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Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany.
It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano].
Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St.
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico.
In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance.
This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries. Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St.
Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger.
Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas.
Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus.
Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores.
The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World.
AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history.
Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery.
Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery.
Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured.
The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic.
Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement. The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus?
Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland.
Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim. An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days.
The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio. That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school. In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. Felix MorleyA was the first, and of the six of them, had the most to do with Washington, for the most time.
Felix was the next oldest of the three brothers a€” a€?the Second Garrideb,a€? his brother Chris sometimes called him a€” and his birthday was January 6th. In 1940 he answered a call from Haverford College, and served as its president during World War II. Elmer DavisA also had close ties to Christopher Morley, from the time they were Rhodes Scholars at Oxford together in 1911. All this time, Davis had been a close friend of Chris Morleya€™s, and part of his Three Hours for Lunch Club in the early 1930s. When Davis took the CBS job, though, his broadcast hour meant that he arrived late at BSI annual dinners in January; and after 1942a€™s he couldna€™t at all, for the duration of the war. For the rest of the war, and the rest of his life, he lived in a big comfortable apartment at 1661 Crescent Place, off 16th Street. After it was over, Davis stayed in Washington to be a news commentator for the new ABC network.
With considerable difficulty over the rest of 1947, Smith managed to keep Morley from throwing the baby out with the bathwater, though the 1948 annual dinner was cancelled in favor of something smaller dubbed a a€?committee-in-cameraa€? meeting at the Racquet Club on Park Avenue.
From Philadelphia to early Red Circle meetings cameA James Montgomery, one of the eraa€™s best loved Irregulars. James Montgomery had only one flaw: a big heart, but a defective one, and it broke many other Irregularsa€™ hearts when he died all too soon at the age of fifty-seven in 1955. Smith had long wanted a BSI scion society in Washington, where he often came on business at the State Department and elsewhere, and belonged to the Army & Navy Club on Farragut Square. And Felix, a foreign policy expert himself, had a veryA A  distinguished career in political affairs and journalism. But when Hitler came to power in Germany, and Europe started sliding toward war again, Davisa€™s mood grew somber.
A  When the Sherlock Holmes Society made its first pilgrimage to Switzerland, in about 1968, Gore-Booth played Sherlock Holmes in a re-creation of the struggle at the Reichenbach Falls with Professor Moriarty. He first attended a BSI annual dinner the following January, 1947, the last one held at New Yorka€™s Murray Hill Hotel before it was demolished to make way for a modern office building regretted deeply by the BSI to this day.
But of all his repertoire, still on the BSIa€™s Top Ten today is a€?Aunt Clara.a€? This song, and you all know it, was Montgomerya€™s lasting triumph. It was an amazing level of activity for someone who, until retiring in 1954, had a very demanding day-job a€” a vice president of General Motorsa€™ Overseas Operations in New York.
The history-as-value clause: A lot of the work your agency does builds history, and that history is worth hard dollars.
If an agency gets grabby, insisting they don’t have to hand something over, check the contract. To be fair, I don’t think there have been any public stories on Linkedin actually enforcing this policy on long-time active users. Founded by former Facebook employees, Quora is making the same mistake Facebook started with, the only difference being Quora has never tried correcting it standing firmly by their questionable decision. It is still hilarious to find such an adamant policy enforcers on the Internet, and it makes me wonder how Quora managed to put a bunch of lunatics to frame a policy on the Internet that forces users to reveal their identities. In an obvious effort to profile the web, Google started Google Plus with a very strict real name policy which ended up in lots of controversies. The policy didn’t work for Google Plus well, especially when they started aggressively integrating it into Youtube (where few people use real names). On July 15, 2014 it was announced that there were absolutely no restrictions as to what name you should use when registering an account at Google Plus. The post Real Name Policies on Facebook, LinkedIn, Quora and Google Plus: Clarified appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. We’ve also got a fun rant about keywords from SEO Chat and some privacy-focused topics from Cre8asiteforums! You may not have heard the term before – clickjacking is when you click on a video to play it, for example, and instead a new window opens up with an advertisement. There’s a bonus discussion on WebmasterWorld, where users wonder how fair and accurate Google will be in identifying actual clickjacking attempts. Over 70 pages of charts and information from comScore is up for discussion in this Cre8asiteforums thread! The post Getty vs Google, Long Tail Rants, and More: Weekly Forum Update appeared first on Internet Marketing Ninjas Blog. Sitelink extensions are one of the most commonly used ad extensions available in Google AdWords. These additional links, which are typically displayed when enabled for ads holding the first or second ad position in Google’s search engine results page (SERP), provide a large handful of benefits for advertisers using them.
Typically located under your standard PPC headline and description lines, the example below highlights four sitelinks being used by this particular advertiser.
Additionally, advertisers can add description lines to their sitelinks in an effort to further develop context. Implementing sitelinks into your Google AdWords campaigns can provide a ton of additional value for advertisers. Local PPC is a topic seldom discussed in the digital marketing sphere, and that’s a problem. For many of these businesses investing in paid search ads, a typical B2C or B2B strategy just won’t do.
If you have a location in a large city, or if you have multiple locations which are in close proximity with one another, you may find that city location targeting isn’t practical. The single most important element to winning with local PPC is the utilization of radius targets. The signals AdWords uses when determining if someone is within a custom radius target often rely on physical indicators such as WiFi hot spots and GPS.
Radius targets are important, but they’re not the only factors which will make or break a local PPC strategy. Use bid modifiers on schedules and devices – Chances are your conversion metrics, such as conversion rate and average cost per conversion, will vary depending on the time of day, day of week, and what type of device a user is on. Create a campaign template – For businesses with multiple locations, create a campaign template (or set of templates) so it can be used on a one-store-per-campaign basis. There needs to be some action on your website a user can take which indicates they’re likely to actually visit your physical location. How else will you know the money you’re investing in PPC is actually working to drive people physically to your place of business? We have a couple of current, large-scale examples at Portent where we’ve proven out this strategy (on top of many small business accounts). In both cases, conversions went up, the average cost per conversion decreased, and conversion rates increased, all by noticeable margins. When most people think about online marketing, they think about the straightforward side--the one that makes them money directly.
When social media platforms just started springing up, I remember many experts assuming social media would kill email marketing.
Maintaining a loyal, active and steadily growing list is one of the strongest assets you can build: This is what can secure your business against various rankings fluctuations and emerging competitors. These months I am experimenting with my blog calls-to-actions (primarily for the sake of self-education but also to be able to share my results with my community and help others grow). This article is my first step in the long-lasting experiment: Making the most of calls-to-actions.
Creating a sense of urgency gets users to take action immediately instead of holding off on the purchase. I suspect this is a later trend: Web users are getting tired of commercial CTAs pressing you to sign up to something on each page they visit. For longer CTAs, sentence case can make your button text feel like a dialogue, thus more friendly. The theory is they have said yes once, before you ask for their address so they are more bought-in, and ready to give it. If you want to learn more about content and content marketing, check out Joe Pulizzi’s book, Content Inc. Remarketing campaigns through Google AdWords offer advertisers an additional tactic to drive potentially high value visitors back to their website in an effort to grow overall conversion figures. Remarketing campaigns allow businesses to stay connected with their target audience after they leave their website by showing ads to them on other websites across the web. Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus).
I havena€™t had many friends during my lifetime, but James Pinckney Smith was one of the few. About a year ago on a Sunday, I drove 300 miles to and 300 miles back fromA Pineville, Louisiana, where Linda and I attended Jima€™s funeral. I guess one of the reasons I liked Jim as much as I did, is some of the thoughts he shared. After about fifteen years of not seeing Jim, I tracked him down by following roadside posters which read a€?Big Jima€™s Fireworks.a€? There he was, the proprietor of a fireworks stand. When we visited Jim in Houston after the onset of his cancer, he seemed to think that he had not achieved many of the goals of his life. Although many people seemed to view Jim as an outrageous character who was better suited to be between the covers of a Faulkner novel, I always found him knowledgeable and pleasant in a Southern way.A  I still miss Jim. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner.
Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps).
All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge. A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507.
Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507).
It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain.
For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator.
In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East).
As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million.


Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe.
To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon.
He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St.
This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name.
Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew.
He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears.
He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522. That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504.
Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale. Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking.
Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr.
The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera.
To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. The Baker Street Irregulars were founded by Christopher Morley, of course a€” eldest of three brothers, graduates of Haverford College in Pennsylvania or Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, both where their father taught mathematics, then all three Rhodes Scholars at Oxford (a record to this day), and finally all Baker Street Irregulars. He became a€?The Second Staina€? in the BSI, after a talk he gave about Sherlock Holmes and foreign policy complications at the BSI annual dinner in 1940, one later published in Edgar W. But after the war he returned to Washington, and lived on Wetherill Place off Ward Circle while working as a news commentator for NBC radio. Davis came from a small town in Indiana, but after his education, and some teaching of Latin in his hometown where his mother was a high school teacher, he went to New York to work for theA Times, and spent ten years there as a reporter and then an editorial writer. Starting in 1936, he wrote a widely-noticed series of articles about the emerging crisis forA Harpera€™s Magazine, assessing Hitlera€™s remilitarization of the Rhineland, the Munich Crisis, Hitlera€™s demands upon Poland, and the outbreak of war in September 1939. When Pearl Harbor brought America into the war, Davis felt, and said so publicly, that the Government here in Washington was managing war news badly; and to his dismay, FDR not only agreed, but in July 1942 added an Office of War Information to the bureaucracy, and appointed Elmer Davis its director. OWI was a thankless job involving constant wrangling with the Army, the Navy, and the Censorship Office, frequent rivalry with the Office of Strategic Services over their disparate propaganda roles in the war, ceaseless bickering from Congress, and little support or even decisions one way or the other from FDR.
He was First Secretary at the British Embassy in the years immediately after World War II a€” and a suspect, for a time, as the Soviet spy at the British Embassy, codenamed Homer in intercepted communications, who turned out to be Donald Maclean, part of the Kim Philby spy-ring that fled to Moscow in 1951 after their guilt was revealed. Soon he was attending the BSIa€™s dinners in New York, then The Red Circlea€™s meetings in Washington. There was a great deal of editorial comment about this in the British press, not to mention cartoons of the sort that Whitehall mandarins dread. There was a noisy throng of seventy men at that dinner, many of them ones Christopher Morley did not know or recognize in the hurly-burly of that evening, bothering him greatly. Robertson could have gone down in history as the man who almost got The Baker Street Irregulars killed off, and been cast out.
When he first visited our scion society he already possessed, at his specific request, the Titular Investiture of a€?The Red Circle,a€? BSI.
It began life as a ribald song written in the 1930s by a non-Sherlockian couple here in Washington, the worse for drink at the time. He was a co-founder of The Sons of the Copper Beeches in 1948, and in 1950 became one of the small number of men in the BSI invited to join the separate but more than equal society The Five Orange Pips, where for hisA nom de pipA a€” the BSIa€™s investiture system is based upon the Pipsa€™ tradition a€” he took the full, long, impressive string of titles of The King of Bohemia, though we Pips usually let it go at that, when we remember and honor him. He was very important there, and known far beyond GM as a foreign trade authority and management expert.
While The Five Orange Pips wasna€™t a BSI scion, he became its Sixth Pip even before he was a Baker Street Irregular.
But while major figures like Elmer Davis and Felix Morley had not found the time, Karen Kruse, Svend Petersen, A Dorothy Bissonette, and Patricia Parkman did, and here we are fifty years later.
Smith continued to run the BSI after retirement from his new Morristown, New Jersey, home on a private street he got officially named Baker Street, until his greatly mourned death in September 1960.
I don’t know why, but they cling to your stuff like the ex who never returns your houseplants.
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If your agency built something for you, created something or managed something, it’s probably yours.
Maybe you decided to let your marketing agency own the custom e-commerce package they wrote so they could re-use it.
It helps people to find, share, and access an amazing wealth of content regardless of how they connect or where they are located.
In case you are reported for not using your real name, you have to provide your ID which means you have to use your legal name. They provide advertisers the ability to promote additional links to their website within a signular PPC ad.
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Use a unique sitelink for each landing page or URL your using– no two sitelinks can link to the same page. When executed properly, these extensions can provide a ton of extra value on top of your standard PPC ad. There are many businesses which depend on potential customers among the local population to physically enter a specific location and spend money; restaurants and service shops are two of the most prominent examples. Budgets might be extremely tight and every penny needs to count, especially for small businesses.
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This way, you can keep your account organized, your campaigns consistent, and be able to devote specific amounts of budget toward any given location. As a result, PPC influenced more people to physically go to these places and grow these businesses. You just need to make sure you’re utilizing the key elements which make it a success. They think about earning more traffic from their target demographics, and earning more conversions from the pool of that traffic. Users who have already visited your website are likely to be more engaged with your brand messaging and offering after their first visit. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743.
He was able to wear a tweed jacket with elbow patches when he taught a few college courses.
This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author.
Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.
As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below).
To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?.
The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent.
Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St.
And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America.
However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans. Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304).
Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era.
In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored. By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity.
Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages.
Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work. Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi.
In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland.
No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world.
In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. He quit the newspaper to write freelance, both fiction and non-fiction magazine articles and books, doing so with fair success from 1925 on.
That was preceded by the Nazi-Soviet Pact in August which made it possible for Hitler to go to war, and with CBSa€™s Radioa€™s great newsman H. But Davis fought tirelessly for the right of the American people to know as much as possible about how the war was going.
When he returned to London in the early 1950s, he became a founding member there of the Sherlock Holmes Society of London. Robertson was so effusive that night in his well-watered enthusiasm for Baker Street Irregularity, that he made himself a a€?Hokinsoniana€? in Morleya€™s eyes, by asking him and others there for their autographs.
But though attendance was greatly reduced for this a€?committee-in-cameraa€? meeting, and some never made their way back to the BSIa€™s dinners, Edgar Smith kept Robertson, and Robertson was there that night in January a€™48. He was a concert singer with a wonderful tenor voice a€” the BSIa€™s second and greatest songster, a favorite performer at the BSI annual dinners every January.
While not published by them, it came to be privately but widely circulated as years passed, until one day Montgomery heard it at the Orpheus Club in Philadelphia where The Sons of the Copper Beeches met, and onto it Montgomery tacked a legendary aunt of his he claimed to be the Irene Adler of the Canon.
Barring, possibly but not definitely, Vincent Starrett, Smith was as beloved a figure the BSI has ever had, with a friendly face, welcoming manner, and heartwarming smile. His first major publication came in 1939,A Appointment in Baker Street, a comprehensive guide to all the men and women in the Sherlock Holmes stories. In 1940 he was a co-founder of the BSIa€™s first scion society, The Speckled Band of Boston, and he soon came to call himself a Scion Society Circuit Rider. He was a€?The Hound of the Baskervillesa€™ in the BSI, an investiture never to be reassigned. So they provide an easy transition, delivering creative, PPC accounts and all the other goodies without any fuss. If you ask for paper copies, expect to receive a bill, a call from your local environmentalists, and a complimentary membership for the Luddite Hall of Fame. Some agencies will try to look you in the eye and tell you the keywords, campaigns, ads and everything else you paid them to create is still theirs. As a result, we typically see ads with sitelinks earning a click-through rate 10% – 20% higher than ads without sitelinks. When implemented properly, we typically see conversion rates rise with the presence of sitelinks.
And with no extra cost associated with these ad extensions, all advertisers should be using them when applicable to their Google AdWords campaigns. So, how do you execute a winning local PPC strategy when there’s such little room for error? Just as important, you need to be able to track these conversions accurately using AdWords, an Analytics platform, or a combination of both. And that, really, is the whole point to this entire post: utilize these tactics to make more money. This leads to more sales (or leads), which then translates to bottom-line dollars for the company. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church.
In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose.
Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail.
This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors.


In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations.
The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman.
Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame.
In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use. Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name.
Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there. Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago.
Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean. Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent.
Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia. The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable. Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541.
Some light-hearted stories and novels of his were turned into movies, like his 1926 tale of speakeasy lifeA Friends of Mr. He went on in a dual career to be, on its secular side, Permanent Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Foreign and Commonwealth Officea€™s senior career official, and in our realm, the chairman of the Sherlock Holmes Society of London.
He could do that because he had eyebrows far more impressive than anybody elsea€™s, great bushy ones more arresting than his criticsa€™. Robertson listened to the startled but delighted Smith explain what the BSI was all about, including its then small number of scion societies, and went home and founded The Six Napoleons of Baltimore, in which he was active for many years thereafter as Napoleon No. The upshot was a sharply adverse reaction by Morley to what in his eyes the club hea€™d created was becoming. He made it from Baltimore despite the mammoth snowstorm which kept Morley at home on Long Island that night a€”a good thing, if the BSI was to continue as something more than a small circle of his own cronies, as the original BSI had been.
An early item in his repertoire at the dinners was mimicking Irene Adler singing on an especially crackly early gramophone recording.
Once he performed it at the BSI annual dinner in New York, the song and fable became an instant part of Irregular lore to this day.
In 1936, his boyhood love of Sherlock Holmes was revived by reading Vincent Starretta€™sA Private Life of Sherlock Holmes. In philosophy he was a free-trader and New Deal Democrat, who made both Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman honorary members of the BSI.
If your agency hands over a spreadsheet, you’re still required to set up new accounts. If someone tries to prevent that, maybe they’re not the right agency for you in the first place. But there's another way that online marketing can help your organization--by promoting an open position and attracting more qualified candidates to apply.SEO for Human ResourcesSEO (search engine optimization) is a marketing strategy, plain and simple.
The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project.
The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem.
Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two.
Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World.
Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship.
In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. Elmer Davis was a Democrat, albeit a cynical one who once described Franklin Roosevelt as the kind of man who thought the shortest line between two points was a corkscrew.
He declared that there would never be another BSI dinner, and was determined to make that stick. An entire history of it was eventually written and published by the late, great Irregular W.
He wrote to Starrett, who had him write to Christopher Morley; and soon Smith was writing to everyone in the BSI.
More time was spent on his hobby at work than was usual for senior executives, but he made no secret of it, even turning a series of secretaries into helpmates for BSI business; and no one at General Motors complained because Smith was also a tireless and efficient champion of GM interests.
Stay safe on the web and take preventative measures to protect your content on the web.We saw an increase in the number of sites with thin, low quality content.
YUM!!!A Our loving couple had to laugh, when they were greeted with a notice at the beginning of Tracy's driveway to her farm, which read 'Only Pete & Nikki can visit today, - everyone else can piss off'. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil.
In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery. In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages.
On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti.
Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade.
The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract.
37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950.
Felix Morley was a traditional Republican, for most of the 1930s and a€™40s a Robert Taft conservative with a pronounced isolationist streak. It became a permanent appointment, Kaltenborn getting a new assignment and Davis becoming CBSa€™s principal nightly news commentator for the next two years. And throughout the 1950s he issued volume after red-covered volume of Irregular writings, current and historic.
But quite regularly he attended meetings of The Dancing Men of Providence, The Sons of the Copper Beeches in Philadelphia, The Six Napoleons of Baltimore a€” and The Red Circle of Washington.
Such content contains little or no added value and is often scraped from other sites.2015 spam-fighting effortsAs always, our algorithms addressed the vast majority of webspam and search quality improvement for users. The delusion that most optimizers have fallen into, however, is that the pages you promote should be directly tied to your bottom line.
And like any real estate, content is an asset you create for your company, not a cost center.. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus.
Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara. Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time. Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business.
To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507.
By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen.
The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million).
In the 1950s and a€™60s, though, after becoming president of the American Enterprise Institute, and moving it from New York to Washington, he leaned more in a libertarian direction.
One of our algorithmic updates helped to remove the amount of hacked spam in search results.The rest of spam was tackled manually. A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns.
This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic.
In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America. After retiring, he lived the rest of his life on Gibson Island near Annapolis, writing works of political philosophy and his autobiographyA For the Record. Include a general human resources page.This should be a main navigation "housing" for your subsequent open position pages. And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia. After prioritizing the reports, we acted on 65% of them, and considered 80% of those acted upon to be spam. Here, you'll detail your company's human resources department, optimizing for keywords related to your business as a place to work rather than a place to do business with.
But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. Thanks to all who submitted reports and contributed towards a cleaner web ecosystem!We conducted more than 200 online office hours and live events around the world in 17 languages. For example, a SaaS company may use a phrase like "a leader in software engineering," as opposed to a phrase like "a leader in task management software" to cater to software developers over paying subscribers.2. The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. These are great opportunities for us to help webmasters with their sites and for them to share helpful feedback with us as well.The webmaster help forum continued to be an excellent source of webmaster support.
Create a dedicated page for each position.Creating a dedicated page for each open position you have provides the opportunity to optimize a page for each of those keyword phrases. Go without her, or try to find her?' The passengers, (including Pete & Nikki) shoputed in one voice, 'WE WAIT!, - WE'RE NOT LEAVING WITHOUT HER!'A search party was sent out, and she was located and brought to the coach an hour later.
Webmasters had tens of thousands of questions answered, including over 35,000 by users designated as Webmaster Top Contributors. Title the page with the job title near the front, and include at least one or two synonyms for that job title in the description. Also, 56 Webmaster Top Contributors joined us at our Top Contributor Summit to discuss how to provide users and webmasters with better support and tools. In the body content, describe job responsibilities in detail, and be sure to include at least a handful of instances of the job title.3. Also in the party were Noi's friend Khem and Frank's pet Chameleon Ozzy, who, despite the presence of Kat From Tv's Big Brother (See picture above with Noi) proved to be the star of the show and grabbed everyone's attention!(See picture left of Ozzy on Frank's head.)There were traditional Thai dancers and costumes, a 'Miss Thai UK Beauty Show', an 'I'm an English person get me out of here' contest, and even a LADYBOY Show, which proved to be quite spectacular. Target individual locations.Even if your company is a national level organization, and even if you're hiring multiple people at multiple locations, it's a good idea to segment your open positions by location. This will allow you to optimize for geographic keywords in your titles, descriptions, and of course, your body content.4. Use referral links to drive more traffic.The more links you have pointing to your individual position pages, the stronger those page authorities will be (and the more likely you'll be to rank for keyword terms relating to that position). Build links on as many different sources as you can, and don't forget the power that referral traffic can lend to your site. On the way back, the girl who was holding on to Elvis grabbed Pete and grabbed his waist, including him in the conga. ANDREW (The Scots National Flag) appeared in the sky above!See Below Well, what do you expect when our ubiquitous couple go mon their adventures?
There are dozens of synonyms for your job title, and the job title you give may carry different connotations than you intend. Unbeknown to Pete, Nikki had arranged the trip as a special surprise for him, as he had always wanted to go to Disneyland. At the same time, there are only so many "alternative" job titles you can include in your body content. The staff on the plane were amazing, and treated his leg with Aloe Vera-soaked lint, and gave them a complimentary cup of tea.A On their way back to Blighty, our loving couple were amazed to find the Icelandic lady who pushed the wheelchair, and a cleaner friend of hers, running over top them and embracing them.



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