Obstacles in availability of food, fears and loss of wealth and cattle will be the results, if Sun is associated with evil Planets in the 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. Unhappiness and mental agony, obstacles in ventures, separation from parents, losses in business, destruction of cattle etc.
Loss of wealth, anxiety, enmity with kinsmen and distress to brother, will be the results, if Moon is in the 6th, 8th, or 12th from the Lord of the Dasha. Effects, like acquisition of land, village etc., increase in wealth and cattle, laying out of a new garden, gain of wealth by the beneficence of the king, will be derived in the Antar Dasha of Mars in the Dasha of Ketu, if Mars is in his exaltation, in his own Rashi, if Mars is associated with, or, receives a Aspect from benefics.



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