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I plan to write about Real Estate, MBA Studies, Photography, Travel, Family, Business and much more. An evaluation of 38 statistics students in the spring of 2003 yielded an average success rate of 56% on the mathematics program learning outcomes evaluation instrument. Students continue to experience high rates of success in basic graph reading skills and basic arithmetic calculations. The students were given thirty minutes and permitted to use calculators during the evaluation. There was no design intent to evaluate each and every outcome, nor to comprehensively evaluate all the facets of each outcome. The pilot instrument focused on interpreting graphical information with a secondary focus on solving simple word problems.
The number of people who actually need to solve quadratic equations as a part of their daily life is starkly few. At the program evaluation level the intent was to look at the life skills implied by the mathematics program student learning outcomes.
For a five item question, any 95% confidence interval that touches or crosses 0.2 is not statistically distinguishable from random.
Students had difficulty identifying that "six times seven" is the same as "seven times six" as an example of the commutative property. Students were only moderately successful at reading a graph in question two, but proved far more competent at reading a graph in question four. Students experienced extremely low rates of success on question three wherein they had to choose between a linear, quadratic, or square root model for a graph of a falling ball.
Seventy percent of the students felt that the curved line was best described by a linear model. Question eleven could likely only be answered by students who have either taken MS 101 Algebra and Trigonometry or who have studied exponential growth in business and social science classes. Question five asks, in words, for students to identify the nature of the correlation seen in the graph – essentially whether the relationship is positive or negative. Question seven and eight asked the students to perform arithmetic calculations phrased as word problems. The mathematics of question ten involve calculating the equivalent of a linear equation with a y-intercept. The absence of college level algebra problems is due to intent and nature of the instrument. The 61% success rate should appear surprisingly low for students with the mathematical sophistication of a statistics student. Although the sample sizes make conclusions highly tentative, the program learning outcomes survey instrument data can be "sliced and diced" by a number of factors.
The difference in overall performance between the men and women is certainly not significant. Errors were found in questions five and eight, corrections were put onto the board in each class. The lack of questions from students suggests that the tweaks made improved comprehension and readability.
The 95% confidence intervals for the differences in the means between 2003 and 2004 are shown below. The 95% confidence interval for the net difference crosses the y = 0 x-axis and hence is not statistically significant at an alpha of 0.05.
Performance on the mathematics program learning outcomes has remained stable over the past year. The 55% overall mean success rate undoubtedly appears low compared to the general expectation of 70%.
Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type. Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. We do not need to show lags for few periods; for example, for $S=50$ at least 170 lags (it contains 3 periods)? Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged autocorrelation lags partial or ask your own question.
Is an auto-correlation plot suitable for determining at what point time series data has become random, and how does one interpret the plot?
Is the existence of a sole particle in an hypothetical infinite empty space explicitly forbidden by QM?
Would allowing a cantrip cast as a bonus action to be used on the same turn as a non-cantrip cast as an action break the game? What is the right way to think about doing lower value work when small talking with an executive? Water monitoring at the scale of a small agricultural region is a key point to insure a good crop development particularly in South-Eastern France, where extreme climatic conditions result in long dry periods in spring and summer with very sparse precipitation events, corresponding to a crucial period of crop development. For these intensive observation periods, atmospheric profiles were also acquired according to the weather conditions (low winds) for several days with a tethered balloon up to 200 m above the surface.The main development stages of the various crops were monitored by different observations and measurements. Where Rsmin is the minimum stomatal resistance, f1-4 are limiting factors varying from 0 to 1. Where t is time, X is air potential temperature (Tp) or air moisture (q), CFx is a term due to the Coriolis force and FXS and FXH are the vertical fluxes at the bottom and the top of the mixed layer.
This tile approach requests spatially distributed variables derived from remote sensing data, described in the next section. In order to define these extreme values for the studied day, we have analysed the relationship between Ts and NDVI (figure 5).
Let us mention that different methodologies for assessing LAI and albedo (not described in this paper) have been compared using the same data set [paper submitted 52]. Les genes de correction des mesappariements de bases assurent la stabilite genetique de tous les organismes sur Terre.
Mismatch repair (MMR) genes participate in the maintenance of genome stability in all organisms. III site was introduced in the gene by changing the third nucleotide of codon GCC (A112) into GCT (Figure 3.1A). I and the newly synthesized DNA was extracted from 1% agarose gel using the GFX kit (Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, USA).
III restriction site and sequenced with the M13 forward primer (5'-CGCCAGGGTTTTCCCAGTCACGAC-3') to confirm the absence of random mutations within the cloned fragment. I end of the digested plasmid was filled in using the Klenow fragment, and the truncated plasmid was re-circularized through a blunt-end ligation. For each line, the number of integrated T-DNAs was estimated using both PCR and Southern analyses of genomic DNA extracted from T3 and T4 plants.
For each transformant line, 6 µg of total RNA were treated with 6 units of DNase I (Invitrogen, Carslbad, USA). To rapidly eliminate transformants with multi-locus insertions, the T2 progeny were tested for a 3R:1S segregation ratio on kanamycin selection.
DNA insertion locus and no tandem insertions to identify individuals with, typically, 1 or 2 copies of the T-DNA (data not shown).
To assess transgene expression in the different transformants, a northern analysis was performed using total RNA from seedlings of the ten transformants and one untransformed control. For each line, four independently-isolated samples of RNA were used for reverse transcription and amplified with gene-specific primers (AtPMS1 and AtPMS2). Mismatch repair genes constitute a highly conserved family of genes involved in maintaining genome integrity. We produced ten independent transformants that displayed a morphology, which, upon visual examination, was not different overall from that of the wild type. Overall, the increases observed in MSI using a given reporter line (G16-B, G16-C or G7-A) are relatively similar.
Although an increase in MSI was expected for plants impaired in MMR, the magnitude of the observed effect differed from one reporter to the next. It may be that Arabidopsis (and possibly all plants) differs in some important behavior with respect to DNA damage and repair as related to the MMR system. Table 9 presents disease activity and remission and Table 10 presents radiographic joint damage results in these comparisons.Corticosteroids versus corticosteroids. Table 11 presents disease activity and remission and Table 12 provides radiographic joint damage results for these comparisons.Table 12Radiographic joint damage in oral DMARD combinations versus monotherapy combinations with or without corticosteroid studies. An evaluation of 40 statistics students in the spring of 2004 yielded an average success rate of 55% on the mathematics program learning outcomes evaluation instrument. The students were all members of MS 150 Statistics, a course with an MS 100 Algebra prerequisite. The logic was that post-graduation the bulk of the mathematics that people encounter in life is actually graphical information. The bulk of what is taught in a mathematics program is quickly forgotten with no strongly negative impact on the alumni who has forgotten it.
This suggests students did not come to associate function names with graph shapes during MS 100 College Algebra. Unfortunately this may be in part an artifact of studying linear regressions in statistics.
Statistics students undoubtedly have an advantage at this as it is specifically covered in the course. Although phrased in words only, the question addresses the existence and sign of the second derivative of the graph. The student has to know the definition of terms such as perfect square and perfect cube, and then apply that knowledge to solving a simply mathematical puzzle. More the sake of saving space and maximizing information, much of this data is being presented as cross tabulations. The difference by state between the Kosraens and Chuukese, however, may rise to statistical significance. The results suggest that there might be some credence to be given to the stereotyped concept of the liberal arts major as that major for those who are less academically capable.
Question three included an option to choose a logarithmic model, this was deleted as knowing what a logarithmic function looks like is covered only in the optional elective MS 101 Algebra and Trigonometry course. The confidence intervals were calculated by $\frac{\text{PPF}(0.99)}{\sqrt{n}}$ assuming the noise is distributed normally. Remote sensing with the increasing imagery resolution is a useful tool to provide information on plant water status over various temporal and spatial scales. IntroductionDescribing soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfers is of prime interest for understanding interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer, and assessing plant water status [1]. Crop heights (hveg) were measured to estimate surface roughness (z0m=0.13 hveg) [5] needed to simulate fluxes over different fields.
FXS correspond to the convective fluxes computed by the big leaf surface model.As the landscape is heterogeneous, we have modified the surface scheme, in order to take into account the surface variability, introducing a ‘tile approach’ to compute the Fx term [20, 50]. Other variables were also requested by the model, like the initialising variables for the atmosphere, the daily evolution of the global radiation and windspeed. Cette approche peut permettre a l'amelioration varietale d'augmenter le taux de recombinaison genetique entre especes genetiquement eloignees afin d'accroitre la performance des plantes cultivees en puisant les caracteres desirables dans les especes sauvages. GUS gene function in these lines can be restored following the loss of one base or the gain of two bases in the repetitive tract. Mismatched bases can arise as a result of DNA replication errors, exposure to various natural and man-made mutagens, or as a consequence of sequence divergence between homoeologous chromosomes which undergo recombination (Modrich, 1991).
A MutS homodimer recognizes and binds to mismatched DNA upon which a MutL homodimer is recruited.
MutL protein presumably plays the role of a "molecular matchmaker" between several proteins involved in MMR and other cellular functions. Each of these dimers exhibits a preference for the type of mismatch it is most efficient at repairing. Such alleles would be particularly interesting to investigate MMR function in plants because, for most species, MMR mutants are not readily available and cannot be obtained using gene knockout strategies available in other species. These materials were ground to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle in the presence of liquid nitrogen. Following transfer, RNA was stained in 0.01 % methylene blue solution to examine the quality of rRNAs. Washing was done as recommended (Sambrook and Russell, 2001), and signal was detected after a 2-days exposure on X-ray film at -80°C.
RNA treatment and incubation were done as specified by the supplier, but scaled up for 6 µg.
In parallel to these crosses, we also crossed the same reporter line to wild-type Columbia to generate control plants. In the other two sets of data (crosses to G16-C and G7-A), data were not normally distributed and means comparisons were done using a non-parametric method, Wilcoxon’s rank sum test. Upon probing the same membrane with an actin probe, a uniform signal was obtained in all transformants and in the control, indicating that relatively equal amounts of RNA were loaded and that the control RNA was not degraded (Figure 3.2B). Again, this analysis showed that most, if not all, of the amplification product was from the transgene rather than the wild-type allele (data not shown). As the introduction of these mutant alleles did not markedly affect the appearance of the plants, we proceeded to analyze the effect of the mutant alleles on microsatellite instability (MSI), a phenotype typically indicative of a defect in MMR function in all eukaryotes.
Furthermore, maybe because the G16 microsatellite was much more stable in the G16-C reporter line, a greater increase in MSI was observed than with the G16-B reporter lines. If the exact same transformant (G16-C) was used, it cannot be argued that position effects are responsible for this difference. This suggests that, in Arabidopsis, the complete loss of function of a key MMR gene in somatic tissues results in a less dramatic increase in MSI than in other eukaryotes. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.Donahue KE, Jonas DE, Hansen RA, et al. We included 258 published articles reporting on 211 studies: 31 head-to-head randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 1 head-to-head nonrandomized controlled trial, 44 placebo-controlled trials, 28 meta-analyses or systematic reviews, and 107 observational studies. Students showed weakness on a question involving vocabulary, inferring mathematical models from graphs, and problem solving within the context of constructive exploration of a mathematical system.

Even the faculty of the division of natural sciences and mathematics would be hard pressed to pass an MS 100 College Algebra final examination taken cold.
Although the calculations were well within the capabilities of the students, especially given that they were allowed to use calculators, the confidence interval for the mean success rate was barely above random.
Although the question is only marginally algebraic, it is in simplicity that which one might expect a student to still be able to do years after leaving college. Asking the students to solve a problem involving two equations in two unknowns or finding zeros of a factorisable quadratic are skills for which student could be expected to need to study to complete successfully. Confidence intervals have not been calculated, the small underlying sample sizes and small differences mean that statistical significance is not always attainable. The interior of the table is plagued by small sample sizes, but suggests a possible underlying weakness in performance for Chuukese females and Yapese males. The pilot did lead to modification in the wording of some of the questions and answers to improve clarity.
Provided grade distributions have remained stable, there would be no evidence of inflation nor deflation in the relative value of grades awarded by the division.
I would show at least until no data-point crosses a confidence interval or $\frac{n}{10}$, whichever comes first. This is gaining importance over these last years in the context of climatic changes, because land use evolution can induce significant modifications of surface fluxes like evapotranspiration, and therefore result in different irrigation strategies. Leaf Area Index (LAI) was estimated for each field by both planimetry and hemispherical photographies.
The method consists in averaging the surface fluxes computed over each vegetation class, weighted by their percent of surface occupation (?) according to equation 4 (Figure 2). This results in the observation of blue sectors on a white background following histochemical staining. Perhaps because of the universality of such damages, the MMR system has been highly conserved throughout all kingdoms. The latter facilitates the interaction of MutS with MutH, an endonuclease that proceeds to attack the strand of DNA bearing the incorrect base(s). It apparently plays its multiple bridging roles through induced conformational and structural changes resulting from various interactions involving its N- and C-terminal regions (Schofield and Hsieh, 2003). MLH1 obviously plays a central role as it is involved in each heterodimer, but PMS1 is also very important as it forms, with MLH1, the major dimer involved in the repair of single mispaired bases (MutLα).
Hybridization was carried out overnight at 60°C in the above buffer following addition of the denatured probe. In all crosses, the GUS reporter lines were used as pollen provider, and the F1 progeny of each cross was tested by PCR with GUS-specific primers.
All statistical analyses were done with the Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute 2003, Cary, NC). The F1 plants resulting from these crosses were stained and we determined the average number of blue sectors per leaf. The MSI observed in the F1 progenies of the lines that were crossed to a G7 reporter line was even higher. One explanation could be that a mix-up occurred and that these F1 were derived actually from a cross with the other reporter used in this work, G16-B. Alou was supported by a graduate fellowship from the «Programme Canadien de Bourses de la Francophonie».
Our findings include studies rated good or fair for internal validity, unless a particular study rated poor provides some unique information that we judged to be of interest. Three RCTs,57–59 one systematic review and one observational cohort110 compared the efficacy of sulfasalazine and MTX versus that of either sulfasalazine or MTX alone (Tables 11 and 12). Students in the course are likely to be more mathematically able as they are typically computer information systems, health careers, marine science, or business majors. The vertical lines are the extent of the 95% confidence interval for each mean based on the student's t-distribution. Students clearly do not understand the nature of exponential growth, a key concept in many fields of knowledge.
Despite the complex analysis and synthesis needed to answer this question, half of the students succeeded in answering this question correctly. The question of what does a student know when they walk down the graduation aisle is the question of what do know and what can they do without having to specifically study. The data, however, provides a tantalizing glimpse into a world of possibilities and maybes. Thus one might surmise that in reality the students did worse than last year by performing the same on a slightly more comprehensible test. Where the 95% confidence interval crosses the x-axis (y = 0), the change is not statistically significant. If you care about inference, then you show a delicately made model with evidence like the PACF plot. Thirty cloud free images were acquired from March to October 2006 over a small region called Crau-Camargue in SE France, while numerous ground measurements were performed simultaneously over various crop types.
The Crau-Camargue region located in South-Eastern France (Figure 1) is an interesting study case, particularly sensitive to global changes. Comparisons between both methods were performed for some dates and gave satisfactory results. The estimation of the extremes of f2 resulted in several PBLs runs, made with different values of f2. In a subset of the transformants, a significant increase (2- to 28-fold) in microsatellite instability was observed relative to wild-type. Following the removal of the erroneous sequence, the single stranded template is once again replicated to yield a corrected DNA duplex.
As can be seen in Figure 3.4A, control F1 plants (wild-type x G16-B) averaged 12 sectors per leaf. This work was also supported by a research grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and RhoBio to F.
Most studies were of fair quality; we designate in the text only those of good or poor quality. When comparing drugs, the percentage achieving ACR 20 response criteria for high-dose budesonide (9 mg) was significantly greater than that for lower- dose budesonide (3 mg) (42 percent vs.
If they can do this simpler problem, then one would hope that they can accomplish more complex tasks with study and knowledge refreshment.
So I am assuming delta slope is the full width of the assumed gaussian distribution, not the half width usually defined (I think) as the standard deviation.
If you care about predictive accuracy, then you just append steps that successively detrend the series. We have compared two models simulating energy transfers between soil, vegetation and atmosphere: SEBAL and PBLs. It is a flat region characterized by highly contrasted humid areas, with a high diversity of crops and agricultural practices.
The model computes all the fluxes of the energy balance in addition to surface temperature, air temperature (Ta) and air moisture, (q) at each time step, all along the day. We have chosen the values which gave the best estimations of sensible heat fluxes compared to our ground measurements. For each line, four independent PCR reactions were run to verify the reproducibility of the amplification. Evidence tables for included studies, by Key Question (KQ), can be found in Appendix E.Figure 1Disposition of articles (PRISMA figure). Maps of evapotranspiration were analyzed according to the agricultural practices at field scale.
The Crau region is famous for irrigated meadows providing COP (Certified Origin Product) hay exported all over the world.
It is the first report to describe the phenotypic consequence of disrupting the function of a MutL homolog in plants. As both reporter lines contain the exact same reporter construct, we have no simple way of testing this hypothesis.
Other comparisons included adalimumab with infliximab,71, 73 adalimumab with etanercept,73 abatacept with infliximab66 and rituximab compared with other anti-TNF agents.72 All studies had minimal exclusion criteria, enrolling patients who were starting treatments with biologic DMARDs. These practices were well identified from FORMOSAT-2 images, which provided accurate input surface parameters to the SVAT models.
While the Camargue region is known for its rice fields that were initially cultivated for soil salinity remediation purposes [2]. This software allows to obtain different surface parameters such as fCover (vegetation fraction), FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) and the Effective LAI (that does not take into account vegetation clumping effect), which are comparable to remote sensing estimations [6]. Models used for estimation of biophysical variables from FORMOSAT-2 dataHigh resolution FORMOSAT-2 images were used to spatially estimate the input parameters necessary to SEBAL and PBLs. We noticed that these extremes corresponded to the threshold values of NDVI defined to separate irrigated areas from very dry lands.
Note that those results were very satisfactory (fig 6b) despite the fact that the seasonal variations of the solar zenith and azimuth angles were neglected. Similarly, high-dose budesonide and prednisolone did not differ significantly for tender joint count, swollen joint count, and the DAS.Leflunomide versus MTX. This is the driver for piloting a commercial instrument such as the academic profile instrument that has been discussed in curriculum committee.
For each study field, 40 to 60 photographies were taken along transects in cross sectional pattern, according to the surface heterogeneity and the field size; (the temporal sampling was done according to the crop development).
The other dates presented in table 1 are currently under study in order to see if the same relationships can be found for different surface and atmospheric conditions.For LAI estimation, among the various models proposed in the literature (see reviews made by [25]), we chose the simple relation initially proposed by Asrar et al. However, we can notice a slight dispersion for meadow and rice which have specific cultural practices (rice always submergred by water, and meadow flooded each 11 days). We could not determine the source of support for 45 (21 percent) studies.This chapter is organized by Key Question. Such as instrument would allow the institution to compare results to other similar institutions. Climatic hazards such as long and dry spring periods and heavy rains in autumn are becoming more frequent. Since LAI measurements were punctual, temporal interpolation of ground measurements using Koetz et al. Some parameters were derived from a landuse map, taking into account both the ground measurements and the expert knowledge on the crops. We then present findings in order by class of drugs and combinations of drugs as appropriate to the particular key question. Consequently, the increasing water scarcity during the growing season, in addition to water redistribution for the industrial and urban sectors, has led the authorities to restrict irrigation.
Others were computed using semi-empirical models combining reflectances in different spectral ranges as summarized in table 3.First a land use classification was done, based on a maximum likelihood supervised classification from images acquired at 5 dates, chosen at the main stages of crop development. The results compared to ground measurements were globally satisfactory as displayed in figure 6a. Generally, the chapter is organized using the following categories: individual oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) versus oral DMARD, oral DMARD combinations (with or without corticosteroids) versus oral DMARD combinations, biologic versus biologic, biologic versus oral DMARD, biologics plus oral DMARD versus biologic, biologic plus oral DMARD versus oral DMARD, and early RA strategies. The proportion of patients meeting ACR 20 response criteria at 12 months was higher for leflunomide than MTX but not statistically significantly so (52 percent vs. Irrigated crops like meadow, which are dominant in the Crau region, were affected by those restrictions. For purposes of this review, we defined strategies as studies where drug regimens were not fixed, but rather when a clinician made dose adjustments or drug changes according to patient response.Across all Key Questions, we included head-to-head studies, observational studies, and systematic reviews. Other crops such as corn, demanding large water quantity during summer period, disappear progressively of the cultural landscape.
Moreover, rice plantations in Camargue show large differences in yields (mainly due to the various cultural practices performed in terms of sowing dates, submersion dates after sowing and drying up dates before harvesting [2]). Remote sensing data and image processingThirty cloud free FORMOSAT-2 images were acquired every 3 to 4 days during 8 months at 10:30 TU from March to October 2006, and with a constant viewing angle of 41° over the Crau-Camargue region (Figure 1).
This map has been then improved introducing information about the agricultural practices applied to some crops.Indeed, the identification of the main cultural practices performed at the field scale, such as irrigation, meadow cut, harvest, plowing, sowing date, is crucial for an accurate determination of the main surface parameters.
Discrepancies between simulations and measurements for high values of LAI (>4) hare already been observed by several authors [17, 6]. Additionally, we included 107 observational studies in the report.Table 7Number of head-to-head trials by drug comparison for rheumatoid arthritis. There was also a nonsignificant trend in DAS, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) defined, remission (18.7% vs. It is therefore important to estimate with accuracy this surface variability, to know the real water need for each field so as to improve crop and water management.Remote sensing with the increasing imagery resolution is an useful tool to provide such information on plant water status over various temporal and spatial scales [3]. For example, the roughness map was deduced from the Brutsaert?relationship (z0=0.13hveg), hveg being the mean height measured for each vegetation cover. In order to better understand this dispersion, we have analyzed the temporal variation of LAI.
Table 8 lists abbreviations and full names of diagnostic scales and health status or quality-of-life instruments encountered in these studies, as well information about clinical significance when available. Evapotranspiration (ET) may be estimated from remote sensing data with different approaches: direct methods using thermal infrared (TIR) data, indirect estimates using assimilation procedures combining different wavelengths to get various input parameters [23]. It provides images (distribution by SPOT-IMAGE) with the following features: spatial resolution of 8 m in four spectral bands centred at 488, 555, 650 and 830 nm, with a field of view of 24 km, an orbital cycle of one day, with a constant observation angle (see table 2 in appendix for its main features). Figure 7 displays a comparison between the dynamics of estimated and measured meadow LAI, the evolution of vegetation height, hveg, and the main cultural practices performed over the study period (3 cuts and irrigation every 11 days approximately). For further details about such instruments and scales, see Appendix G.Table 8Disease activity, radiographic progression, functional capacity, and quality-of-life measures.
Additionally, ACR 20 response was significantly higher for abatacept than infliximab (72.4 percent vs. However, the use of remote sensing for operational applications still presents several problems. This data set was first geolocated, registered, calibrated and the cloud and their shadows were discarded by a CNES-Cesbio team in Toulouse according to the method described in Baillarin et al, [8]. We can first notice that the 3 cuts, represented by vertical arrows on the figure, are well identified by LAI measurements and FORMOSAT data.

The percentage of patients meeting either ACR 50 or ACR 70 criteria at 2 years did not differ significantly, and the change in total Sharp score also did not differ significantly at 2 years (1.6 vs. Water and crop monitoring requires a frequent time revisit of satellites and a fine spatial resolution to get accurate information at the field scale.
Then the images were corrected from atmospheric effects using the atmospheric correction method developed by Hagolle et al. We saw that simulations gave better results if they were only compared to the measurements with their confidence intervals than to interpolated data. Reductions in Disease Activity, Limitations of Disease Progression, and Maintenance of RemissionThis Key Question concerned three main topics. This study is limited by the fixed dosing of infliximab, which may be lower than generally used in practice.
The relatively long time revisit (16 days) for satellites having a high spatial resolution such as ASTER or Landsat make their use for operational applications often unattractive (even if they have thermal spectral bands which are used in numerous ET models).
Here two factors have an impact on the decrease of evapotranspiration; irrigation and LAI decrease due to the cut. Specifically, for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), do drug therapies differ in their ability to reduce disease activity, to slow or limit progression of radiographic joint damage, or to maintain remission? At 12 months, the proportion of patients meeting ACR 20 response criteria was lower for leflunomide than for MTX (50.5 percent vs. Additionally, the study was powered only to detect differences between the biologics with placebo at 197 days.Adalimumab versus etanercept. Recent satellites such as FORMOSAT-2 offer both a high spatial and temporal resolution, since they can revisit a same area, every day with a constant viewing angle, with a pixel of 8m (for FORMOSAT in multispectral range or 2m in black and white).
Simulations performed over irrigated meadow with a crop model (STICS, described in [51]) clearly highlighted this large difference of evapotranspiration due to these agricultural practices (figure 3). Other empirical models used classically to interpolate LAI data such as those proposed by [53] can be applied to short period for the meadow between each cut. Evidence Tables in Appendix E document details about all these studies.OverviewIndividual study details are found in the Evidence Tables, Appendix E.
This new sensor generation characterized by repetitive acquisitions of high resolution images is very useful for monitoring land surface dynamics. The main problem is that we cannot have the same spatial and temporal resolution with the current satellites as FORMOSAT-2 data. It is therefore important to know with accuracy the occurrence of such main practices.The high spatial and temporal resolution of the FORMOSAT-2 images allowed to track these surface modifications as it is displayed on figure 4. However such empirical models do not take into account small variations due to various factors such as water stress which can affect LAI for small periods between two irrigation events.Finally, we can conclude that single multidate multicrop relationships empirical approaches yield accurate estimates of LAI and albedo from the limited information provided by FORMOSAT-2 sampling (three wave bands and one direction). The main drug classes that we compared include oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARDs), biologic DMARDs (also referred to simply as biologics), and various combined therapies.Overall strength of evidence by disease activity and radiographic changes, when available, is listed in Table 9. Three successive NDVI images taken at the end of April, zoomed over irrigated meadow fields, showed clearly the freshly cut fields which are associated to large drops in NDVI.
Radiological outcomes at 12 months using Larsen Scale scores for joint narrowing were statistically equivalent (0.03 increase in both groups). From the analysis of these temporal variations, a map of the cut dates was done for the irrigated meadows (fig 4d).This information has been also used to derive maps of some parameters occurring in the formulation of the surface resistance (Rs) applied in the PBLs model (eq 2). Validation of Surface fluxesSpatial variations of the main energy fluxes and air temperatures were simulated by both models: SEBAL and PBLs for the July 26 2006. Table 11 provides information on radiographic joint damage, indicating whether the study populations included patients with early RA.
After 2 years, no further increase in joint damage occurred in patients treated with leflunomide; patients taking MTX had a small improvement (data NR). Comparisons were made between simulations and measurements accounting for the footprint of the integrated flux measurements. When possible, we describe whether treatment effects reach minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs). The TES (Temperature Emissivity Separation) algorithm [11] was used to retrieve surface radiometric temperature from ASTER data.
The footprint was computed based on the analytical solution of the diffusion equation of [36].In general, there was reasonable agreement between sensible flux outputs from both models versus ground measurements (figure 7).
Patients receiving leflunomide and MTX did not differ in ACR 50 and ACR 70 responses, and the two drugs also did not differ in delaying bone erosions or joint damage assessed by total Sharp score.55 This systematic review was limited by the small number of studies that the authors could use for the individual comparisons in the meta-analysis. Recent works explore future missions to answer to this strong demand (let us mention the MISTIGRI mission conducted by the CNES).
TES relies on the spectral variability captured from the multispectral brightness temperatures within the 5 ASTER TIR bands at 90m spatial resolution. It is often difficult to estimate with accuracy because it varies a lot spatially at regional scale and all along a cultural cycle according to crop development stages and for different practices (such as irrigation). Comparisons of etanercept and infliximab with the leflunomide arm are reported in the section below comparing oral DMARDs with biologic DMARDs. While waiting for operational solutions, alternative approaches are proposed combining information at different wavelengths and resolutions [56].A heavy experimentation took place over the Crau-Camargue region in 2006, including intensive ground measurements on different crop types, in parallel to airborne and satellite data collection. Numerous studies have shown the relationships between surface temperature (Ts) and plant water status [22, 23]. Let us mention here that these values were computed, for SEBAL, between instantaneous simulations obtained at 11:30 and measurements performed at the same time (see figure 9). Table 11Disease activity and remission for oral DMARD combinations versus monotherapy or combinations with or without corticosteroid studies. In SEBAL, Ts is an input data that indirectly informs on the spatial variability of soil moisture at regional scale. The authors attributed these differences partly to a high need of dose adjustments (57 percent) in the infliximab group during the first months of the study. Concerning PBLs, Ts is a model output, and two approaches exist to estimate f2: either by forcing the model by a f2 map as accurate as possible, deduced from various observations, or by estimating f2 through assimilation methods [24].
One study107 with a 2-year followup60 compared leflunomide with sulfasalazine (Tables 9 and 10). In a first stage, we have chosen to force PBLs with a f2 map obtained from remote sensing data and observations.
These errors are acceptable since they were comparable to those found in the literature [1, 23].The simulated surface fluxes showed large spatial variations due to differences in soil moisture and surface roughness, which were highly dependant on cultural practices performed on each field, as it is shown in figure 9. The second approach based on an assimilation procedure to retrieve f2 is currently under study [20]. The interest of the high temporal resolution was particularly important for this study area, where irrigation was applied to different surfaces with a high frequency (every 8-11 days over the meadows). Models for assessing surface fluxes and microclimateTwo models simulating the transfers between soil-vegetation and atmosphere were used: the spatially distributed energy balance model SEBAL [12] (modified version by [14]) and the ‘Planetary Boundary Layer Model (described in [13]).
For this study, f2 was deduced from the analysis of the thermal images acquired at fine resolution with the airborne camera, combined with the FORMOSAT image acquired at the same date. A prospective cohort (N=949) with longer followup found that etanercept treatments led to greater improvement on the ACR 50 than infliximab during the first months of treatment, but no differences were noted thereafter for up to 36 months.69 The authors of this study created an index called the LUNDEX (an index of drug efficacy in clinical practice developed at Lund University in Sweden, calculated as the proportion of starters still on the drug at time T times the proportion responding at time T), which takes adherence and efficacy together into consideration.
The impact of these various agricultural practices has a great influence on all exchanges between surface and atmosphere.For this work, we have used different types of models, first to estimate the main biophysical variables characterizing the various crops, and then to simulate surface fluxes and air temperature. They were chosen because they rely on different assumptions and need only few input parameters easily computed from remote sensing data. We have assumed a negative linear correlation between Ts and f2 with minimum Ts corresponding to a maximum f2 and inversely, a maximum Ts corresponding to a minimum f2 (eq 5). On Figure 9b we observed different H values for meadows due to differences in irrigation and cut dates.The large confidence intervals observed for the corn field (fig 9a) were essentially due to the surface heterogeneity.
The percentage achieving ACR 50 response criteria was also similar in the two groups (33 percent leflunomide, 30 percent sulfasalazine). Both are based on a single source approach which consists in considering only one surface resistance for the combined soil-canopy system.
Indeed, this field was sown relatively late on May 5th and was intermittently irrigated by sprinklers depending on weather conditions. Larsen Scale scores were also similar for leflunomide and sulfasalazine, and the Larsen Scale change score at endpoint was 0.01 for both drugs (Table 10). The models based, either on physical or semi-empirical relationships, are briefly described in section 3.
This approach assumes that all the surfaces can be represented by one effective value of temperature and humidity [46].
The soil was very stony at some locations, with a low water reserve, that explained the bad development of this crop for 2006.
We found one head-to-head randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared one biologic DMARD with another66 providing low strength of evidence that abatacept lessens disease activity at 1 year compared with infliximab.
For more complex canopies, for example sunflower or tiger bush, the two source modeling schemes propose two set of resistances to reproduce the turbulent and radiative exchanges distinguishing soil and vegetation components within the low atmosphere [47]. Finally a conclusion is made on the potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 data and the future applications.
Even if this last approach seems to be more realistic, many authors have shown that a simple but correctly calibrated single source model gave satisfactory results for describing the energy balance compared to ill parameterized dual source models [48].SEBAL was designed to avoid the use of micrometeorological measurements, by exploiting the information contained in the spatial variability captured from solar and thermal remotely sensed images. At 24 months (leflunomide, n=28; sulfasalazine, n=27), ACR 20 response was significantly greater for leflunomide than for sulfasalazine (82 percent vs. Its main characteristic relies on the determination of wet and dry surfaces on the study area. Air temperature estimationsFigure 10 shows the air temperature maps obtained with SEBAL and PBLs at 11:30TU for the 26th of July. A spatial analysis is made on the relationship between albedo (a) and surface temperature (Ts) to define a threshold, separating evaporative and dry areas.
Both models clearly simulated a difference of 3°C between wet and dry areas, which was in the order of the difference observed from the meteorological measurements performed on the various fields and in the range of order of other studies in the same area [55].
SEBAL calculates the energy partitioning combining physical parameterization and empirical relationships with minimum ground data, and computes wind speed and air temperature (Ta). However, we noticed that SEBAL gave higher values than PBLs and overestimated by about 2°C when compared to the ground measured temperatures. The latent heat flux (or evapotranspiration) is computed at the satellite acquisition time, as the residual of the energy balance. These results suggest that some of the simplifying assumptions in SEBAL may not be strictly applicable over a wide range of conditions present within this region, in particular, the linear relationship between surface air temperature difference and Ts. The results indicated that the patients treated with rituximab had a greater reduction in disease activity at 6 months than the patients treated with the other anti-TNF agents. One cohort study (N=116) examined the effectiveness of rituximab (1,000 mg x 2 with concomitant IV glucocorticoids) compared to other anti-TNF agents in patients who had inadequate response to previous ant-TNF therapy.72 The population included Swiss patients receiving anti-TNF therapy in 2003. Numerous papers have also discussed the problem linked to the choice of the albedo threshold to separate wet and dry area, and its influence on this linear relationship to retrieve above canopy air temperature [1, 37, 54]. The Kipp sensors were calibrated to provide estimates of incoming radiation over the whole spectrum for measurements over 300 to 3000 nm spectral band.
The strength of evidence is low and should be interpreted cautiously given the indirectness of the evidence.Anakinra appears to have lower efficacy based on our mixed treatment comparisons. Incident radiation was measured with a pyranometer located on the center of the experimental area.
Summary-ConclusionThis study focussed on assessing the potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 data for water and crop monitoring at regional scale. We have shown that the high temporal and spatial resolutions of these new remote sensing data allowed providing accurate surface parameters that lead to satisfactory flux simulations when used as input data in both land-surface models tested.
Additionally, surface temperatures were acquired all along the experiment, with KT17 Heimann radiothermometers on three locations (wheat, meadow and rice).For a few intensive observation periods, surface fluxes were measured during several days.
This land-surface model consists in coupling the simple soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model based on the Penman-Monteith equations, and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) model of Tennekes and Driedonks [18]. Indeed, identification of each crop type associated with its main cultural practices is possible (such as irrigation and cut date of meadow for example). The strength of evidence is low and should be interpreted cautiously given the indirectness of the evidence.Biologic DMARD versus oral DMARD. 1D-anenometers (CA27 T Campbell) were set up on the various surfaces, allowing to compute the sensible heat flux (H). Leflunomide and sulfasalazine also did not differ in delaying bone erosions or joint damage by Sharp score or Larsen Scale score at 6, 12, or 24 months.
Soil heat fluxes (G) were measured using soil fluxmeters (HFT-3, REBS), put just below the surfaces.
The canopy is treated as a single big leaf where the complexity of vegetation-atmosphere interactions were reduced to a key parameter, the surface resistance (Rs) computed with the same parametrisation used in the ISBA model described by Jacquemin and Noilhan [19].
How such intermediate outcomes translate to the long-term clinical progression of the disease remains unclear.
Again, these results are significantly limited because they include only the one study.107Sulfasalazine versus MTX.
The strength of the evidence for the available comparisons is low.Individual trials of adalimumab and etanercept favor approved doses of biologic versus MTX.
Overall, findings from these studies showed similar improvement rates between sulfasalazine and MTX for any ACR, DAS, and radiological outcomes. The strength of evidence is low.Overall, moderate evidence suggests that some benefit in ACRresponse to biologic DMARD combinations over monotherapy, at least in relation to combining MTX with adalimumab, infliximab, or rituximab. A combination of MTX with either adalimumab,76 or infliximab,68, 81–83 or rituximab84 led to statistically significantly greater improvements in ACRresponse and radiographic progression than with biologic DMARD monotherapy. Except for the PREMIER study on adalimumab,76 none of these trials was conducted in patients with early RA. No evidence is available on abatacept, anakinra, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, tocilizumab, and combinations with oral DMARDs.Overall, the evidence is high for combination of biologic DMARDs with oral DMARDs versus oral DMARDs. Of four population-based prospective cohort studies, only one was conducted in the United States.
The generalizability of results to the average population of community rheumatology patients, therefore, remains unclear.

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