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15.05.2015
Prozessziel: Im Change Management werden samtliche Anderungen an der IT-Infrastruktur und ihrer Komponenten (Configuration Items) autorisiert und dokumentiert, um storende Auswirkungen auf den laufenden Betrieb so gering wie moglich zu halten.
Prozessziel: Es sollen Regelungen erarbeitet werden, die fur die IT-Organisation eindeutig definieren, welche Changes ohne Durchlaufen des Change-Management-Prozesses durchgefuhrt werden durfen. Prozessziel: Es soll sichergestellt werden, dass nur RFCs in den Change-Management-Prozess eingehen, die den definierten Qualitatsanforderungen entsprechen.
Prozessziel: Freigabe oder Zuruckweisung eines Changes sowie vorlaufige Terminierung und Aufnahme in die FSC (Forward Schedule of Changes). Prozessziel: Freigegebene Changes sollen zu Releases gebundelt und die Freigabe zum Rollout durch das Change Management erteilt werden. Prozessziel: Begutachtung des Verlaufs und der Ergebnisse der Change-Implementierung, so dass fur spatere Nachforschungen eine vollstandige Dokumentation vorliegt und aus Fehlern gelernt werden kann.
Prozessziel: Schnellstmogliche Freigabe oder Zuruckweisung eines Urgent Changes, der zur Behebung eines Notfalls dienen soll. Emergency Committee (EC): Das Emergency Committee ist die Instanz zur Bewilligung von Changes in Notfallen, die aufgrund der Dringlichkeit keine ordnungsgema?e Einberufung des CAB erlauben.
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Objective: ITIL Change Evaluation aims to assess major Changes, like the introduction of a new service or a substantial change to an existing service, before those Changes are allowed to proceed to the next phase in their lifecycle. In ITIL 2011 a Change Evaluation process has been added, following a clarification in the ITIL® books that the purpose of this process is the evaluation of Major Changes. Change Evaluation is called upon by the Change Management process at various points in a Change’s lifecycle to perform a Change assessment. The results of a formal Change evaluation are documented in a Change Evaluation Report, which is thus the main output of the new Change Evaluation process. The process overview of ITIL Change Evaluation is showing the most important interfaces (see Figure 1).
Process Objective: To assess a proposed major Change before authorizing the Change planning phase. Process Objective: To assess a proposed major Change before authorizing the Change build phase. Process Objective: To assess a proposed major Change before authorizing the Change deployment phase.
Process Objective: To assess a major Change after it has been implemented, to verify if the Change has met its objectives and to identify any lessons to be learned. Certain types of major Changes, like the introduction of a new service or a substantial change to an existing service, require formal Change evaluations before being authorized. Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany License unless otherwise noted. Whatever the size of a company, poorly managed changes have significant consequences for both the company and the IT organization. From a user's point of view, it results in interruptions that prevent them from doing their job, which implies a cost for the company. The ITIL® definition of a change is the addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services. The purpose of the Change Management process is to control the lifecycle of all changes, enabling beneficial changes to be made with minimum disruption to IT services. The main objectif is to ensure that all changes are recorded, evaluated, authorized, prioritized, planned, tested, implemented, documented and reviewed in a controlled manner. Very simply, the scope of Change Management process may be identified by any addition, modification or removal of configuration items that are used in the delivery of IT services.
Realistically speaking, this does not mean that Change Management process should consider all types of assets from day one. The approval of the changes allows access to the production environment; this is the responsibility of Change Management. A permanent CAB can be constituted and for particular changes, other participants are implicated. CAB meetings may be conducted remotely - sometimes the situation requires it - by email, telephone or any other remote means of communication such as video conferencing.
Like any effective meeting, the CAB must have an agenda, and is not meant to discuss the construction of the change. An approval model needs to be constituted to clarify the hierarchical levels involved in significant, major and urgent changes, which have variable impacts and risks.
Execution tests for approved changes must be forwarded to the relevant technical teams and "test" users to prepare for implementation.
Implemented normal and urgent changes are reviewd after deployment; CAB instance determines if the review is necessary. Before closing, change manager verifies that the documentation is complete, and ensure to include the change review.
The clearer, better known, understood and followed rules are, more succesfull will Change Management be. Incident Management according to ITIL V3 distinguishes between Incidents (Service Interruptions) and Service Requests (standard requests from users, e.g. There is a dedicated process in ITIL V3 for dealing with emergencies ("Handling of Major Incidents").
Guidance has been improved in Incident Management on how to prioritize an Incident (see Checklist Incident Prioritization Guideline).


Additional steps have been added to Incident Resolution by 1st Level Support to explain that Incidents should be matched (if possible) to existing Problems and Known Errors.
Incident Resolution by 1st Level Support and Incident Resolution by 2nd Level Support have been considerably expanded to provide clearer guidance on when to invoke Problem Management from Incident Management. The Incident Management sub-process Incident Closure and Evaluation now states more clearly that it is important to check whether there are new Problems, Workarounds or Known Errors that must be submitted to Problem Management.
Process Objective: ITIL Incident Management Support aims to provide and maintain the tools, processes, skills and rules for an effective and efficient handling of Incidents. Process Objective: To record and prioritize the Incident with appropriate diligence, in order to facilitate a swift and effective resolution. Process Objective: To solve an Incident (service interruption) within the agreed time schedule. Process Objective: To continuously monitor the processing status of outstanding Incidents, so that counter-measures may be introduced as soon as possible if service levels are likely to be breached. Process Objective: To submit the Incident Record to a final quality control before it is closed. Process Objective: To inform users of service failures as soon as these are known to the Service Desk, so that users are in a position to adjust themselves to interruptions. Process Objective: ITIL Incident Management Reporting aims to supply Incident-related information to the other Service Management processes, and to ensure that that improvement potentials are derived from past Incidents. An Incident is defined as an unplanned interruption or reduction in quality of an IT service (a Service Interruption). A set of rules defining a hierarchy for escalating Incidents, and triggers which lead to escalations.
An Incident Model contains the pre-defined steps that should be taken for dealing with a particular type of Incident. The Incident Prioritization Guideline describes the rules for assigning priorities to Incidents, including the definition of what constitutes a Major Incident. A set of data with all details of an Incident, documenting the history of the Incident from registration to closure.
A message containing the present status of an Incident sent to a user who earlier reported a service interruption.
Major Incidents cause serious interruptions of business activities and must be solved with greater urgency. The reporting of a service failure to the Service Desk, for example by a user via telephone or e-mail, or by a system monitoring tool.
A notification to users of existing or imminent service failures even if the users are not yet aware of the interruptions, so that users are in a position to prepare themselves for a period of service unavailability. An inquiry regarding the present status of an Incident or Service Request, usually from a user who earlier reported an Incident or submitted a request.
A request to support the resolution of an Incident or Problem, usually issued from the Incident or Problem Management processes when further assistance is needed from technical experts. Escalation regarding the processing of an Incident or Service Request, initiated by a user experiencing delays or a failure to restore their services. Self-help information for users supplied by the Service Desk, usually as part of the Support Pages on the intranet.
The Incident Manager is responsible for the effective implementation of the Incident Management process and carries out the corresponding reporting. The responsibility of 1st Level Support is to register and classify received Incidents and to undertake an immediate effort in order to restore a failed IT service as quickly as possible. 2nd Level Support takes over Incidents which cannot be solved immediately with the means of 1st Level Support. 3rd Level Support is typically located at hardware or software manufacturers (third-party suppliers). A dynamically established team of IT managers and technical experts, usually under the leadership of the Incident Manager, formulated to concentrate on the resolution of a Major Incident.
Die Reihenfolge der einzelnen Schritte wird geplant und kommuniziert, um eventuelle Uberschneidungen fruhestmoglich zu erkennen.
Es wird vom Change Manager oder dessen Vertreter fur Notfalle einberufen, wobei die Zusammensetzung je nach Situation bestimmt wird.
His primary objective is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT services. Changes are not only used to correct errors in the infrastructure at the moment they occur. The real question is: what should be considered a change and how an IT organization needs to treat it so as to minimize impacts and risks, while being certain to meet the real needs of the company?
For some organizations, the recording of all changes, by IT resources that understand clearly what is a change, represents a big step forward.
Essentially, it will follow the same process as the normal changes, but will be adapted to the emergency situation. First, there must be an agreement on who can submit a change (a super user, an application owner, an IT resource).
Some of them may be illogical, unenforceable, incomplete, or have already been submitted by someone else. During CAB meeting, all addressed changes must be evaluated by considering two perspectives: technical and operational (business perspective). As the decision level is higher for changes with a high risk and impact, it is necessary that participants be in optimal communication conditions to facilitate exchanges leading to a sound decision (email is not an option here).


The important thing is to have sufficient authority that ensures that changes can be monitored, the risks assessed and the service disruptions minimized to target a successful deployment at the first attempt.
Changes must be tested carefully, a backout procedure identified and documented, temporary solutions for potential incidents documented, etc. All this information can serve as knowledge base for a similar new change, or as a contribution to the continuous improvement of the process. Both are pre approved, relatively common, with a pre defined workflow and their risk is controlled.
The primary objective of Incident Management is to return the IT service to users as quickly as possible.
Furthermore a process interface was added between Event Management and Incident Management. The aim is the fast recovery of the IT service, where necessary with the aid of a Workaround. Major Incidents cause serious interruptions of business activities and must be resolved with greater urgency.
The aim is to make sure that the Incident is actually resolved and that all information required to describe the Incident's life-cycle is supplied in sufficient detail.
This is a way to ensure that routinely occurring Incidents are handled efficiently and effectively. Since Incident Management escalation rules are usually based on priorities, assigning the correct priority to an Incident is essential for triggering appropriate escalations. An Incident is defined as an unplanned interruption or reduction in quality of an IT service. Status information is typically provided to users at various points during an Incident's lifecycle. The review documents the Incident's underlying causes (if known) and the complete resolution history, and identifies opportunities for improving the handling of future Major Incidents.
He represents the first stage of escalation for Incidents, should these not be resolvable within the agreed Service Levels. If no ad-hoc solution can be achieved, 1st Level Support will transfer the Incident to expert technical support groups (2nd Level Support).
Die Verantwortung dafur tragt der Change Manager, sowie das Change Advisory Board (CAB) bei weitreichenden Veranderungen. Damit das EC im Notfall mit Sicherheit handlungsfahig ist, muss eine Vertreter- und Verfugbarkeits-Regelung fur die Mitglieder getroffen werden.
For important Changes, the Change Manager will refer the authorization of Changes to the Change Advisory Board (CAB). Physical assets (servers, network assets), virtual (virtual servers, virtual storage), softwares ou applications, documentation, IT services, processes or others. The relevant documents must be made available in advance to allow CAB members to evaluate changes and prepare for meetings. The CAB meets at regular intervals to prioritize, evaluate the presented changes, make a review of completed changes, discuss the changes implemented without authorization, etc.
It is up to each organization to define a formal list of requests meeting these criteria; service requests are mostly requests submitted by end-users. Service Requests are no longer fulfilled by Incident Management; instead there is a new process called Request Fulfilment. As soon as it becomes clear that 1st Level Support is not able to resolve the Incident itself or when target times for 1st level resolution are exceeded, the Incident is transferred to a suitable group within 2nd Level Support.
If required, specialist support groups or third-party suppliers (3rd Level Support) are involved. In addition to this, findings from the resolution of the Incident are to be recorded for future use. Every event that could potentially impair an IT service in the future is also an Incident (e.g. 1st Level Support also keeps users informed about their Incidents' status at agreed intervals.
In this perspective, one could also say that a change is "any action that constitutes a risk to an IT service".
A change submission deadline will prevent changes from being presented at the last minute, and is considered a good idea. Supported by the Request Fulfilment process, they are followed by the Service Desk and lighten the Change Management process. If the correction of the root cause is not possible, a Problem Record is created and the error-correction transferred to Problem Management. If the correction of the root cause is not possible, a Problem Record is created and the error-correction transferred to Problem Management. If no solution can be found, the 2nd Level Support passes on the Incident to Problem Management.



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