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16.11.2014
Descartes’ Meditations is one of the more frequently assigned primary texts from the whole history of philosophy. Maybe we should stop thinking Descartes’s Meditations is a good text to start the kiddies on?
I may tell you, between ourselves, that these six Meditations contain the entire foundations for my physics. One more thing, before we turn to the hylomorphic competition: why would you think the world is basically a big piece of (infinitely divisible) wax? Moving along, the wax-world point should be set beside a cartoon sketch of the hylomorphic alternative.
I do not think that the diversity of the opinions of the Scholastics makes their philosophy difficult to refute. The Scholastic followers of Aristotle spent waaaay too much time wondering where the bread went, or at least failing to admit that their philosophy committed them to total mystification on this point (Descartes would say.) No, seriously. Wouldn’t there be something really odd about the ontology of sets of things made by humans before the humans get around to making them? The key issue here, surely is that our whole concept of modernity was thought up in the 17th (and much more so) 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. But since 1989, in the so-called Anglosphere at least (Europe, the North American landmass, Australasia), it is becoming increasingly clear that seismic political events like 1917 and 1945 and 1989 are becoming increasingly implausible. And surely this should lead us to look at History in a different way, to look at what Braudel called the Longue Duree, at qualitative changes that occur over years or decades or centuries or millenia.
This has the great advantage of undercutting various dichotomies, and showing some research questions to be meaningless.
And before anyone asks, I would absolutely attempt to historicize and contextualize other so-called ruptures and revolutions, like, for example, the so-called Scientific Revolution (especially given what we now know about, e.g.
The problem is that the idea of some fundamental difference between pre and post modernity is an intuition that seems extremely appealing but is very hard to give some kind of logical form to. So on the problem of the membership conditions (essence) of the (ontically if not epistemically timeless, kinda-pace-ChrisB) set: Modern philosophy = post-scholastic phil.
As a graduate student in the School of Philosophy at the Catholic University of America a decade and a half ago, I took a seminar on Newton’s Principia, and was astounded when one of the students, who certainly knew his Aristotle by heart, took issue with a brief discussion Newton offers of infinitesimals.
It’s neat that you use terminology about the x that started the y, because in a different usage, didn’t Descartes launch the use of x-y coordinates leading to all those branches of mathematics depending on x-y (etc) mapping? Descartes just doesn’t seem to be concerned about riding herd on any vast proliferation of discourses.
Adam, I’ll see your Radiodread and raise you the most appropriately inappropriate cover of No Surprises you will ever bear witness to. Humdrum but possibly helpful: sandwiching a section of text between asterisks is interpreted by the server as an instruction to make the text bold (unless the section starts or ends with whitespace). On ne saurait rien imaginer de si etrange et de si peu croyable, qu’il n’ait ete dit par quelqu’un des philosophes.
2) Descartes doesn’t distinguish between what preceding philosophers, the man on the street, and children believe. The point of thinking philosophically appears to be to enlighten someone who has never thought of these things before–the way Socrates enlightens his interlocutors. Descartes’ epistemology necessitates the existence of God based upon his desire to overcome the pervasive skepticism in seventeenth-century Europe. However, Descartes will work in a round-about way to show us how we can generally rely upon our senses. To successfully avoid the problems of solipsism, Descartes seeks to prove the existence of God. Because Descartes is a finite substance, ideas of the infinite could not have come into his mind unless placed there by someone else. As a part of an absolute metaphysical perfection, Descartes knows that God must be all good. Descartes knows that because all things are contingent upon God and that He is not a deceiver, God will ultimately, then, protect clear and distinct thought. The consequences of Descartes’ epistemology failing to prove the existence of God would leave the world in a state of bitter and skeptical cynicism. I am interested in cultivating a stronger relationship with the earth—my place in it and how I might be of greater service to those around me. I would really enjoy learning how to effectively meditate, reconcile my attitudes with disappointments, improve the quality of conversation I have with others, and divorce from the sometimes over-analytical mind I possess.
I have studied philosophy (in general) both within school and independently for the past ten years.
Seeing how most religions typically battle one another for primacy, I find it foolish that we (as a world) predominantly choose to focus on what we disagree about rather than what is familiar to us. Sam, like most of us, lives his life in a cocoon of convenience, little knowing the joy there is to be found by breaching the confines of his limited perspective. I am the type of person who would rather stay at home wrapped in a blanket while reading a book than go to the party and pseudo-socialize with people I don’t really know. I am often timid at first to meet new people because I feel as though there’s some invisible rule book I have to follow in order to be accepted. Most people seem to have the script to engage in ‘small talk’; I have had difficulty acquiring that script for most of my life. I love contemplating the meaning of life: its symbols, contradictions, frustrations, magic, humor and more! I have recently developed a title that might summarize me in a nutshell: An existential apologist. I have extracted meaning where perhaps the meaner did not mean to mean, you know what I mean? When I was younger, I often would dream about heaven as being this magical city of wish fulfillment, eternal happiness and rest from all cares or worries. I believed that when you died you immediately went to this place and were twinkled into euphoric flames. I kept projecting my happiness into the future, as if salvation and contentment teased and taunted me, always somewhere distant and far beyond my reach. I feel that I would be cheating the earth as well as this unprecedented experience we call “life” if I desired nothing but to escape it.
I have no ill-intention towards any living thing, and though my passion for life may seem somewhat intense, I am very sincere and would really like to get to know you.
L’?uvre tre?s importante de Ferdinand Alquie? (1906-1985) rele?ve a? la fois de la philosophie et de l’histoire de la philosophie. Histoire de la philosophie classique (notamment Descartes et cartesianisme), philosophie de la religion.


Denis Moreau fait partie des onze auteurs de l’ouvrage, pour lequel il a redige les articles Cogito, Conatus, Dieu, Joie, Liberte, Monade, Mort, Personne, Salut.
Au second semestre 2012, une fois achevee la traduction des Notae in programma quoddam de Descartes commencee l’an dernier, la suite du cours de latin pour non debutants a ete consacree a traduire l’Ecclesiaste dans le texte qu’en donne la Vulgate (= la version latine de la Bible procuree par saint Jerome au IVe siecle apres JC). Dans la mesure ou elle ne se refere pas au texte hebreu, cette traduction ne pretend pas avoir la scientificite de celles que proposent les editions modernes de la Bible.
Descartes, dans la troisieme partie du Discours de la methode, compare le philosophe a un voyageur egare en foret.
Musiques, technologies et theories de la modernite, l’animal et les rapports nature et culture. Membre des comites de redaction des revues Agenda de la pensee contemporaine, Droit de Cites et Fusees. Agrege, professeur en classes preparatoires au lycee Clemenceau de Nantes, charge de cours au Departement de Philosophie de l’Universite de Nantes.
Histoire de la philosophie moderne (notamment Cartesianisme, Malebranchisme, philosophies des Lumieres).
About Rene DescartesRene Descartes - Rene Descartes, also known as Renatus Cartesius (Latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer.
Descartes is widely regarded to be the father of modern philosophy and his Meditations is among the most important philosophical texts ever written.
Bli forst att betygsatta och recensera e-boken Routledge Guidebook to Descartes' Meditations. But it is not necessary to say so, if you please, since that might make it harder for those who favor Aristotle to approve them. It is easy to overturn the foundations on which they all agree, and once that has been done all their disagreements over detail will seem foolish.
I could imagine organising a set of texts that make up modern philosophy in 1800 and including the Meditations, no problem there, but asserting that the Meditations had been part of the set before I created it seems to me to raise all sorts of insoluble problems.
Why not begin by pointing out that philosophy has never been modern and never could be (well unless you want to go back to the pre-Socratics) because philosophers always draw on their immediate intellectual ancestors and invariably take over certain assumptions that ‘we’ find weird but which were simply taken for granted at the time? Clearly the world is very different now to the way it was in the 15th century, but then again, it was very different in the 15th century to the way it was in the 10th, as well.
Probably better than insisting everything is a matter of definition which would be just as viable an interpretation on the face of it.
I can see how the rabbit out of the hat (or rather the toast out of the toaster) would wake up that clever but slightly dozy student in the back row but one. What is there beyond the four principles of the Discours de la methode (I believe there is something non-trivial, but specifying it is a non-trivial philosophical exercise)? One where in order for the predicate to apply, the subject has to be consciously aware of it. Philosophers like to read Descartes as a kind of intellectual weather-vane of the modern (which may or may not be a good idea, I admit). It’s not just what a text asserts, but also what those assertions are implicitly reacting against and possibly repressing that gives it specific sense. So there is a (limited) fairness to portraying them as inordinately silly things, thereby provoking the Aristotelian to present something less silly that will fit the bill. The somewhat arcane details of the physics matters, not because it is better than Aristotelian metaphysics, but because Descartes pretty clearly has certain details in mind. Alquie? (e?dition revue) rassemble les Me?ditations en latin, les Me?ditations, les Objections et les re?ponses, la seconde e?dition des Me?ditations, les Septie?mes Objections et re?ponses, la Recherche de la ve?rite? par la lumie?re naturelle et les lettres qui vont de 1640 a? 1642. Alquie? (e?dition revue) rassemble Les Principes de la philosophie, La Description du corps humain, Les Passions de l’a?me, les lettres de 1643 a? 1650 et les derniers e?crits.
En quelques decennies, une ritournelle amusee des annees 1980 s’est changee en description lucide d’un fait social, et tend a devenir une loi de la conjugalite ordinaire. Hegel, Idealisme allemand et hermeneutique contemporaine envisagee particulierement sous l’angle du symbolisme de la culture (S.
Histoire de la philosophie, philosophie moderne, philosophie anglaise, philosophie analytique. Philosophie du XVII et XVIII siecles, notamment la philosophie de Condillac et les sources de sa pensee.
Philosophie analytique, philosophie de l’action, ethique, epistemologie, philosophie de l’histoire. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy," and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely. We uses Search API to find the overview of books over the internet, but we don't host any files. Det ar ett flodande format vilket gor att texten hela tiden anpassar sig till den skarmstorlek, textstorlek och typsnitt du anvander. Eftersom textstorleken inte kan andras i en PDF sa avrader vi fran kop av e-bocker i PDF-format till en enhet med en mindre skarm.
I hope that those who read them will gradually accustom themselves to my principles and recognize the truth of them before they notice that they destroy those of Aristotle. The only forces at work (or play) are pushes (none of that spooky action-at-a-distance gravitational pulling.) Why infinitely divisible? The most direct connection comes with Descartes’ choice of the wax, as a paradigm physical object, at the end of that meditation. Descartes tends to be pretty approximate in his targeting of what he calls, dismissively, the vulgar-Scholastic philosophy. Namely, we don’t wonder where the bread went, even though its sensory properties have changes. So to stay intellectually honest don’t you just have to take option 1 and teach Russell? So teaching a course on modern philosophy and arguing that we now find it useful to use the Meditations to illustrate a feature of what we now find important is unproblematic, but using that criterion as an historical hermeneutic would be unwise. Surely what we see when we look at Descartes is that there is slow qualitative change in the kind of philosophy that gets done, but no radical break or rupture?
We are teaching philosophers as doing a certain sort of thing when they didn’t see themselves as doing that thing.
Which is a possible assumption, but not one I, personally, would be willing to make in this case. I haven’t studied much Descartes since my undergraduate years but this made a lot of sense to me. And if history is all there is to the history of philosophy, then send it all to historians. We have more technology than people in the 15th century, but how do we know that process will continue indefinitely?


Sure, Descartes had a faulty cosmology, but was that because he was too cartesian, or not enough (one could argue with insight that his fault was to assume that the cosmological world had to abide to euclidean geometry)? But he doesn’t interpret them as symptoms of cultural crisis, in the sense you suggest.
It might be nice if he could be read as a weather-vane of all the social-cultural crisis factors you mention – which are, to be sure, very real. Les e?tudes de Ferdinand Alquie? ont porte? essentiellement sur Descartes, Kant et Spinoza. Mais la philosophie de Descartes est beaucoup plus vaste, plus riche et plus nuancee que les stereotypes auxquels on la reduit a l’accoutumee. All document files are the property of their respective owners, please respect the publisher and the author for their copyrighted creations. E-bocker i EPUB-format ar anpassade for att lasas pa mobila enheter, t ex lasplattor och telefoner. Om du redan har ett Adobe-ID sa registrerar du det i dito-appen vid nedladdning av din forsta Adobe-krypterade e-bok. Thinking about how far you have to cast the historical net, a healthy anti-historicist impulse kicks in.
I’m sketching effective, vivid ways to conjure up the background fairly briefly, while keeping up the teaching pace. When Descartes said skepticism was just old cabbage, he meant the purely negative and rather unsystematic stuff. Either it is possible to provide a rational account of the nature of physical world or not. The Scholastic philosophy is just so many pretentious ramifications of the sort of unreflective confusion the man in the street suffers from.
Which just goes to show that we appreciate that what must be going on is that the toaster is somehow modifying the underlying microstructural material properties of the bread to make it into toast. There is an option 3: try to find the truth for which that text is being responsible (Cavell) which is likely to be radically historical (in a strong sense).
I agree with you, Hidari, that it doesn’t follow that we are wrong to impose this framework. But I don’t agree with the controversial point that the divide cannot be marked at all, even in a rough way. The joy of teaching Descartes via natural philosophy is that allows the work to escape a narrow historicism. But Descartes was clearly involved in attempting to lay claim to a new (mode of) authority, even as he attempted to assimilate it to,- (disguise it as?),- the old prevailing authority.
Also, yes obvious Aristotelians will be aware that things have substructures and that this explains what they do. Descartes just doesn’t think he needs to care about the details, so bringing them in will make things extra confusing, without helping you get Descartes.
Which gets us to: the whole thing was a plot to get all that right bizarre optics and cosmology into the science curriculum, by displacing a lot of other right bizarre stuff.
To a first approximation, give or take a few proofs of God, Russell gives you stock versions of the sorts of arguments often read into Descartes’ Meditations. It isn’t as though the toastiness is something slathered onto some x from outside, or the breadiness something hoovered out of the x and then, in some cunning manner, disposed of. I don’t think that position reduces to a land grab by folk in history and literature departments.
How can we explain the apparent infinite degree of freedom we have in our intellectual endeavours with the necessary finite means of a material body (I won’t quote any scholarly work on this question lest the thread explodes, but you get the picture)? Africa, South America, China and the Muslim world had their Golden Ages of scientific and philosophical achievement in the years 500AD to 1500 AD. But (so the argument goes) this awareness just doesn’t sit comfortably with their own philosophy. It registers on all five senses, potentially, and is readily observable under highly optimal conditions.
And you needn’t bother objecting that the essential identities of individual material bits, pieces of wax, are rather arbitrarily bounded things. But it does make these texts more challenging in ways that philosophy teachers themselves don’t always see as clearly as they might. Moreover, Americans, more than most, have a propensity towards bizarre belief systems (although to repeat these beliefs are not atavistic per se, but instead depend on 21st century technologies and science e.g.
The notion of distinctly marked domains, with their separate concerns, is in fact a modern, specifically post-Kantian, conception.
He doesn’t even really distinguish between the way children think and the way Aristotelian philosophers think. Perhaps there’s a culture in which melting wax is said to cease to exist and be replaced by a different thing entirely.
That is what Vico was to respond to, as rendering impossible practical reason and the sensus communis, and Hume too in leaving his study in a panic, (though he, too, then performed a Cajun two-step).
It is, allegedly, self-evident how it is the nature of extended stuff to exclude other stuff, and that’s what pushing is. What does such doubt have to do with “physics”, as if that were the only issue?
Point being: Descartes thinks that really there is only One physical substance, the physical universe itself.
We are supposed to be able to understand, intellectually, why matter is capable of pushing. The bands are so stylistically different, and the mood is poles apart, yet both vocalists work the high thin, sliding around thing. For the one reason that Descartes himself gives in his discussion of why you should study history: namely, to broaden your horizons to include different ways of thinking than your own. But not really distinct substances (to use a carefully loaded word.) File this thought away for later discussion when we get to Spinoza. On this view it isn’t as though the universe is a big coffee cup into which all this fluid has been poured. But it’s also interesting to focus on how science turned out to be a lot less rational that thinkers like Descartes assumed it would have to, if it were to turn out to be science at all. File away for future reference.) It is the essence of matter to be extended, according to Descartes.



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Comments Descartes meditations three

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