Climate change affecting polar ice caps,meditation magazine articles layout,the secret book series pdf download 64 - For Begninners

Recent climate induced changes to Arctic polar bears´ environment is affecting their habits and ability to survive, with the bears having to rely more and more on internal fat reserves, according to a new paper in the Journal of Animal Ecology.
Now that sea ice is less prevalent than it was in the past, polar bears in the study were seen migrating to land each summer and depending on their fat reserves to sustain them.
According to the researchers, the relationship between polar bears and their main food source, the Arctic seal, is being impacted the most by melting sea ice. Cherry said he hopes his study´s findings will enable other scientists and policy makers to predict how potential climate-induced changes to sea ice impact the ecosystem. The polar bear is dependent on sea ice for its survival, but climate change is causing drastic reductions in the extent of ice cover across the Arctic region.This reduces the polar beara€™s access to prey, forcing them to spend more time on land and rely on stored fat reserves. Other effects include sea levels getting higher, ice melting at the poles, and extreme weather events like hurricanes and droughts becoming more common (2).
Climate change is caused by an increase in the amount of gases in our atmosphere that trap heat. Scientists are predicting that climate change will cause a mass extinction of many species of plants and animals. Although each action may be small, if many people make small changes it will add up to make a big difference (6) (7). Traditionally, climate change refers to any long-term change in normal weather patterns caused by a process that adjusts the climate, such as a volcanic eruption or a cyclical change in solar activity.
However, the term a€?climate changea€™ now usually refers to man-made changes in the climate that have occurred since the early 1900s.
Changes in the modern climate show a discernable warming trend that can only be partly explained by natural causes (5). Earth-orbiting satellites and other technological advances have enabled scientists to see the big picture, collecting many different types of information about our planet and its climate on a global scale.
Warming oceans: Oceans have been absorbing more than 80 percent of the heat added to the atmosphere, with the top 700 metres of the ocean showing the greatest warming (4). Shrinking ice sheets: The Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets, which between them store the majority of the worlda€™s fresh water, have both started to shrink (1). Glacial retreat: Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world - including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa (1).
Extreme events: In the last decade, there were three times more weather-related natural catastrophes in the world than in the 1960s, including heat waves, floods, droughts and forest fires (5). Ocean acidification: The carbon dioxide content of the Eartha€™s oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tonnes per year. Wildlife behaviour: Many species are changing their behaviour, from butterflies appearing earlier in the year to birds starting to change their migration patterns (1). Just as the worlda€™s most respected scientific bodies have confirmed that the Earth is getting hotter, they have also stated that there is strong evidence that humans are driving the warming (2). Scientists agree the main cause of climate change is human activities which magnify the a€?greenhouse effecta€™ a€“ a natural process in which gases in the atmosphere warm the Earth by trapping heat that is radiating towards space (2) (4). A layer of greenhouse gases, including water vapour and smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, act as a thermal blanket surrounding the Earth. Warming caused by man-made emissions of greenhouse gases also increases the amount of water vapour in the air by boosting the rate of evaporation from the oceans and elsewhere. Scientists estimate that forest loss and other changes to the use of land account for around 23 percent of current man-made carbon dioxide emissions (9). Animals and plants unable to adapt to a rapidly changing climate are seriously threatened by climate change. Species on remote islands occupy a particularly precarious position in the face of climate change.
The impacts of climate change are certainly not restricted to the Polar Regions, however, with species from tropical regions also struggling in the heat. While climate change is the most serious threat to the survival of many species, some are benefiting from a changing climate. But while most of these invasive species do no harm in their new environments, a small number do disproportionate harm and are thriving at the expense of those species adapted to a narrow range of environmental conditions, unable to quickly adapt to the changing climate. Climate change is already having many discernible effects on our natural environment, meaning some of the impacts of climate change are irreversible.
Current scientific evidence indicates that the effects of climate change will only remain manageable if global temperatures rise by no more than 2A?C above pre-industrial levels. If we do not soon take drastic action to reduce our emissions, climate change will cause more and more costly damage and disrupt the functioning of our natural environment, which supplies us with food, raw materials and other vital resources.
Most countries have responded to climate change by becoming parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that aims to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous human-interference of the climate. Make your home more energy efficient: There are many ways that you can reduce your household emissions, including replacing your traditional light bulbs with energy efficient ones, turning off appliances when they are not in use, invest in double glazing, replace domestic and electrical equipment with energy saving models, and sealing and insulating the building (6). Make your lifestyle greener: Everything we do in our day to day lives emits carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Buy sustainably sourced products: As forest loss is a significant contributor to climate change, ensure you buy sustainably sourced timber products.
Eat less meat: Foods such as beef and dairy make a deep impression on a consumera€™s carbon footprint. Use water efficiently: Municipal water systems require a lot of energy to purify and distribute water to households.
Spread the word: Why not get involved in fundraising and awareness-raising events that promote greener lifestyles. Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
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A new study suggests that climate change is affecting the polar bears by melting the sea ice, which is their most important food source. A team of researchers conducted the study and found that because the ice is melting at an alarming rate, the polar bears won’t be able to find enough food on land to replace the diet they are currently on, which consists mostly of animals they hunt in the water. The new study contradicts a previous one which suggested that even though the polar bears won’t be able to find food in the water, they will very well survive eating berries, bird eggs and other food sources found in land.
Karyn Rode, a wildlife biologist from the United States Geological Survey and one of the study’s lead authors, explained that there are polar bears that survive on land food, but their number is limited. Rode published the findings of her study in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment on Wednesday. The main purpose of the study was to research the polar bears that are becoming more and more dependent on the food sources found on land. The researchers wanted to see if previous studies, which suggest that polar bears can actually survive even though their natural habitat is slowly melting away, are accurate. According to their findings, the food sources that can be found on land cannot replace the polar bears’ current diet. One of those scientists is Robert Rockwell, an expert in ecology at City College of New York, who has been conducting studies on polar bears for more than 40 years. According to Rockwell, he has studying polar bears for so long that he witnessed how their eating behavior is adapting according to their needs. Rockwell said that he has seen polar bears feed on bird eggs, like goose eggs and young caribou. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Global warming and “going green” are some of the most prominent buzzwords in the media today.

Although our weather changes from day to day, our climate generally stays constant over the years.
Over the years, the Earth’s temperature has been gradually increasing (hence, global warming). Global warming and its effect on regional climate change has serious consequences and repercussions – for the environment, for biodiversity, for our own food sources and economies and, of course, politics. The rapid pace of current climate change has already placed a great deal of stress on terrestrial ecosystems, including melting glaciers and irreversible damage to the habitats of Arctic and Antarctic animals. As we’ve already established, climate change occurs when the factors that influence it changes. Certain gases in our atmosphere known as greenhouse gases allow the lower atmosphere to absorb the heat released by the Earth’s surface, trapping it within our atmosphere. It is projected that the average annual temperatures in North America, Europe, and East Asia will increase by 2-4°C by 2046 – 2065. Besides the environmental damage, which is the original driving force behind studies of climate change, we as humans should be more aware of global warming’s consequences because it may have some effect on our behavior.
Researchers noted increased violence in many forms, such as domestic violence, assaults, murders, ethnic violence, land invasions, police violence, and civil conflicts. If we take these studies seriously, then “going green” can be a lot more important than we ever thought before. The Arctic sea ice has shrunk to new lows in recent years, due in part to human-caused global warming.
As global temperatures rise this century, the result of human-caused climate change, many living things will shrink, thanks to a host of changes in the environment, as well as the direct effects of warming, two researchers write.
Plants were expected to thrive on the excess carbon dioxide humans have expelled into the atmosphere, because they use it to create sugars by photosynthesis. It is established that among warm-blooded animals, a colder climate means a larger body size, because larger animals are better able to conserve their body heat, and there is evidence that size decreases in warmer regions. There are exceptions: Climate change is expected to increase the growing and feeding season in high-latitude places, and hence allow organisms to get bigger. Il 21 Settembre sara una data da non dimenticare: una giornata dedicata ad uno dei problemi piu grandi e sottovalutati nel nostro pianeta, il riscaldamento globale. Il 21 Settembre, invece, sara un grande giorno, uno dei piu importanti probabilmente, una giornata in cui gridare al mondo quanto si sbaglino attraverso la piu grande mobilitazione per il clima di sempre. Si, perche uno dei piu importanti scienziati al mondo ha dichiarato che il surriscaldamento globale potrebbe causare il rilascio di gigantesche riserve di gas metano dell’artico.
L’ONU (Organizzazione della Nazioni Unite) l’ha capito, e ha convocato i capi di Stato di tutto il mondo per un vertice d’emergenza a New York, presieduto dal Segretario Generale delle Nazioni Unite Ban Ki-Moon, in cui verra discussa una soluzione condivisa per contrastare i cambiamenti climatici.
La richiesta e molto semplice e diretta: portare l’intero pianeta verso il 100% di energia pulita. Basta un semplice gesto per unirvi ad una causa davvero importante che ha come oggetto l’intero pianeta: la sfida del cambiamento climatico deve partire da noi e dalla nostra capacita di imporre azioni piu decise ai leader mondiali!
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In the past, sea ice has remained throughout the Arctic summer months, but now it is almost completely melting and refreezing each year. Males could not be fitted with the collars as their necks are bigger than their heads, making the collars slip off easily. During the same time periods, the researchers also monitored the makeup of sea ice using satellite imagery. The researchers found a direct connection between melting sea ice patterns around Hudson Bay and the bears´ migratory activities. As the bears hunt less seals in the summer months, they must learn to adapt in order to survive. Less food means bears will give birth to fewer, smaller young.As the ice retreats, polar bears must increasingly travel across open water, leading to greater mortality of cubs that are unable to swim long distances.
It is often also called a€?global warminga€™, as one of the most well-known effects of climate change is a steady rise in the Eartha€™s temperature (1).
These gases occur naturally and ensure the Earth is maintained at a life-supporting temperature, in a process called a€?the greenhouse effecta€™.
As ice melts in the Polar Regions, polar bears and emperor penguins are losing vital habitats, the ocean is also becoming more acidic which is killing many corals. But to limit the damage done by climate change many countries have pledged to limit the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Climate change is often interchanged with the phrase a€?global warminga€™, as the principal way in which humans are affecting the climate is through the release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the air (4).
The overwhelming majority of scientists agree that this is due to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by human activities. Studying these climate data collected over many years reveal the signs of a changing climate (4). Average Arctic temperatures have also increased at almost twice the global average rate in the past 100 years (2). More intense and longer droughts have also been observed over wider areas since the 1970s, particularly in the tropics and subtropics (2). A finite amount of carbon is stored in fossil fuels, the sea, living matter and the atmosphere.
This amplifies the warming effect, as well as the amount of rain and snow falling to Earth which can lead to extreme weather patterns (4). Scientists predict that man-made climate change could contribute to a mass extinction of wildlife in the near future.
With an already restricted range, these species are unable to travel to find new suitable habitat, making them extremely vulnerable to extreme weather events such as hurricanes and drought. In the Antarctic, the decline in the extent of the pack-ice will result in the loss of emperor penguin breeding habitat, while reduced ice cover means less krill, a vital source of food for many Antarctic species. Even slight rises in ocean temperatures can lead to coral bleaching, which leaves coral weak and vulnerable to harmful diseases. A prime example is the quiver tree from the Namib Desert in southern Africa, which is disappearing from northern parts of its range due to drought stress (3). Warmer climates and changes in rainfall levels are opening up previously inhospitable habitats to many species, including those described as a€?generalistsa€™. Combined with global trade and transport networks, which are often blamed for the introduction of non-native animals, the threat of invasive species is likely to result in a huge environmental and economic cost.
Even if greenhouse gas emissions are substantially reduced, the long lifespan of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means that we cannot avoid further climate change (2). For this to happen, worldwide emissions must peak by 2020 and be cut to 50 percent of 1990 levels by 2050 (2) (5).
This will negatively affect our economies and could destabilise societies around the globe, as well as cause permanent damage to our planeta€™s biodiversity.
Many countries are also heavily investing in clean energies, such as wind, tidal and solar energy, to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels (5).
That means that even making small changes in what we do, or how we do it, can have a positive impact in preventing the onset of climate change. There are various labelling schemes, such as those run by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), which show that a product has come from a sustainably managed source (10). Saving water, especially hot water, can substantially lower household greenhouse gas emissions (6). Tell family and friends that energy efficiency is good for their homes and good for the environment because it lowers greenhouse gas emissions (6).
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The food sources found on land cannot replace their current marine diet, which consists of mammals like seals, says Rode. The hype about water bottles produced using 30% less plastic and napkins made from 100% recycled paper isn’t just for any random reason, though.

Climate, defined as the average weather over a long period of time, is different in various regions of the world according to the amount of sunlight locally received as well as geographic factors, including proximity to oceans and altitude. However, a recent study conducted by Noah Diffenbaugh and Chris Field, senior fellows at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, has shown that climate change is now occurring ten times faster than at any other time in the past 65 million years (Stanford University), resulting in obvious consequences for our environment as well as some surprising ones for human activity. Climate change is also causing flooding in some coastal areas and, according to a study conducted by climate researcher Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, may be related to increasing the severity and frequency of hurricanes (Rice). Changing climate on a global scale, though, can only occur when the amount of heat in the Earth’s system changes by either being added or released.
Greenhouse gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane, are important to our ecosystem because their entrapment of heat prevents Earth from turning into a block of ice. One effect of this will be that the hottest summer of the last 20 years is expected to occur at least every other year. In a recent study conducted by the University of California – Berkeley and Princeton University, scientists discovered a positive correlation between increasing temperature and human violence.
According to the study’s calculations, a global temperature rise of 2°C could increase intergroup conflicts by over 50% (Wilkey). For example, the burrows dug by invertebrates, including beetles, bees and spiders, during a warm spell about 56 million years ago, show the creatures shrank by 50 to 75 percent, the researchers write in a study published on Oct. For humans, changes in organism size could have a direct effect on our food supply, for instance, through crops and fisheries. She has interned at Discover magazine and has freelanced for The New York Times and Scientific American's web site. Se cio dovesse accadere, ci troveremo di fronte ad una delle molte minacce di catastrofi climatiche del nostro pianeta.
However, human activities that burn fossil fuels like coal and oil are increasing the amount of these gases in our atmosphere, causing the Earth to warm to abnormal levels (2) (4). Species that live or breed on low-lying remote islands, like marine turtles, are threatened by rising sea levels and extreme weather, and many plants, which cannot move to find new habitats, are disappearing from parts of their range, due to drought and higher temperatures (3). Renewable energies, such as wind, tidal and solar energy, are being developed so that we do not need to keep burning fossil fuels (1) (5).
Most of these changes are attributed to very small changes in the Eartha€™s orbit changing the amount of energy the Earth receives from the sun (4). The current human-induced warming trend is of particular significance as it is occurring at an unprecedented rate (1).
The 1990s were the warmest decade in the past 1,000 years (5), with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 (4). As energy slowly escapes out of our atmosphere, some of it is absorbed by the greenhouses gases, which warms the Earth further.
Without human influence there is a fine balance in the amount of carbon in these stores, but when humans cut down trees or burn fossil fuels, they release extra carbon into the atmosphere (4).
By driving cars, heating our homes with oil, gas, or electricity from coal-fired power stations, we release greenhouse gases into our atmosphere. Food is also often transported across the world to reach distant markets, meaning fossil fuels are burnt in the process.
By harnessing the suna€™s energy, plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air as they grow, turning the carbon molecules into the building blocks of their trunks, branches and leaves. Climate change is also causing some migratory species, including many birds, to leave their wintering grounds for breeding areas earlier in the year, leading to competition with resident species for food and nesting areas (3). For example, the hawksbill turtle is at risk of rising sea levels and increases in storm activity, which will destroy its nesting habitat.
The environmentally sensitive staghorn corals, which comprise around 160 species, are already exhibiting signs of significant declines (3). Shop less and try to reduce your consumption, or try walking or taking public transport rather than using a car (6).
Recycling more, composting and reusing helps reduce these emissions and also helps conserve energy in the manufacturing process.
Low resolution, watermarked versions of the Material may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. It only takes a simple deduction to realize that if these factors change, then the climate changes. Warming climates are the result of either an increase in heat entering the Earth or a decrease in heat released from the atmosphere. However, lately the balance has tipped – the quantity of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been rapidly increasing over the past several decades, primarily as the result of burning fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide. By the end of the century, if the trend of increasing greenhouse gas emissions continues, temperatures will increase by 5-6°C. Research has linked declining sea ice with smaller body size and less reproduction among polar bears.
However, it appears that organisms don't all react at the same rate, so change is likely to throw ecosystems out of whack, putting some species at risk of extinction, according to Jennifer Sheridan and David Bickford of the National University of Singapore.
Acidification also decreases growth rates among phytoplankton, the tiny plants that float in the ocean, and this has implications for the food chains that depend on them. Plant growth is highly dependent on water, and while climate models predict that some areas will get wetter and others drier over the coming decades, many places are expected to experience higher variability in rainfall. Temperature also affects cold-blooded creatures by amping up their development rates, so the animals reach maturity at smaller sizes. She has a masters in journalism from Columbia University and a bachelor's degree in biology from the University of Utah. Current climate models predict an increase in average temperature in the region of 3 to 5A°C over the next 100 years, with an increase in frequency of extremely hot periods and generally warm years (2). Although these gases are present naturally, human activity is increasing their concentrations, thereby exacerbating the greenhouse effect (4). In 2005, burning fossil fuels sent about 27 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (8). Fertiliser production for crops and methane gas emitted by livestock also contributes to emissions. But when forests are cleared or burned, their stored carbon is released back into the air, contributing to global warming (9). Rising air temperatures may also result in turtle populations developing a skewed sex ratio, as sex is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated (3). But warming temperatures are reducing the availability of this vital habitat, causing many bears to forage on the mainland where food is more difficult to find (3). If there is a recycling program in your community, recycle your newspapers, beverage containers, paper and other goods. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use. The amount of heat trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere can fluctuate, possibly due to small changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun that occur over thousands of years or by changes in the Sun’s intensity.
The last time such a hike in temperature occurred was 20,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age! Some scientists say we can expect to see many other organisms shrink in response to climate change. This means longer dry periods even in wetter regions, which will ultimately reduce growth, according to the authors.
Other research has explored how this plays out in copepods, tiny crustaceans that play an important role in marine food chains.
Also try to use products in containers that can be recycled and items that can be repaired or reused (6) (7).
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

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Comments Climate change affecting polar ice caps

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