The secret of successful drug launches youtube,esther and jerry hicks law of attraction cards,lawrenceville nj ymca - For Begninners

21.07.2014
Xenia Kachur, a graduate student in the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Interdisciplinary Program at the UA, is working on a project to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer tissues without harming healthy body cells. University of Arizona researchers may have found a way to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer tissues in controlled doses without harming healthy body cells.
If successful, the invention of gold-coated liposomes could make chemotherapy more effective to destroy cancer cells and alleviate the harmful side effects that can result from the treatment. The invention by Marek Romanowski, an associate professor in the department of biomedical engineering in the College of Engineering at the UA, and his lab team doesn't have a silver lining.
Chemotherapeutic drugs are sometimes encased in small capsules called liposomes, which are made of organic lipids that are already present in human cells.
Once released into the bloodstream, drug-carrying liposomes accumulate around a cancer tumor because of a property known as leaky vasculature: Tumor cells have extra openings to blood vessels to take in nutrients carried in the bloodstream, usually because they are trying to grow more quickly than normal cells.
The highly toxic drugs used for chemotherapy destroy cancer cells, but with no way to discriminate between cell types, they can also damage healthy cells.
To better target cancer cells, the UA team attached liposomes to signal molecules called ligands, which interact with specific cell receptors like keys in a lock.
As they degrade, liposomes release drugs bit-by-bit in an uncontrolled fashion, which may not effectively destroy tumor cells. The new invention could allow doctors to control the amount of drug released at a time, and to release the drug only in the tumor region, thereby protecting healthy cells from damage caused by the drug. The theory goes that the amount of infrared light can be varied to control the amount of drug that is released from the gold-coated liposomes. Despite increased blood-flow to tumor cells and the key-in-lock action of the ligands, some liposomes may still end up inside healthy cells.


By selectively shining the infrared light only in the tumor region, doctors could make sure only liposomes in the tumor region are able to release the drug. The invention has another bonus: "The gold-coated liposome is biodegradable, which is one of the best parts of our system," said Leung. Kidneys, the organs that normally filter waste molecules out of the blood, have a limit as to the size of molecule they can filter. There still are many steps to take to test the invention before it could be used in cancer therapy.
One day, cancer patients could potentially receive chemotherapy treatments with confidence that the drugs will effectively destroy cancer cells, and without fear of suffering any harmful side effects. Breast cancer patients face many horrors, including those that arise when fighting the cancer itself. A group of researchers at Johns Hopkins University has designed nanoparticles that can carry cancer-treating radioisotopes through the body and deliver them selectively to tumors. Micro-scaled photovoltaic devices may one day be used to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs directly to tumors, rendering chemotherapy less toxic to surrounding tissue. Electronic materials have been a major stumbling block for the advance of flexible electronics because existing materials do not function well after breaking and healing. Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. The future of movies and manufacturing may be in 3-D, but electronics and photonics are going 2-D; specifically, two-dimensional semiconducting materials. The lipid encasing keeps the body's immune system from attacking the foreign molecule before it can deliver the drug.


The extra blood flow means that more nutrients, and also more liposomes, are likely to accumulate in the tumor cells where they eventually break down and release the drug into the cells, leading to cell death.
One is tumor cells are proliferating very quickly, and so they're over-expressing a lot of nutrient receptors because they want to divide faster," said Xenia Kachur, a third-year graduate student in the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Interdisciplinary Program, or GIDP. In that case, the gold-coating could potentially act to prevent release of the toxic drug to the healthy cells. Whatever else is left will leave the body or may be slowly released, but not to as high or as toxic of levels as it would be if you just injected the drug systemically," said Leung. Currently there are no approved chemotherapeutic treatments that allow the gold nanostructures to be eliminated from the body by the body's own mechanisms, said Leung. But if successful, gold-coated liposomes could provide a method to target chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells, non-invasively trigger the drugs' release using infrared light and provide a way for the body naturally to filter the drug from the bloodstream.
Medications given during chemotherapy can have wicked side effects, including vomiting, dizziness, anemia and hair loss. The secret to non-invasively controlling the release of chemotherapeutic drugs lies in nano-scale capsules made of lipids and coated with a fine layer of gold. The extra receptors make the liposomes more likely to latch onto and get inside tumor cells than normal cells.



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