Change management process steps 2014,yoga stretches for lower back pain,secret world the lurker quest - Step 3

28.12.2013
MelAus PartnersITIL CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS FLOWTheproblem management processes terms itil generic.
In my previous post I wrote about the significance of managers understanding your own organisation’s informal network in order to make the right decisions.
Social network analysis is the method of collecting, visualising and analysing data about informal connections between employees of an organisation.
Everybody who has ever worked in an organisation knows that behind the formal orgchart and the official roles and responsibilities there is an informal network of personal connections.
Go-ahead manager Bob Newcomer begins his position in the well-established company, Slo-Gro products.
After a few weeks, Bob can already clearly see that the processes, methods and traditions in the company are totally dysfunctional and in desperate need of change. What is the first step on the journey to becoming an outstandingly supportive and valued internal HR service provider? A HR director participating in our Best of HR Project faced a big challenge two years ago: employee engagement within the HR team was one of the lowest within all the teams in the whole company. However, through some radical changes – both within the HR team and in his own leadership style – he managed to improve things so dramatically that, just one year later, HR had become the most engaged team in the organisation. Regarding these “value statements”, I fully agree with my client – there is absolutely no point to them. Ever since I first read the post in 2009 I have been looking out for signs of organisational “bear shaving”, in other words, offering a superficial solution to an organisational problem instead of addressing the root cause.
Problem Management is responsible for the ongoing integrity of the IT environment within the dictates of sound financial management. Problem Management is a process within the Service Operation module of the ITIL Service Lifecycle.
Problem Management differs from Incident Management in that its main goal is the detection of the underlying causes of an Incident and their subsequent resolution and prevention. The goal of Problem Management is to minimize the adverse impact of Incidents and Problems on the business that are caused by known errors within the IT Infrastructure, and to prevent recurrence of Incidents related to these known errors. Problem Management can improve the quality of service by significantly reducing the number of incidents and reducing the workload on the IT Support organization.
Increased support personnel productivity - as solutions are documented, even less experienced Service Desk Analysts can resolve incidents more quickly and efficiently.
Improved IT service reputation - because the stability of the services is increased, customers are more likely to entrust the IT organization with new business activities. Enhanced management and operational knowledge and learning - Problem Management uses historical incident information that can be reviewed to identify trends, and which can then lead to measures to prevent new incidents.
Improved incident recording - Higher first point of contact (FPOC) resolution rates - as Problem Management makes resolution of incidents more likely as known errors, and work-arounds are made available in a Known Error Database. Problem Management deals with the identification, management, and resolution of problems that affect service quality and efficiency. Problem Management should ensure these sources are integrated into an organizational approach to Knowledge Management which highlights and builds upon resolution efforts specific to the organization's mixture of technologies and approaches. Problem Documentation - The Problem Management process is intended to reduce both the number and severity of Incidents and Problems on the business. Problem Management investigates the infrastructure and the available registrations, including the Incident Database, to identify the underlying causes of actual and potential known errors in the provision of services.
Where the underlying cause of the Incident is not identifiable then it may be appropriate to raise a Problem record. Defect List Updating of Known Errors - Infrastructure and Application Development staff should be aware of all Known errors and Problems that are associated with the infrastructure and a package or Release. Upon implementation of a new Release, this revised known errors database replaces the database of the previous Release as the live version.
Knowledge Base Responsibility - An important tool in determining root case is the management of knowledge on structural faults and the methods for restoring service when they are encountered. Because it has overall responsibility for the existence of errors and their overall impact on the organization, Problem Management has an interest in the resolution of Major Incidents. There is a close Interface between the Problem Management Process and the Incident and Change Management processes. When problem management identifies resolution actions that require changes to configuration items, these changes are implemented under the control of the change management process. The control provided by the change management process reduces the amount of changes that have to be backed out and ensures that backout plans have been documented in case they are required. Change management also provides problem management with useful information on recent changes, the configuration items affected, and the reason for the changes. The service desk, with its responsibility for day-to-day coordination of the incident management process, is ideally placed to identify recurrent or multiple incidents that point toward an underlying problem. In return, problem management works to identify and document workarounds and solutions that the service desk can utilize while performing initial support on new incidents. Problem management also aims to identify information that the service desk can utilize to proactively advise users. Configuration management provides vital information that is used during the problem management process. Assist with the classification of problems and known errors by indicating services and SLAs impacted by the failure of particular CIs. Identify identical or similar CIs for comparison purposes and to prevent problem replication. Some resolution actions identified by problem management require changes that need to be incorporated and rolled out as releases. In a similar way to change management, release management provides the planning, testing, and coordination to roll out these releases without the changes resulting in further incidents. The capacity management process identifies capacity-related problems and flags these to problem management.
Problem management often works with the capacity management process in order to plan resolutions for capacity-related problems. Financial management assists problem management with identifying the costs associated with resolving known errors, as well as not resolving those known errors.
As such, the financial management process is a vital source of information for error control, allowing informed decisions to be made when and if an error should be fixed. The availability management process works with problem management to propose solutions for the resolution of availability-related problems. Service continuity management works alongside problem management to propose solutions for the resolution of continuity-related problems. The security administration function assists problem management by proposing solutions for the resolution of security-related problems. There should be a single problem management process, which is separate and distinct from the incident management process.
There will be clear linkages between Incident records, Problem records, Known Errors and Requests for Change leveraging existing data systems wherever feasible and practical. The Problem Management process facilitates Root Cause Analysis on incidents (and incident trends or service failures referred to Problem Management by Service Managers, key technical resources and Client representatives). Incidents referred to Problem Management for Root Cause Analysis will have outcomes documented. The Problem Manager will determine appropriate Metrics to be collected to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the Problem Management process. Smaller organizations are unlikely to have an explicit provision to undertake problem management independent of resolving incidents. The first launch into Problem Management activities probably will occur with a post-mortem review of major incidents.
IN all but very large organizations, Problem Management analysts will likely be 'requisitioned' from Tier II support for periods of time, either to resolve specific problems or to work on an inventory of Problem Tickets as a part-time but continuing function of their job descriptions. The figure on the right shows the relationship between a problem, known error and RFC, and defines these terms.
This activity is concerned with known errors in both the live and development environments.
When determining the Impact of a Problem, the relations between components in the IT infrastructure registered in the CMDB can be of great help. Urgency is the extent to which resolution of a Problem or error can bear delay; it should not be confused with priority.
Priority indicates the relative order in which a series of items - be they Incidents, Problems, Changes or known errors - should be addressed.
Coordinate interaction of the problem and incident management processes with the Client Services Manager and Incident Coordinators. Participate in the review of temporary fixes and work-arounds for incidents related to problems and known errors and record them the Remedy Problem Management module. Create and submit Requests for Change (RFC) for know known errors to the attention of the Service Manager and Change Coordinator.
The Problem Manager regularly performs scheduled reviews of incident data and trending from the incident log to assess and identify potential problems. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) requests escalated to Problem Management through Incident Management, Major Incident Review Mmeetings.
Informational data captured regarding the operating environment, including data such as availability, capacity, and response times that can be utilized for statistical reporting and analysis. Written, agreed upon with the client, and translated into service specifications by the IT staff responsible to fulfill the SLA. Written agreements that specify service levels and technical specifications for vendor supported services and equipment. Operational guidelines, including process, procedures, and roles and responsibilities for the Problem Management process. Includes any form of communication (e-mail, meetings, reports) that occurs internally within the IT support groups as well as communication with the client. Specific log files and documentation for individual technical support groups used to analyze and solve problems. Tracking tool utilized to track, record, and report all Problem Management related activities. Informational data captured regarding the operating environment, including data such as Availability, Capacity, and response times, which can be utilized for statistical reporting and analysis.
Problems categorized based on severity levels and the problem classification scheme that determines priority and timing for review. Proactive Problem Management activities are concerned with identifying and resolving Problems and Known errors before Incidents occur, thus minimizing the adverse impact on the service and business-related costs.
Problem prevention ranges from prevention of individual Problems, such as repeated difficulties with a particular feature of a system, through to strategic decisions.
Problem analysis reports provide information for proactive measures to improve service quality.


On completion of the resolution of every major Incident, Problem Management should complete a major Problem review. Error control spans both the live and development environments and directly interfaces with, and operates alongside Change Management processes.
An error is identified when a faulty component in the infrastructure (ie., CI that causes, or may be likely to cause, Incidents) is detected. Problem Management performs an initial assessment of the means of resolving the error, in collaboration with specialist staff.
The resolution process for each Known Error should be recorded in the Problem Management system. Following successful implementation of Changes to resolve known errors, the relevant Known Error record(s) is closed, together with any associated Incident or Problem records. Change Management is responsible for processing RFCs, whereas Problem Management is responsible for monitoring progress with regard to resolving Known errors. Problem Management should monitor the continuing impact of Problems and Known errors on User services.
On completion of the resolution of every major Incident, Problem Management should complete a Major Problem review. It should be noted that some Problems may be identified by personnel outside the Problem Management team, e.g. Problem records are recorded in a form very similar to Incident records and using the same Category, Type and Item (CTI) classification scheme. When a Problem is identified, the amount of effort required to detect and recover the failing CI(s) has to be determined. Problems are categorized into related groups or domains using the Category, Type and Item (CTI) designation. Identification of a new Problem should be followed by an objective analysis of its impact (that is, its effect on the business). Problem Management's aim is diagnosis of the underlying cause of a current or potential fault in the infrastructure. Diagnosis frequently reveals that the cause of a Problem is not an error in a registered CI (hardware, software item, documentation or procedure) but is procedural. Diagnosis showing the cause to be a fault in a registered CI should automatically change the status of the Problem into a Known Error. Online service incidents are queried to determine all of the known incidents to the affected CI.
Online Service may be queried to determine the types of customers who report queue-related incidents. Narrowing the scope of the problem to a specific group of customers and a specific type of incident helps reduce the time needed to identify the root cause and resolve the problem.
The next step is to investigate the applications that the finance employees are attempting to print to the CI.
Although the problem was originally thought to be queue-related, further investigation revealed that the root cause was not queue related but actually hardware specific. Where the root cause of a problem identifies a cause unrelated to a Configuration Item (CI) the problem can be resolved without recourse to Change Management procedures. AvailabilityAbility of a component or service to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time. Category, Type and Item (CTI)Method for Classification of a group of Change documents according to three-fold hierarchical coding structure used by many organizations.
Causal FactorsThose contributors (human known errors and component failures) that, if eliminated, would have either prevented the occurrence of an incident or reduced its severity.
ClassificationProcess of formally identifying Incidents, Problems and Known errors by origin, symptoms and cause.
Change ManagementProcess of controlling Changes to the infrastructure or any aspect of services, in a controlled manner, enabling approved Changes with minimum disruption. Configuration Item (CI)Component of an infrastructure - or an item, such as a Request for Change, associated with an infrastructure - that is (or is to be) under the control of Configuration Management.CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type, from an entire system (including all hardware, software and documentation) to a single module or a minor hardware component. Database (CMDB)A database that contains all relevant details of each CI and details of the important relationships between CIs. Core Business ProcessA process that relies on the unique knowledge and skills of the owner and that contributes to the owner’s competitive advantage.
Critical Success Factor (CSF)Critical Success Factors - the most important issues or actions for management to achieve control over and within its' IT processes. CustomerPayer of a service; usually theCustomer management has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need.
EnvironmentA collection of hardware, software, network and procedures that work together to provide a discrete type of computer service. Error ControlThe processes involved in progressing Known errors until they are eliminated by the successful implementation of a Change under the control of the Change Management process.
ImpactMeasure of the business criticality of an problem often equal to the extent to which Incidents lead to distortion of agreed or expected service levels.
IncidentAny event that is not part of the standard operation of a service and that causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service.
Known ErrorAn Incident or Problem for which the root cause is known and for which a temporary Work-around or a permanent alternative has been identified.
Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)The elapsed time to restore service measured from either the time of the failure or the time the failure was reported to the time the service was restored to the Users satisfaction. PrioritySequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be resolved, based on impact and urgency.
Problem ControlProcess which is concerned with handling Problems in an efficient and effective way with the aim of identifying the root cause of incident(s) and to provide the Service Desk with information and advice on Work-arounds when available. Process ControlThe process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing a process in an effective and efficient way. Request for Change (RFC)Form, or screen, used to record details of a request for a Change to any CI within an infrastructure or to procedures and items associated with the infrastructure. Service Level AgreementA written agreement between a service provider and Customer(s) that documents agreed services and the levels at which they are provided at various costs. Service Level ManagementDisciplined, proactive methodology and procedures used to ensure that adequate levels of service are delivered to supported IT users in accordance with business priorities and at acceptable costs.
SystemAn integrated composite that consists of one or more of the processes, hardware, software, facilities and people, that provides a capability to satisfy a stated need or objective. UrgencyMeasure of the business criticality of an Incident or Problem based on the impact and on the business needs of the Customer. VersionAn identified instance of a Configuration Item within a product breakdown structure or configuration structure for the purpose of tracking and auditing change history. Work-aroundMethod of avoiding an Incident or Problem, either from a temporary fix or from a technique that means the Customer is not reliant on a particular aspect of a service that is known to be a problem. Kepner-Tregoe is the most widely accepted methodology for structuring a Problem in a way which facilitates analysis. First we have to define as well as possible what is the standard functioning and what is the present functioning. And yet these informal social links strongly influence how a company operates, how information flows, and how quickly and flexibly an organisation reacts to any changes in the business environment.
There are so many companies whose value statements are only a list of mundane expressions such as “customer focus”, “excellence”, “cooperation” etc., which are posted on the walls of the corridors and on the company website.
Rather it is something almost everybody has said, or could have said at some point during an organisational change process, irrespective of what kind of change we are talking about. This requires decisions on whether it is acceptable to allow infrastructure faults and error to continue or to seek their removal from the environment.
In many situations this goal can be in direct conflict with the goals of Incident Management where the aim is to restore the service to the Customer as quickly as possible, often through a temporaryWork-around, rather than the implementation of a more permanent resolution -- which may prevent future Incidents from occurring. In order to achieve this goal, Problem Management seeks to get to the key factors responsible for Incidents and then initiate actions to improve or correct the situation. Problem Management introduces standards for recording of problems and classifications to identify problems and their exhibited symptoms effectively. Historical information is also useful for investigation and diagnosis, and when preparing RFCs. Problem Management begins with the identification of a trend of closed incidents with some commonality or a realization that incidents may be symptoms of a deeper problem in the enterprise systems environment.
Problem Management is responsible for maintaining a Knowledge Base outlining Known Errors and problems in the infrastructure and workarounds which can be invoked quickly when they are encountered. Therefore, part of Problem Management's responsibility is to ensure that previous information is documented in such a way that it is readily available to First Point Of Contact and other second-line staff. These investigations are needed because the infrastructure is complex and distributed, and the links between incidents may not be obvious. They are required to delete Known errors as they are corrected, but they add any newly introduced known errors from the infrastructure or application development activities themselves, to a revised known errors database or CMDB.
For example, the Microsoft Knowledge Base is a key source for Incidents and known errors associated with Microsoft products as well as driver and product issues with their products.
The efforts and costs may not be justifiable in certain types of unmatched Incidents or Incidents with a quick resolution, low impact or low possibility of recurrence. By making available expertise in root cause analysis and other problem solving technique, they may provide a contribution towards a quicker restoration of service. In many situations this goal can be in direct conflict with the goals of Incident Management where the aim is to restore the service to the Customer as quickly as possible, often through a Work-around, rather than through the determination of a permanent resolution (for example, by searching for structural improvements in the IT infrastructure, in order to prevent as many future Incidents as possible). The coordinated testing of changes reduces the chance of subsequent incidents caused by the implementation of changes.
When resolutions or workarounds are identified by problem management, the information is then passed to users by the service desk. In the long run, effective problem management should reduce the number of incidents being reported to the service desk. Availability management may identify and report availability-related problems to problem management.
Problem management assists service continuity management with the justification and prioritization of resolution actions. Problem management assists security administration with the justification and prioritization of resolution actions.
All Problems and their resolutions will be logged in a common Problem Management system which will be made available to Service Desk and Incident Management staff.
Analysis on the data collected in the Incident Management System database as well as other sources will undergo periodic trend analyses by Problem Management in close consultation with Incident Management staff. Problem Management owns the quality of the knowledge database, and its usability (though they may not responsible for the integrity of the content).
While there may be recognition of the need to adopt a workaround as an immediate measure and then work on the cause of the problem as time permits, the fact that the Ticket is probably closed when the service was restored will mean that there is no explicitly recognized timeframe for resolving the underlying cause of the incident.


During these reviews efforts will be devoted to identifying the underlying cause of the incident so that it can be recorded on the Trouble Ticket and, where required, a change can be initiated to remove any structural faults in the production environment.
This provides an important career path and allows them to become involved in root cause analysis - what many analysts consider to be the more interesting aspects of their job. The sequence of migration of an Incident through Incident and, subsequently, to Problem and Change Management is depicted below.
Development errors are particularly important when releases are implemented in the live environment with known errors. By interrogating the CMDB, it is possible to identify CIs that are dependent on part of, or identical to, the CI in the IT infrastructure to which the Incident is applied. This will be influenced by considerations of risk and resource availability but is primarily driven by a combination of urgency and impact. Ensure a proactive approach to problem management is taken wherever possible and productive. The technical staff may determine potential problems through operational data, meetings, and reviews and bring them to the attention of the Problem Manager for further review.
Service Level Agreements may also be agreed between support groups within IT to define parameters and procedures for hand-offs and assignments between groups. Technical specifications listed in the 3rd Party Agreements for vendor supported services and equipment. The recommended action may be a work around, or require a change to the operating environment. The latter may require major expenditure to implement, such as investment in a better network. The objective is to identify 'unstable' components of an IT infrastructure and investigate the reasons for the instabilities. The objective is to change IT components to remove Known errors affecting the IT infrastructure and thus to prevent any recurrence of Incidents. A Known Error status is assigned when the root cause of a Problem is found and a Work-around has been identified.
One is the Problem control subsystem in the live environment and the other its equivalent in the development environment. For example, implementation of a new application or packaged Release is likely to include known, but unresolved, known errors from the development phase - the Defect List.
The Problem Management system should provide a record of all resolution activity and provide monitoring and tracking facilities for support staff.
One is the Problem control subsystem in the live environment> and the other its equivalent in the development environment. It is vital that data on the CIs, symptoms, and resolution or circumvention actions relating to all Known errors is held in the Known Error database. A Post-Implementation Review (PIR) may be conducted on the closure to capture lessons learned.
Throughout the resolution process, Problem Management should obtain regular reports from Change Management on progress in resolving Problems and known errors. In the event that this impact becomes severe, Problem Management should escalate the Problem, perhaps referring to the Change Advisory Board to increase the priority of the RFC or to implement an urgent Change as appropriate.
Typically, SLAs stipulate that there should not be more than a certain number of outstanding known errors per severity level during each measurement interval (generally a rolling four-week period). Problem records are linked to all associated Incident records and the solution and Workarounds of Incidents are recorded in the relevant Problem records for others to access should other related Incidents occur.
Therefore it is important to be aware of the impact of the Problem on existing service levels. The relationships between components in the IT Infrastructure registered in the CMDB can be of great help when determining the impact of a Problem. Investigation activities should include available Workarounds for the Incidents related to the Problem, as registered in the Incident record database. A complete and accurate review of all documentation including the documentation recorded in Remedy Incident Ticket should be thoroughly conducted. As an example, the results may indicate that one particular unit or group is responsible for the majority of these types of incidents. In this example, problem management narrows the scope to finance employees experiencing queue-related issues with a printer.
For example, where the root cause is training or communications for which existing documented procedures (since these should be CIs) are not at issue (eg., failure to follow procedures, lack of awareness of them, etc) then the problem can be addressed without the need for an RFC.
To be distinguished from User - the consumer of the target (the degree to which User and Client are the same represents a measure of correct targeting) and the Customer - who pays for the service. If a business case exists, an RFC will be raised, but, in any event, it remains a known error unless it is permanently fixed by a Change. Also used for software Configuration Items to define a specific identification released in development for drafting, review or modification, test or production. Whether it is a change of organisational structure, the introduction of the new SAP or a big cultural change project, the phenomenon of “nobody knows what they are doing” is always there at some point.
This integrity includes the ability to remove faults expeditiously and to prevent their appearance and overall impact if it is deemed expedient to permit them to remain in the infrastructure. The speed of service restoral is of paramount consideration in managing incidents, whereas, an investigation of the underlying Problem can require addtional time which will delay the restoration of service (causing downtime but preventing recurrence).
This list is augmented with the introduction of defects from Release Management and the base is modified to indicate the removal of faults once a solution is introduced through Change Management into the environment. For example, several known errors may lie at the base of a problem, while several problem definitions may be associated with the same error. In this respect, therefore, the speed with which a resolution is found is only of secondary (albeit still of significant) importance. In order to confirm that the expected resolution has occurred, problem management assesses the release in the production environment to validate that the known error(s) have been permanently fixed. Additionally, the process assists with the prioritization of problems and known errors by providing information on the cost of loss of availability. Service continuity management may also report continuity-related problems to problem management. Service continuity management may also report security-related problems to problem management.
A configuration item (CI) is an element in the production environment, such as hardware, software, network, or network software. Problem prevention also includes information being given to Customers that obviates the need to ask for assistance in the future. Known errors found during live operations are identified and recorded as described in Problem control activity investigation and diagnosis. This listing needs to be made available to the custodians of the live environment when an application or a Release package is implemented. It should also provide a complete audit trail navigable in either direction, from Incident to Problem to Known Error to Change request to Release or urgent Change implementation. It should also provide a complete audit trail navigable in either direction, from Incidents to Problem to Known Error to Change request to Release or urgent Change implementation. The priority of the RFC is determined by the urgency and impact of the error on the business.
This data is then available for Incident matching, providing guidance during future investigations on resolving and circumventing Incidents, and for providing management information.
For Problems resulting from Incidents, this may involve nothing more than a telephone call to the user(s) to ensure that they are now content.
If the number of Problems or known errors at a severity level reaches a predefined threshold that looks likely to cause non-conformance to the SLAs, escalation should be invoked. Regardless, all Problems should be notified and recorded via the Problem Management process. Problem Management activities should include updating recommended Work-arounds in the Problem record, to support Incident control. In this case, problem management might decide to query Trouble Tickets for Solutions to the problem. If the problem can be resolved immediately, with no further action required to permanently correct the issue, then the status of the problem record (PR) in the Remedy Problem Management module is changed to resolved.
Problem Management is responsible for the integrity of knowledge bases outlining the state of the infrastructure and methods for treating known problems and errors. Problem Management generates an RCA, and concludes with a recommendation, which may be a quick fix, a workaround, or a Request for Change (RFC) to a configured item in the environment. Investigation of the underlying Problem can require some time and can thus delay the restoration of service, causing downtime but preventing recurrence. Since the ultimate resolution of known errors involves implementation of a change, problem management works closely with change and release management during this activity to ensure that each problem is successfully resolved. Sev1 failures are the highest priority on the list followed by incidents of lesser priority. In this case, the Problem record forms the basis of the Known Error record (involves a change of STATUS). The RFC identifier should be included in the Known Error record and vice versa in order to maintain a full audit trail, or the two records should be linked. The component most frequently manipulated to affect resolution is most likely the root cause. If the problem requires more analysis or the submission of an RFC to be corrected, the status of the PR in the Problem Management module would be changed to a known error and the error control activity would be started to resolve it. An environment has unique features and characteristics that dictate how they are administered in similar, yet diverse, manners. It is this cause that at some point in time produced a change, and so caused the effect, the deviation from from expected results. Theproblem management it service management changethe release management process this way . To ensure that these Problems are followed up and that action is taken to address them, consider creating a dummy CI record for the offending procedure and re-classifying the Problem as a Known Error, or raise an RFC referencing the need for a change to the documentation (which should under the control of Change Management, linked in the CMDB and stored as part of the DSL.
Even after that, Problem Management continues to track and monitor known errors in the infrastructure. For this reason, information is recorded about all identified known errors, their symptoms, and the solutions available. Akbar full moviemanagement process to wait thethe application Xxxxx xx information technology staff to wait flow used implementation managementmay .
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