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13.06.2014
Learn the skill of eye contact flirting with a woman simply by embracing your playful mindset and transferring your flirty, playful ideas about the woman from your eyes directly into hers.
Learn the skill of eye contact flirting with a woman by embracing your own playful mindset and transferring your own flirty, playful thoughts about the female from your eyes directly into hers. Getting a little does of actuality can be a good thing every now and again, particularly when dealing with issues relating to relationships. You have to do more than just admit to the fact that you still have love for your ex girlfriend if you want to win her back. When you feel like you want your ex girlfriend to come back, it’ s simple to feel like that should be more than enough and forget about the fact that it has to flow both ways.
This can be a mistake that is often made any time a guy feels like he still is hopelessly in love with an ex girlfriend. When you really feel just like you still love someone, you want to inform them and you want to hear them say that they feel the same way. Brides start to hunt for their ideal wedding dress almost immediately after the engagement. Comment on the relatives hotness of her body type (good or bad will do) before the drinks arrive. Opinion that her sun dress seems like the exact pattern from your mom’ s i9000 living room drapes from 1975.
Burp, pass gas, wipe your nose with your sleeve, and if you really want to up the ante, pick your nose.
It must be great for you: your boobies are so small you don’ t even need to wear a utm?rkt! Be extremely indecisive about ordering drinks and food, even where to sit, stroll or stand.
Accept as true with every single thing she says and apologize profusely for your stupidity ought to she disagrees with you. When you are desperate for a solution to a issue, you tend to blow things out of proportion and end up making a decision that you simply definitely regret immediately. The very first technique to help you last longer in a natural way, is to masturbate before sexual intercourse.
Another reason why masturbation works so well in your favor is really because it puts your body into a stage known as the refractory stage. The next technique to help you to achieve a longer and stronger stamina, is to implement techniques that will save you in the knick of time. You don’ t have to rely on pills, creams or even sprays in order to get the results that you are within looking for.
There is no sense in investing hundreds of dollars on medications that you simply cannot trust.
To make things easier for both you and your partner, try following some of these natural remedies for early ejaculation today.
The first natural remedy which will give you the same results as a desensitizing cream is to use a tingling lubrication instead. The final way to help you last longer in bed as early as tonight, is to masturbate before sex. More to the point this may be an extended drawn out process that may become really exasperating. Yet another disadvantage to snooping on a cheating wife or husband is the fact it could be costly. There is something to take into consideration if you decide on your spouse which is you could get caught.
While there are some serious disadvantages in order to spying on your mate there is one particular major upside and that is it will eliminate all doubt as to whether your spouse is being unfaithful. If you would like to carry out the particular spying on your own as an alternative to employing a private agent please ensure that you utilize your common sense and best judgement. Gan Erke is not someone who agrees that Japan is the last word when it comes to lacquerware. The 61-year-old from Huangshan, in East China's Anhui province, has spent years reviving a technique which gives lacquerware a texture resembling a rhino's hide. Gan, certified as an inheritor of intangible cultural heritage, exhibited around 30 of his finest lacquerware at the first International Exposition of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Ancient Art in Macao in late April. The event, held by the China Cultural Relic Protection Foundation, was an opportunity for him to attract global attention to his craft. For him, that is the sprit of a craftsman, something that was advocated by Premier Li Keqiang while presenting his government work report in March, and has stirred wide discussion, since. In 2002, when Gan decided to re-create hide-like lacquerware, which can be dated back to 2,000 years ago, he faced huge difficulties, though he has been a lacquerware craftsman since his teens.
The only references he found to that kind of lacquerware were a 29-Chinese-character writing in a 16th-century book on lacquerware and a few ancient collections. As of now, it takes him more than a year to make a bowl of hide-like lacquerware, but Gan believes it is worth it to keep polishing his skills and working on new ideas. Increasingly, professionals who devote themselves to reviving intangible cultural heritage are going beyond traditional techniques.
Feng Jie, 71, from Jiangxi's provincial capital Nanchang, also in the country's east, is well-known as a master for his technique of drawing on porcelain plates. Though the local government in Nanchang has set up an institution for Feng to use as an incubator to train youngsters, Feng says the quality of students is not satisfactory.
He adds the relatively low wages earned from the art compared with other careers is another hurdle to attracting talent.
So, it seems that a better option may be to create a business which can blend traditional skills with modern industry.
For instance, Zhang Shuyang, a Shanghai-based veteran antique collector, set up a luxury watch studio where he uses porcelain to make dials and elements from ancient bronze mirror to make the watch movements. Explaining what he hopes to achieve, Zhang says: "It (the piece) has to be original, unique, handmade and be made by someone with the highest skills. Still, a dialogue between East and West probably helps improve traditional craftsmanship on both sides. For instance, Homemade in Germany, an exhibition that was held in Shanghai last year, and returned to China for the recent Macao expo, can offer ideas to Chinese industry. The exhibition, which comprises more than 150 companies from Germany, aims to promote handcrafts for everyday use. The oldest German company exhibiting products at the event is more than 300 years old, and many of the others are family-run businesses.
Matthias Philipp, the curator of the exhibition, says handmade crafts are highly regarded in his country despite facing stiff competition from mass-produced goods. As an example, he talks of high-end German pens made using traditional techniques and others made using more modern methods, though both are traditional brands.
He later read that such activities dated back to ancient times and often lasted up to three days. A revival of traditional values and ancient wisdom in daily life is what Liang hopes to achieve at the 15th International Architecture Exhibition from May 28 to Nov 27, an event held under the framework of the Venice Biennale. The 47-year-old, who lives and works in both Beijing and Vancouver, is curating China's national pavilion at the Magazzino delle Cisterne in Italy. The pavilion called Daily Design, Daily Tao is in keeping with this year's exhibition theme, "reporting from the front". Alejandro Aravena, a Chilean exhibition curator and a Pritzker prize-winning architect, says the theme is to show that the advancement of architecture is "not a goal in itself but a way to improve people's quality of life", and it is to be tackled on many fronts.
For Liang, the lost fronts are what a lot of Chinese have sacrificed for a modern cityscape: self-esteem, happiness and social equality.
He says it is a pity that extravagant, crazy consumption is what Chinese tourists are known for globally, while Chinese traditional values are against an unrestrained lifestyle that causes waste, pollution and damage to the surroundings. Liang has chosen nine architects, designers and architect groups to show their works at the pavilion, in an effort to provide solutions for developmental issues in both cities and the countryside. Their creations show various aspects of Liang's ideal of "daily Tao (Taoism)", using local material, craft and labor as a way to preserve traditions and save costs. One case study being shown is the Maoping Village School in Central China's Hunan province designed by architect Wang Lu. After the old school building was destroyed by rainstorms and mountain floods in 2006, Wang designed a new one, a two-story building that resembles a cluster of local houses and blends into its surroundings. Wang, who revisited the school recently, says it is well maintained by students and teachers and looks just like when it was completed 10 years ago. Ma Ke's Wuyong products will also be featured at the pavilion to emphasize that design and longevity are both central to the value of clothing.
The 45-year-old, who established the handmade, eco-fashion line Wuyong to help the revival of traditional craftsmanship through innovative design, operates two design centers - one in Zhuhai, in Guangdong province in the country's south, and the other in Beijing.
A native of Changchun, in Northeast China's Jilin province, Ma has vivid childhood memories of living in the countryside.
Liang also wears Wuyong creations because Ma says he can wear them for life and can send them to her workshops for maintenance. Commenting on the current state of architecture in China, Liang says: "There has been a boom in architecture that costs a lot of money, looks sophisticated and fashionable. The Chinese pavilion at the Italian event will feature a project called Communal Garden in which designers work with residents of an old Beijing neighborhood to show the better use of space. Zhang has a farm in the Beijing suburbs, but his knowledge of the vegetable comes from his family home in Shandong province, China's asparagus heartland. Zhang likes white asparagus in soup and in dumplings, though as he talks today, he and his colleague, head chef Rob Cunningham, have fancier presentations in mind.
Because the white grows more slowly without sunlight, Zhang says, the stalks are thicker but more tender than green asparagus. Shandong's Caoxian county, known as China's capital of asparagus, boasts a growing area of more than 13,000 hectares devoted to the crop. While plenty of white asparagus is canned in 10 dedicated factories in Shandong, much Chinese-grown asparagus leaves the country for two reasons. While many Chinese see white asparagus as a curiosity best appreciated by foreigners, the Chinese version was recently celebrated by the European Union.
For the next few weeks, look for white asparagus on seasonal menus at top hotels and restaurants, particularly Western outlets, in China's biggest cities.
Chef Steve Zhang prepares white asparagus for dishes at Feast restaurant in Beijing's East hotel.
Chinese customers are often allured by lifestyles shown in South Korea soap operas and movies. On my visit to the original branch on Jiangtai Road in Chaoyang district in Beijing, which opened in 2012 (the Solana-area restaurant opened in 2013) for a Tuesday lunch, I found the restaurant almost packed with diners. Most customers come to enjoy meals with families and friends, and on weekends, it's advisable to book a table in advance, I'm told. The restaurant's appeal seems rooted in its delicious and distinctive steaks, which are cuts of rib-eye, filet, sirloin and porterhouse are imported from Australia. Some steaks follow original Western recipes to produce authentic flavors, while some, like the "stone steaks", are prepared with a South Korean twist. I tried two recommended specialties, the bulgogi steak and "New York strip yum stone steak". The bulgogi steak is previously marinated with the restaurant's version of South Korea's signature barbecue sauce, which is made with Korean soybean, pepper, fresh fruits and other ingredients in secret proportions, according to Tian.
While cooking the steaks, chefs also brush the sauce onto the meat repeatedly, which is quite different from the traditional method, and gives the steak a special flavor of the sauce, Tian says. The medium-well steak I ordered was extremely tender and juicy, and had a gratifying salty, sweet taste. The stone steak was also very tasty, and I especially enjoyed the side of grilled onions, which were still a bit crunchy and slightly sweet. The buffet is another reason not to miss the restaurant, which provides diners a variety of Western and Asian options, and is free to diners who order from the steak menu.
The restaurant hopes to provide steaks and other delicacies that Asian people would desire, and updates the a la carte menu regularly, Tian says.
There are also homemade Italian pizzas, pastas, Vietnamese rice noodles, sashimi and South Korean delicacies, including fried rice cake and bibimbap. I was lucky to taste the latest buffet menu during my visit, including zucchini apple salad and lentil soup.
There are more than 10 kinds of salad, which are made with about 100 ingredients, I'm told.
My favorite salad is "iceberg blueberry salad", which innovatively combines lettuce, blue berries, croutons, and blue-cheese dressing. The name VIPS is an abbreviation for "Very Important Person's Society", and the company says it strives to "treat each and every customer as a VIP guest".
The bulgogi steak, cooked with South Korean barbecue sauce, is a signature dish at VIPS Steak& Salad Bar in Beijing. At a meeting of the 2016 National Chinese Language Conference on Friday, Yan says food is culture, heritage and a lifestyle, and reminds one of where he comes from and his background. Yan says that when he first came to the United States, there were 6,000 or 7,000 Chinese restaurants.
From Yan's point of view, Chinese restaurants in the US serve almost everything because of the need for diversity and for their own survival. When he began his career as an on-air chef for a Calgary TV station in 1978, there were few Chinese chefs in the cooking-show arena. Yan has been hosting his award-winning PBS-TV cooking show Yan Can Cook since 1982, and has produced more than 1,500 episodes so far.
He refers to Man Han Quan Xi (combining Manchurian and Han Chinese delicacies) - the Imperial Banquet - saying Chinese food is refined, elegant and great, right from the serving ware to the selection of ingredients. Besides being the host of a popular cooking show, Yan has traveled and taught cooking classes in the US and allover the world for the past 30 years.
The American Culinary Federation has designated him a Master Chef, and he was also elected an outstanding Chinese figure in 2013 at an official cultural event in China. Initiated in 2008, the 2016 National Chinese Language Conference in Chicago is its ninth session. Under the theme of "Ambassadorship in Action", more than 1,300 officials, university presidents, experts and teachers from the US, Canada and China attended this year's session to share and exchange their Chinese-language teaching and learning experiences in four plenary meetings and over 90 workshops.
Chinese painter Shen Yaoyi has made the Long March the subject of his work over the past four decades.
His oil paintings, engravings and picture books re-create scenes from the tactical retreat of the Red Army to evade Kuomintang forces for two years starting in 1934.
Shen, 73, a retired arts professor from the capital's Renmin University, is now showing dozens of his paintings at the National Art Museum of China.
The ongoing exhibition commemorates the end of Long March eight decades ago, when three major factions of the Red Army united in Northwest China's Gansu province, surviving bitter struggles with the enemy and harsh natural surroundings. Shen's interest in the march was ignited in the 1960s while he was studying at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing.
His travels inspired Shen to produce two oil paintings - Revolutionary Ideals Higher than Heaven and With Firm Strides We Start Again - that later became iconic pieces of the Red Classic series. The first painting sold for 40 million yuan ($6.35 million) in 2012 at an art auction in Beijing and the other is part of the national art museum's collection. The centerpiece of the current exhibition is Long March 1936, an album of some 600 drawings on leaves telling how Red Army units separately triumphed in several battles before merging in Gansu. It took Shen two years to complete the album and is a sequel to The Earth's Red Flying Ribbon, an album he drew from 1988 to 1993, visualizing a namesake novel on the march by the late Chinese writer Wei Wei. Shen executed the pieces combining approaches in oil painting and engraving with the lining technique of traditional Chinese painting.
He applied a gray tone to indicate both the cold weather at the conference location and how it mattered to the fate of the Red Army, which was then at a critical moment in the Long March.
Wang Ming, director of Beijing Fine Art Academy, says Shen is like a film director who has presented the heroism of the Long March with mastery and a distinctive approach.
The academy has original drafts of The Earth's Red Flying Ribbon, and Wang says an exhibition to show them is being planned. That was the question Australian writer Luise Guest often asked curators, gallery owners and art teachers during her monthslong stay in China in 2011. The overwhelming absence of works by female artists in public spaces caught her attention, leading her to conduct a five-year research on the subject. As a result, she produced the book Half the Sky: Conversations with Women Artists in China, which also comes at a time of rising global interest in Chinese art.
The launch of Guest's new book in China in April was accompanied by a group show, titled Half the Sky: Chinese Women Artists, at Beijing's Red Gate gallery, where paintings, sculptures, videos, installations and photos are still displayed. Before she began her research, Guest was told that many female art graduates in China didn't focus seriously on their careers after marriage or motherhood. But after her interviews with women artists in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hangzhou and Xi'an, she found such perceptions to be incorrect.
In fact, most female artists were fighting family pressure to give more time to their work. Of the 32 female artists featured in her book, a few are internationally known, such as Cao Fei, whose video work Second Life has been shown in many galleries and museums across the world since 2007. But the problem is that they don't get the same level of exposure as male artists do, Guest says. An Australian or American might even know the name of an artist or two, when asked about China's contemporary art, but it would most likely be male, like Zhang Xiaogang or Fang Lijun, Guest says.
The title of her book is based on a quote by China's founding father, Mao Zedong, who said in 1955 that women hold up half the sky in China. Xiao Lu, a female performance artist included in Guest's book, says it will take time for China to change in this regard.
Artist Lin Tianmiao, who is also in the book, has made an embroidery piece that uses expressions in both Chinese and English, such as sheng nyu ("leftover" women) and xiao san (mistress). She says her book mixes Chinese history, language and social context with the aim of letting foreigners know more about Chinese female artists.
This year, the Liverpool Biennial, the largest contemporary art festival in Britain, is taking inspiration from its own city, and a central theme is the city's Chinatown. Echoes of China and Liverpool's Chinatown will resound in spaces across the city in everyday settings, such as supermarkets, and in large spaces, such as a now-disused and historical brewery in the city center. The architectural symbol changes its meaning as China changes, says Cooper, and the arch is now a nostalgic image existing in the city's collective consciousness. Today's Chinatown is more dispersed, and exists not just in the area next to the arch but in online networks and the great amount of China-funded development in the city, including New Chinatown and Liverpool2, the largest transatlantic deep-sea port in Britain.
The arrival of five 92-meter-high cranes for use in the port from Shanghai late last year was a great moment for the city, and as iconic as the arch in Chinatown, Cooper says.
Among other events, works from 54 artists will be exhibited at the city's Walker Art Gallery as part of the John Moores Painting Prize 2016, and the winner will be announced at the beginning of the biennial. Also, on show will be five prize-winning works from the John Moores Painting Prize China 2016. Liverpool's Chinatown - the oldest one in Europe - will be the theme of the city's upcoming contemporary art festival.
An area of subsidence-hit waste ground that was formerly a coal mine has been transformed into a venue for the recently opened Tangshan International Horticultural Exposition.
More than a century of coal extraction had left the site, now known as South Lake Park, strewed with countless pits, according to Yao Shan-yong, deputy director of the coal-mining technology department at Kailuan Group Limited Liability Corporation, which operated the mine. These pits were used to dump rubble and construction waste in the aftermath of a disastrous magnitude-7.8 earthquake in 1976 that leveled 97 percent of Tangshan's buildings and killed more than 200,000 people. Zhang Wenming, head of South Lake Park's Administrative Committee, said the area became an eyesore known as "waste mountain". This started to change in the 1990s, when subsidence had eased enough for low-rise buildings to be built and some small-scale voluntary tree planting to take place.
The park's Longshan and Fenghuangtai mountains were both former spoil tips that have been treated and greened, Hong said.
The International Park covers 9.1 hectares, with 10 pavilions dedicated to the horticulture and flowers of the US, the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands, Hungary, South Korea, and Japan. Flowers on display include roses from the US and the UK, daisies from Italy, geraniums from Hungary, irises from France, lily of the valley from Sweden, cornflowers from Germany, tulips from the Netherlands, hibiscuses from South Korea and chrysanthemums from Japan. The Domestic Park covers 14.6 hectares and is divided into eight themed gardens, each representing a different area of China. In addition to a Royal Garden, styled after those enjoyed by Chinese emperors' of yesteryear, there is a Hebei Garden, a Southern Chinese Garden with water features, a Western Chinese Garden with the traditional stilted buildings of Chongqing, a Lingnan Garden to represent the gardening styles of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, a Modern Garden, Taiwan Garden and Bonsai Garden.
Styled to look like it is built from coal, the pavilion symbolizes host city Tangshan's mining heritage. Inside, there are more than 1,000 different kinds of tropical plants including the African baobab tree, with its thick trunk and large fruit, the parasitic flowering rafflesia that can reach an enormous size, and the tropical upas tree that is known in Hainan as the "Poison Arrow Tree". The 2016 Tangshan International Horticultural Exposition is a World Horticultural Exposition approved by the International Association of Horticultural Producers. It began on April 29 and ends on Oct 16, featuring representatives from more than 50 countries and regions.
Low carbon horticulture is a major focus of the exhibition, with displays covering fruit and vegetable gardening, ornamental horticulture, garden architecture, and nurseries. The exposition will take place at South Lake (Nanhu) Park, south of Tangshan in Hebei province. The park covers 19.7 square kilometers and features plants, trees, grasses, flowers, and pavilions that people can visit and walk around. Tangshan is the fifth Chinese city to host the exposition after Kunming, Shenyang, Xi'an, and Qingdao. The expo is open every day, 9 am-5 pm until Oct 16 at South Lake Park, near the intersection of Xueyuan South Street and Nan-xin West Street, Lu'nan district, Tangshan, Hebei.
We are busier than before due to the increasing number of vehicles on the roads since people from all around the country have started to visit the exposition. Design work started in 2013 when the South Lake Park had already undergone years of ecological construction.
My old classmates are having a reunion during the May Day holiday and we will go visit the exposition together because we are interested to see how the park has changed. Artists perform Peking opera in a garden that resembles an ancient Chinese emperors' palace at the expo park. It is a multipurpose utensil that can utilize the heat of the open fire so efficiently that you can steam, boil, braise, stew, deep-fry and of course, stir-fry. When adding cooking wine, the experienced chef will pour it down the inner surface so the heat of the wok will sear off the alcohol while retaining the flavors of the wine. We have Teflon-coated frying pans these days, but nothing beats a well-seasoned iron wok in the kitchen. I have been told to cook a kilogram of chives in my wok, slowly, until the herbs are totally brown and crisp. Certainly, the Teflon-coated frying pans would never allow you to experience that special flavor we call wok hei - the spirit of the wok. It is that special tingle to the taste buds that combines the aroma of hot oil and the best flavors of the ingredients brought out by rapid cooking over high heat.
That is why I cringe when I see the inexperienced attempt stir-frying, especially since many Westerners think of it as a healthy option to their accustomed cooking methods. My method of seasoning is to render fat in the wok, so on that same trip to Chinatown, remember to drop by the butcher's for some pork fat. First of all, a classic Chinese stir-fry is often 80 percent vegetables and about 20 percent finely sliced meat for flavoring. Whatever the combination, the stir-fry always starts with aromatics such as ginger, garlic, shallots or leeks. The oil is first added to the heated wok, and by the time you can see a slight haze rising, it is time to add the ginger slices, minced garlic or chopped onions. If you are cooking greens, remember to add the hard stem ends first, and the softer leaves next.
Because stir-frying is such quick cooking, make sure your vegetables are cut so that they can cook in more or less the same time. Meat is more like a flavoring, but it, too, must be prepared so it takes the shortest time to cook.
Yet a team of conservationists say they are excited by the results of a recent wildlife survey in the far southwest of the country.
Footage captured on motion-activated cameras set up last summer in northeast Mengla county, Yunnan province, has provided a large collection of fresh data on 23 rare species, including what is thought to be Williamson's mouse-deer and Asian black bear.
Before the survey, which was supported by the Lancang Watershed Conservation Fund, Feng says there were only one or two reliable recordings of the large Indian civet. In fact, scientists are not sure whether mouse-deer in China are Williamson's mouse-deer or an entirely different, or even new, species, he adds. Records for the Asiatic golden cat and dhole, both of which are endangered, were also scarce before the survey, Feng says. He explains that the area was a state-owned forest farm until it was designated as a nature reserve last year.
The discovery of so many rare animals, including a few carnivores, reveals the biodiversity in the Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, says Yang Hongpei, director of scientific research for the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, which carried out the survey with the alliance.
The comparatively unspoiled ecosystem shows the area's high value for scientific research and conservation, he adds.
Because of pressures from economic development, especially expansion of crops such as tea and rubber trees, tropical forests in Xishuangbanna have shrunk and become fragmented. Barcelona's biennale international food and drinks expo, Alimentaria, saw a record number of Chinese exhibitors this year, forming the second-largest foreign contingent behind Italy. The event, which was held from April 25 to April 28, is the sector's third-largest international trade show.
More than 100 Chinese food and agricultural companies take part in the Alimentaria Exhibition in Barcelona this year. This year, it featured more than 1,000 foreign companies, 25 percent of the total exhibitors.
Most Chinese exhibitors were at international pavilions in a new section introduced this year to complement the show's traditional restaurant, wine, meat and dairy products sectors.
Taian Optimum Foods Technology Co, a agrifood business from the eastern province of Shandong that exports frozen and fresh organic vegetables, was among the firms making their debut at the expo.
Li Hu, its chairman, says the big draw was that the Spanish market is open to overseas companies and that there are no specific restrictions on food industry imports. Li visited supermarkets and major food markets in Barcelona and says he found that the availability of Chinese agrifood products is small. He cites garlic as an example, saying the average price in Spain is 8 euros a kilogram, while in China it is the equivalent of 1.30 euros.
Zhang Guojing is a representative of Green Farmer Food Group, a company producing Chinese seasonings in Hebei province.
Alejandro Alcon Esparte, a chef who owns four restaurants in Barcelona, says Chinese food products are becoming popular in his country as people seek diversity.
Sun Lu, president of Medallion, a company that makes fruit cups and jelly, says: "It's the first time for us to exhibit at the fair. In addition to the exhibitors, a record 62 Chinese buyers also traveled to this year's event. He says China is a key market for the Spanish food and drinks industry when it comes to promoting and diversifying exports because of its "industry volume and double-digit growth over the past 10 years". Some 55 percent of food companies with a foreign presence export on a regular basis and have exported for at least four consecutive years, the institute says. Mauricio Garcia Quevedo, managing director of the Spanish Federation of Food and Drinks Industries, says the pace of exports of Spanish food and drink products allows them to forecast that in 2020 foreign sales will represent a large proportion of the total production output of the industry, taking Spain from Europe's sixth-largest export economy up to fourth in the next four years. Hu, 63, can trace his ancestry back more than 20 generations in an ancient village in East China's Jiangxi province. Guo says houses in Jinxi have retained their old forms because locals have great respect for their ancestors. She has helped with a conference called Digital Heritage Around China to raise awareness and money for the preservation of ancient villages.
In Youdian village, there are 72 traditional stone buildings with walls that are several meters high.
Now, all these villages face a common problem - people are leaving and the houses are decaying.
For the few residents of the village, they recognize that their houses must be preserved as a kind of cultural heritage after the local government offered them money to help with repairs. Huang says the local government also wants to bring in private funds to protect the ancient villages. For instance, Guo's team and the organizer of Digital Heritage Around China have promised to help fix decaying houses. These villages that rely mainly on agriculture can't provide adequate job opportunities like big cities do.
A young man who Guo met this year told her that he realized the value of the houses in his village when he saw how ancient properties are protected in other countries. For the 400th anniversary celebrations of the Bard's death, a flurry of activities in publishing, theater and films is taking place across China, bringing him closer to the Chinese public.
Tickets sold out for the filmed stage production of Hamlet, featuring Benedict Cumberbatch in the title role, and which had limited screenings in select Chinese cities.
Other Shakespearean plays in the National Theatre Live series, such as Nicholas Hytner's Othello and Sam Mendes' King Lear, will surely be welcome additions to the lineup of the Bard's offerings. Even Coriolanus, a relatively obscure Shakespearean work by Chinese standards, wowed audiences, partly because it stars Tom Hiddleston of Thor fame and partly because a Chinese stage adaptation has put a local spin on it, Sinicizing the title to General Kou Liulan. Data is not available on how many of the Bard's plays have graced the Chinese stage, but perennial favorites such as Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet obviously have been presented more often than others.
The Beijing-based Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press has just come out with a new, complete version, supported by the British Council.
The bilingual format uses an English-language edition originally authorized by the Royal Shakespeare Company, and Chinese translations by eminent scholars including Xu Yuanchong.
In recent months, the RSC has also launched its own initiative to translate a new Chinese version specially tailored for the stage. Another sorely needed Chinese translation for the purpose of title projection, which should adhere to the Bard's mantra that "brevity is the soul of wit", would help greatly with touring productions in the original tongue, but that has not made it to the agendas of translators or sponsors so far.
The most influential version to date is the one by Zhu Shenghao (1911-44), who completed work on 31 of the plays under the direst of circumstances, including poor health and the Japanese invasion of China.
His genius in capturing the essence of the Bard's work could be the single most important factor in making Shakespeare accessible to one-fifth of the world's population. Liang Shiqiu (1902-87) is so far the only Chinese who has translated every piece credited to Shakespeare.
Fang Ping (1921-2008) was responsible for much of the first complete version that replicated the verse form. Considering the difficulty of translating the Bard's lines, not to mention the ambiguity of some words, there will be no shortage of Chinese translators taking on this daunting task.
But there is still no ideal equivalent for "To be or not to be", which is arguably the best-known Shakespearean quote in China. In October, while giving a speech in London, President Xi Jinping recounted his exposure as a youth to the Bard, saying how he was attracted by the emotions in A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth. Dama, middle-aged Chinese women known for their bulk buying of gold and ubiquitous love of square dancing, have a new obsession: pop stars, particularly male singers young enough to be their sons.
While waiting with flowers and cakes for their idols at airports and chasing them down with cameras like paparazzi, these women - nicknamed "mama fans"A  - can be even more adventurous than teenage groupies. Often, the younger a pop star is, the more likely he or she will attract a large number of mama fans. On the 15th birthday of Jackson Yi, a member of TFboys, one of the most popular boy bands in China, a mama fan in the United States rented a plane to fly over Seattle, New York City and Los Angeles pulling a banner that wished him a happy birthday. Another mama fan in the southern Chinese city of Xiamen rented a LED board near the ferry wharf to display a similar message, while others brought advertising space on buses, at subway stations and in crowded places in major cities. Moms for Jackson, a fan club in China, even launched a campaign to raise funds to open a school named after the signer for children from low-income families. The spending power of dama has already turned the world's gold market on its ear, and they have put up an almost militant defense of synchronized dancing in public squares, yet their obsession with pop idols is arguably their most outlandish obsession yet. Su Yun, a middle school teacher in Changsha, capital of Hunan province, is a secret fan of the TFboys. However, one day, curiosity got the better of Su and she sat with her daughter to watch a performance and an interview with the band. Yet as a respectable teacher, Su was not sure whether she should go to fan meetings with her daughter.
In the video, her in-laws did not approve of her "childish" decision, but she insisted, saying that her life as a full-time housewife was rejuvenated after she became a fan and found time for her own interests. Being a member of those fan clubs means mothers have to "work together" with younger fans: the teenagers take care of online activities, like getting the latest single to the top of the charts, while mama fans take care of offline activities like organizing meetings or thinking about promotions and philanthropic projects. The exhibition integrates jewels, photographs and videos, telling stories involving divas like Ingrid Bergman, Elizabeth Taylor and Audrey Hepburn. Modern actresses like Jennifer Aniston, Scarlett Johansson, Angelina Jolie and Anne Hathaway are also featured in the exhibition.
The exhibition highlights include a silver cigarette box, which Elizabeth Taylor and her then lover Richard Burton commissioned as a wedding present for Joseph Mankiewicz, the director of Cleopatra, where the couple met. It also displays a "David di Donatello" plaque in gold from 1956, when Bulgari began making trophies for the Italian film awards.
Founded in Rome in 1937, Cinecitta was once the most famous movie production studio in Italy.
Cinecitta brought to Rome a lot of movie stars, many of whom frequented the Bulgari shop in Via Condotti and became personal friends with the designer.
While in the past, the divas only wore their own jewelry, this is not the case now, says Boscaini.
The brand's heritage collection now has about 760 pieces of iconic jewelry, which have been sourced from auctions, dealers and through personal networking.
Bulgari's archive has tens of thousands of sketches, which continue to inspire the brand's design today. The brand is now planning two other exhibitions - one to be held in Melbourne about women who wore Bulgari and the other in Madrid about Rome, the city that inspired its creativity. Chinese actress Hsu Chi (above and center in top picture) attends the ongoing Cinecitta and Beyondi??Bulgari Jeweler to the Stars exhibition in the Beijing SKP mall. During the anniversary promotion of the Beijing SKP mall - China's top-performing luxury department store - on April 16, Roger Dubuis led the luxury watch segment, scooping up sales of 14 million yuan ($2.16 million) in a single day. Though a lot of established luxury brands are closing stores, this relatively nascent brand with five boutiques in China and 21 worldwide is still targeting new locations. Having opened a flagship store in Geneva last July and its first US boutique in New York last November, the label opened a store in the Beijing SKP mall last September and in Shanghai's West Nanjing Road this month. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism. However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law.
In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires.
Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult.
Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders. Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law.


The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top.
Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed.
Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D.
In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution. Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another.
The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!).
The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit.
The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution.
Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work.
Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects.
Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France.
Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility.
Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots. Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated. Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state. The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture.
Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government.
Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492.
Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.
Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534.
Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign.
With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel.
A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II. After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship).
His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy.
When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism.
He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James.
The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain.
William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702.
The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne.
In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights.
This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth.
The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament. Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria.
The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority.
These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law? How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms?
What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny.
In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic.
The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers.
Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports.
Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride.
The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary.
Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe.
Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months.
After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture.
France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic.
List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries.
There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. It can be hard to imagine, but just because you really feel like you love your ex girlfriend, this doesn’ t mean that she is going to come back to you. You have to influence her on an emotional level and that isn’ t probably going to happen just because you feel like you still have love for the ex girlfriend. He’ lmost all end up giving her the impact that he is pretty much obsessed with her and that ends up being a big red flag in her book signaling that you might not be the right guy for her to be with. However , before you tell your ex girlfriend that you feel that way, you have to bring her back to the stage where she DOES feel the same way.
This website is devoted to people who want to cheat on their spouses and wish to have an extramarital. This website is definitely devoted to the people who want to cheat on the spouses and want to have an extramarital. A bride is likely to spend the majority of her time searching for the perfect gown to dazzle on the special day. A new bride is likely to spend most of her time searching for the perfect gown to charm on the special day. After all the preparation to find the right day and be the right date, you are all set out with who you think is a fantastic woman. But these behaviours will guarantee almost 100% of times that you will not secure a second day. So many guys find themselves in this position, especially when it is premature ejaculation that they are trying to cure. For example , say you and your young lady are going at it and items are heating up too quick. Wouldn’ t it end up being great to enjoy sex for just what it is worth and know that you are lasting long enough to please your woman? All of these men who are getting great success in the bedroom failed to resort to these methods.
When you are consuming right, working out and getting an adequate amount of sleep, everything in your world seems to function at a higher level, including your sex life.
You need to get rid of the nerves, relax your body and also last longer and masturbation will do all of this and more for you.
You might presume that your own wife or husband is actually having an extramarital affair on a weekly basis but that may not be the case.
Now you can take several precautions like maintaining a reasonable range using a different vehicle and maybe wearing some sort of disguise. If you decide the marriage is over and wish to start divorce proceedings he or she will have handed you all the proof you need. But, if you want to keep tradition alive, you have to somehow bring it into the 21st century," he says. It gets its color - or lack of it - from growers who start piling on soil when the first shoots appear in spring, so the nascent veggies get no exposure to sunlight. They deftly sort the stalks for uniformity and prepare two colorful dishes - a salad with festoons of slivered raw asparagus, and a platter of grilled asparagus with salmon.
A project aimed at ensuring protection of 10 famous EU food names in China was a reciprocal campaign titled "10 plus 10", granting the same protection in Europe to 10 famous Chinese foods with specific geographic origins.
The Chinese list includes Longjing Tea (dragon-well tea) and Dongshan Bailusun - which now means "white asparagus" on both sides of the world.
But VIPS Steak & Salad Bar, a popular South Korean restaurant chain owned by that nation's CJ Group, does so with pride. The owners at CJ Group, which has business ranging from film, K-pop and food, have taken advantage of their cultural appeal and extended the company's success to China with two branches. The mixed aroma of the steak and shallot was so pleasant and appealing that I found my mouth watering. The side of pinkish, crystal-like pickles was a great balance to the steak, both for the palate and for the eyes.
Born in China's southern Guangdong province, he gained fame by teaching Americans how to cook Chinese food.
Now there are around 54,000, more than all the fast-food chain outlets combined in the country.
But sooner or later, "more and more Chinese restaurants will be specialized, like say a Shanghai restaurant or a dumpling restaurant", he says.
During the march, which included a series of movements through much of the country, the Communist troops traveled about 12,500 kilometers. He sees in them an incarnation of the spirit of bravery and persistence that defined the Long March. This distinguishes them from other plants that grow with a false sense of self-importance," Shen says. The problem was how to include more women in my book, as I found more and more interesting women when I had the conversations," Guest says of the writing process. But nobody talks about 'leftover men'," Guest says of cultural and social issues that have a bearing on art, demonstrated through the female artists' works.
It's because Liverpool was a seafaring city and Chinese sailors settled there over the years," says Rosie Cooper, the biennial's head of programs. British artists pay more attention to historical clues and symbolic space, and Chinese artists focus more on the present reality and individual experience," says Ding Yi, a juror from the Painting Prize China.
Tangshan, as the first prefecture-level city to host the horticultural exposition, really made great efforts for the transformation. Food is the indestructible bond that holds the whole social fabric together and it is also one of the last strong visages of community and culture. It is a cooking style that combines science and economics, and generations of chefs have fine-tuned it to an elevated art.
The sloped sides are perfect for pushing aside fritters when deep-frying so that they can gently finish browning in the residual heat.
The shape of the sides allows the hot oil to gather at the bottom so you can deep-fry without using too much oil. Soy sauce and vinegar, too, acquire depth of flavor after being heated on the sides before they join the rest of the ingredients at the bottom of the pan. I know some chefs who only briefly rinse their pans clean with a straw brush without ever allowing a drop of detergent to come into contact with them. There are many ways to season the wok, and every housewife will tell you her method is the best.
Another expert tells me to render pork fat in the wok until it acquires a deep, dark sheen. It is the crunch of vegetables that are clearly cooked but still with plenty of tactile appeal.
The best place to get one is in Chinatown, where the shopkeepers may even stock woks that are already seasoned. Cut the fat into cubes and slowly cook in your new wok until you get a nice simmering pan of oil. These aromatics infuse the hot oil, and as the fragrance rises, you can choose to discard or keep them. As soon as the vegetables are done, return the meat to the wok, season and dish up immediately.
Have your oil and sauces by the stove, your meat cut and marinated, and all your vegetables prepared to toss into the wok.
Cut meat against the grain for tenderness and massage your sliced meat in a little cornstarch dampened with water or stock. Some species that were once widely distributed have rarely been spotted for years, including the large Indian civet, Asiatic golden cat and dhole, or Asiatic wild dog. They came from a survey by the alliance last year in Medog, in the Tibet autonomous region. Once widely distributed in South China, its population has declined sharply since the 1950s. According to Feng, the animal is usually seen in southern Mengla, in fragmented forests along the Nanla River at altitudes below 600 meters. It may mean an unknown population exists in Mengla," he says, adding that the finding warrants further research. The group was invited as part of a Alimentaria program that invites 800 key buyers from 78 countries and was made up of importers and major operators involved in distribution and the hotel, restaurant and cafe sector.
Antoni Valls, managing director of Alimentaria Exhibitions, says the fair began to invite Chinese buyers four years ago.
Last year, 16,575 of the total 132,277 Spanish exporters shipped agrifood between January and November, according to the Spanish Institute for Foreign Trade.
All the buildings of Hu's village in Jinxi county date back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
All these villages have traditional houses, some built also in styles of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). It's rare to see ancient houses that are mostly in their original forms in such large numbers in China," says Guo Daiheng, an expert on Chinese traditional architecture. Some are transformed into tourist attractions, and the local residents are replaced by businesspeople. They may leave for the cities or build new houses near their village," says Guo, whose team has been in the area for two months now with the sole aim of studying the houses and protecting them. The village's most famous ancestor was Hu Guifang, a senior official in the Ming Dynasty, who was in charge of construction, transportation and agriculture. They have ancestral temples, schools and houses with similar layouts that include ponds, and long and narrow stone alleys. Just to stabilize it and fix its wooden windows can cost about 30,000 yuan ($4,600; 4,100 euros). But Guo says repairing the houses is relatively easy compared with convincing young villagers to return home from the cities. However, Guo says she sees hope when she meets young people making plans for their hometowns. Never before have Chinese lovers of Shakespeare had so many ways of approaching his immortal works.
But his version is less literary and more verbatim, thus suitable for textual research for non-English speakers. According to Lu Gusun, a professor of English language at Fudan University in Shanghai, as many as three Chinese versions of Hamlet appeared before 1949, and more have seen the light of day since. This year's celebrations are doubly meaningful because China's great dramatist, Tang Xianzu, died in the same year as Shakespeare, and comparative studies of the two are now in vogue. Young people tend to picture these stars as their boyfriend or girlfriend, but mama fans see themselves as proxy mothers to these starlets. In a marketing sense, this is no bad thing: these women have money and can afford to buy albums and concert tickets. In June, Karry Wang, another member of the band, made social media history when his birthday message was reposted more than 42 million times on Sina Weibo, the Twitter-like platform. To her surprise, she found the boys' tones and language reminded her of the best students in her class - only they were cuter.
Then she got to know Dai Haixia, a housewife with two children and a big fan of TFboys, who told her of her experience traveling from Beijing to Chongqing to visit the boy band for a documentary on Youku, the video-streaming website. Former members Lu Han, Kris Wu and Lay Zhang, now in their 20s, all have their own mama fan clubs. It should make Chinese proud," says a 40-year-old mama fan who organized a fan meeting to talk about Kris Wu of EXO-M.
Even when the design is different, you can recognize some common elements in the style," says Boscaini. You can't compare us with brands which already have thousands of stores," CEO Jean-Marc Pontroue tells China Daily during a recent trip to Beijing.
Lane January 21 - 23, 1991 No sound files are available for the interview with Justice Coleman. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe.
Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648).
The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation.
In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace.
In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy.
It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights.
He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism. The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king. The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation.
His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set.
His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific.
The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered. Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen. To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do.
In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future.


Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited.
In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose).
Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king.
He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy.
He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England.
In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health. The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany.
He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control.
Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
It’ s easy to seem like she should do that, because you probably assume that all she wants to understand is that you still love her. When love is one sided, it doesn’ t make for a situation where a relationship is going to work.
Letting her know that you still think about her is a good thing, making it seem like an obsession is not a very important thing.
You see a lot of good things taking place with this woman and you keep thinking in your mind that you don’ t wish to screw this up.
This particular act could also get you arrested and labeled as a stalker on your internet dating site’ s forums. Reading between the lines, however , will help you figure out a better plan so she will be delighted to go out with you again. There are things that you could be doing at this very moment that will help you last longer in bed tonight.
Attempt masturbating as close to the real factor as possible, by using lubricant and viewing pornography. Well, men all over the world have found a quick fix for premature ejaculation and it has transformed the way in which they have got sex. Instead, they will used natural ways to build their stamina in bed and that is just what you will definitely do as well. Tingling lubricants contain numbing agents that will help to last longer in bed without any harming results. By being healthy, you will reap the benefits and also last longer because you will have more control of your body through a powerful mind. For one, masturbation as a way to end premature ejaculation is one of the best organic ways to achieve just that. It may be quite difficult to get a really feel for when your spouse is meeting up with the other person.
However more than anything you should have some kind of back up plan in case you do get caught by your spouse. If your husband or wife is known for their jealousy, physical or emotional abuse, you may end up putting yourself in serious danger if you were to ever get caught For that reason make sure to at all times let someone know where you are going. No matter how much you want to know that your spouse is having a good affair it is important to be safe. It kept her close to the Earth, and she feels fortunate as few people nowadays have similar experiences. She often hears them speaking with relish about an object, such as a chair that was made by someone's grandfather and has been used for years. No sun means no photosynthesis which means no chlorophyll - so the plants develop little or no green color. A handful of uncooked spears bundled with a cheerful orange ribbon appears as a table decoration. Abroad, it commands a premium price - especially in Japan, where appreciation for the vegetable developed much earlier.
The original customer base was South Korean expats, but now more than half are Chinese, says head chef Tian Yulong. That was when he discovered a map showing the routes that the Red Army had taken during the march.
In three months, he covered areas in East China's Jiangxi province, where the Long March had started, and in Shaanxi province in the country's northwest.
Yet another says to use a new wok only for deep-frying until the iron is "totally moisturized". Allow to cool, safely pour away the oil, and then wipe the wok clean with clean kitchen or paper towels. This is especially advisable if you are cooking them with root vegetables that take a longer time in the pan such as lotus roots, bamboo shoots, carrots or radishes. The animal has disappeared from most habitats because of hunting, either for its meat or as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. However, sales saw the biggest increase in non-EU markets, including a 61 percent increase in China, the data show. He speaks to them about the history of their house and narrates stories about their common ancestors. There are about 11,000 houses built during one of the two dynasties in the county, according to the local government. With China's modernization, ancient villages are disappearing at a fast pace as residents replace old houses with modern buildings.
Well-known ancestors of today's villagers were influential scholars, writers, poets and powerful officials in Imperial China. But the average annual income of villagers who work in the rice fields is about 10,000 yuan, says Hu.
They also make excellent promoters, and with the confidence of age can scream and holler at live shows loud enough to put younger counterparts to shame. Italian luxury jewelry house Bulgari proves this with an ongoing jewelry exhibition in the Beijing SKP mall.
To see beautiful divas perform with Bulgari jewelry is a way to nurture this kind of dream," Lucia Boscaini, Bulgari's brand and heritage curator, tells China Daily. The age of Dolce Vita, which celebrates self-indulgence and extravagance, also became a source of inspiration for Bulgari jewelry. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.
But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement. The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them.
It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade.
The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean.
If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign.
Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne.
Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic! When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers. James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648.
Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas.
Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918.
After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government.
Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city.
The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship.
Nevertheless , as many guys find out, just letting their ex girlfriend know that they are nevertheless in love with her is in no way an assurance that she is going to come back to them.
The good news is that you are aware of a right way and a incorrect way to approach this date.
They wait to capture you at your most helpless minute and then they prey on you and pressure you to buy product after item, claiming that all of them are exactly what you have to help your current situation, but they don’ t work.
Second of all, if you use a desensitizing cream, are you going to eventually lose all feeling in your penis? There is no need for that cream, pills and sprays whenever relief is a natural treatment away. The more stimulation you can give yourself the better, because the more realistic it will be.
You get to masturbate before sexual intercourse and you get to last long enough to give her pleasure.
When a man has an orgasm, his body enters a stage known as the refractory time period and this is when the body must reset itself. You might also find yourself consuming time off from your job to secret agent on your mate.
If your answer is a€?Yes, thata€™s exactly what I want,a€? you need to pay close attentionto the words of Peter recorded in First Peter 3:10,11.
Novelty and price are magnified for asparagus when it's white - it's much more labor-intensive to grow, but more farmers every year produce it because high-end restaurants will pay top dollar to get it each spring. An average of 100 villages are vanishing each day in China, scholar Feng Jicai remarked during last year in Beijing. Specially created for China, the exhibition called Cinecitta and Beyond - Bulgari Jeweler to the Stars celebrates the brand's connection with the movie world, showcasing more than 30 pieces of iconic jewelry from the 1930s until today. Leta€™s look at these verses to seeexactly what Peter was communicating when he wrote them.
We carried it proudly all the way back to one of their houses and proceeded to patch the hole with a piece of plywood and tar.
Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic.
Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly. Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament. But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy.
Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings.
As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible.
His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule.
However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. Try avoiding your climax for as long as possible and recognizing the particular sensations when you do feel like you are near to orgasm.
Not to mention, if you do use a desensitizing lotion, then you must talk to your partner about this because she will naturally receive some of the same effects, which is the last thing any kind of woman wants in bed. Today everything is guided by business rules and fashion rules so it's completely different.
Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia.
Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat.
The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth.
Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I.
Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. You want to implement any further techniques when you feel this sensation, therefore get to know it really well. You will still be able to achieve and maintain an erection; it will just be harder to orgasm. This requires pressure off of you and helps to decrease that performance anxiety that you may know too well. While this is happening, you could be making love to your girl and lasting to get a much longer time while you prepare for the next orgasm. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria.
It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law.
His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. The word a€?evila€? is the Greek word kakos, the word forA something that is evil, vile, foul, or destructive. They were flamboyant in their hairstyles, spent vastA amounts of money on cosmetics, arrayed themselves in luxurious jewelry, and prided themselves inA the lavish clothing they wore. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! In this context, it implies ugly words that, when spoken, bring destruction and harm.A Can you think of a time when you got so angry that you exploded and spewed destructiveA words? And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land. This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.
As noted earlier, the word kosmos carries the idea of something that is ordered orA something that is set in a certain arrangement. One of the boys found a canoe paddle in the weeds and we three got into the boat and started to paddle out.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611.
Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. He is basically saying, a€?If you want to have a long and happy life together, you have to learn how to refrain from saying ugly, hurtful, and destructive things to each other.
This tells us that when a woman applies makeup to her face, she is trying to addA order to her face. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. We feverishly paddled with that one oar and bailed out the water with our hands and an old can. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. When a husband and wife manipulate, deceive, or lie to each other, they create an atmosphere of distrust that disrupts their ability to maintain a peaceful, harmonious home.
Barely we made it to shore and got out just before the boat sank below the water and headed downstream. Talk to any marital counselor, and he or she will tell you that deception and manipulation in a marriage is very destructive to the trust that is required to keep the marriage relationship strong.
Wet, cold and shaking the three of us headed home knowing we would never tell our parents of this stupid adventure. Thata€™s why Peter urges spouses to stay out of the deception and manipulation business!A So if you want to have a good life and a happy marriage, you must learn to take a lifelong break from speaking evil. These women didna€™t just pull out the blow dryer and spend twenty minutes preparing their hair for the day. We were lucky to be alive and it was only by Goda€™s grace that I can live to tell about it. You must also determine in your heart that you will no longer play the manipulation game with your spouse! Peter says that instead of taking that wrong route, you must a€?eschew evil.a€?A The word a€?eschewa€? is the Greek word ekklino, from the word ek and klino. I say women a€?toileda€? with their hair because it took a great deal of work and time to produce the fashionable hairstyles of that time. Infact, the word a€?plaitinga€? used by Peter is the Greek wordemploke, which describes the intricate, complex, and outrageously elaborate braiding of a womana€™s hair.A You see, the Greek and Roman women were obsessed with turning their hair into towers ofA intricate curls and braids. If you visit a museum of antiquities and look at the statues of first-centuryA women, it will amaze you to see the thousands of little curls that were woven into womena€™s hair.A This hairstyle was considered beautiful, elegant, and fashionable in the first century. There must be an intentional turning away from every destructive behavior patternA and an intentional turningA toward those actions that build trust and make a relationship strong and healthy. HusbandsA must have thought this style was beautiful on their wives because the fashion trend was imitated allA over the Roman Empire. As a result of this popular rage, women invested huge amounts of time andA great sums of money to produce the desired effect.A As you will see, Peter was not against woman making their hair more beautiful. The word a€?wearinga€? is from the Greek wordA perithesis, and it describes placing an object, such as a piece of jewelry, around oneself.
So if you want your marriage to be blessed, strong, long-lasting, and healthy, you must deliberately look for ways to be a blessing. You see, the Greek and Roman women loved to drape many chains of gold around their necks, affix multiple solid gold bands around their upperA arms, and wear many golden rings on each finger.
It picturesA the brightly colored, richly beaded, posh clothing that was popular among Greek and Roman women in the first century. Women were so fashion-conscious that they frequently changed theirA clothes during the course of the day. The Greek tense Peter uses when he writes the word zelos implies a constant and arduous seeking to obtain something, not just an occasional attempt. Now add the multiple times they changed clothes in a day and all the timeA spent adjusting their clothes in front of a mirror after each change. Anyone who has been successfully married for a long period of time will tell you that a€?peacea€? in a marriage doesna€™t happenA accidentally. However, dona€™t forget that the most important emphasis and the place to invest most of your time should be in the beautifying of the hidden man of the heart.a€?A Dear wife, it is all right for you to look beautiful. If youa€™re not totally fixed onA having peace with your spouse, the devil will find a way to constantly get in between the two of you.A Peter says that if youa€™re going to have this kind of peace between you and your spouse, you must a€?ensuea€? it. Sometimes that other road will bring you back to your original path and sometimes it will take you farther away from it. The word a€?ensuea€? is the Greek word dioko, an old Greek word that means to hunt, to chase,A or to pursue.
Demonstrating to your husband that you want to lookpretty for him is one way you can show honor to him. It was a hunting term used to illustrate a hunter who is so committed to getting his trophy that he goes out into the forest and begins to literally stalk that animal.
He is simply stating that it is a mistake for women to put so much time and effort into their outward appearance that they ignore their innerman a€” the true source of their beauty. But God used him to gather and lead his people out of Pharaoha€™s slavery and split the Red Sea in two.A  Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and was cast into prison but became the second most powerful person inEgypt. If we are going to have peace in our relationships a€”especially our marital relationship a€” we must put on our hunting clothes and develop a plan forA peace! I take this word to my heart today, and I make the decision that fromA this day forward, I will spend at least the same amount of time beautifying my spirit as IA spend looking nice in my outward appearance. Forgive me, Lord, for those days when I haveA found time to dress properly and look outwardly attractive, but I didna€™t take the time to prayA or read my Bible. Or, maybe just maybe a smile or a kind word from you to a stranger may just prevent them from going home and ending their own life and their grandson will some day save the world.
Forgive me for being a contributor to strife and conflict, and teach me how to refrain my tongue from speaking evil so Ican bring benefit and blessing to my spouse. I dona€™t make the mistakeA of putting all my time and effort into improving my outward appearance while forgettingA to invest time in the development of my spirit. Because I have made the choice to make my spirit beautiful, I amA becoming more godly and beautiful all the time.
He will bring to light things that are now hidden in darkness, and will make known the secret purposes of people's hearts. How much time do you think you should be spending alone with God every dayA in order to develop and beautify your spirit the way God wants you to?A 3. I am not a source of conflict, and I refuse to let the devil use me any longer.A From this day forward, the enemy will not use my lips as his entryway into my marriage.
Throw your troubled waters out of your boat and paddle on down that river of life with Him at your side.
Can you think of a time when you got so angry at your spouse that you said aA lot of ugly, destructive words to him or her? You have ears, but you don't really listen.Psalm 13:2 -- How long must I worry and feel sad in my heart all day?
Did you ever allow Goda€™s peace toA resolve that situation by humbly asking your spouse for forgiveness?A 2.
What can you do to make sure you dona€™t make the same mistake the next timeA you are dealing with an emotionally charged situation in your marriage?A 3. I have been praying for something to happen for 4A? years now and what I prayed for was not granted. Leta€™s speak of reality a€“ He is God and He can do what He wants to or not do what He doesna€™t want to.
We cannot command the Lord to do anything whether we do it in pleading, tears, anger, or desperation. If God has the will, He may answer our prayers about life but nothing says that He absolutely has to.
All we have is the hope that he will hear us, see what we are going through, and grant us a little drop of His mercy in this life. He will cure a cancer, heal the deaf, grow an arm back or bring someone back to life but that does not mean He will do it all the time.
He has given us guidance through His word (the Bible) and occasionally gives us a nudge or lesson to learn from but basically kicks us out of the nest like the mother bird does to face the challenges of life. I get so frustrated at times that my prayers are not answered and I have to keep reminding myself that this is my life and I need to deal with it on my own sometimes.
Their job is to preach the message to inspire, encourage, and give hope to their congregations. If we are to be an example of His mercy to others, it can only be done with people of lesser stature than us. He wants us to spread the Gospel and not make up stories of what He has done for us personally in life. Just show others how you believe in His salvation and forgiveness and tell them of His Word. He has promised everything in His kingdom of Heaven to those who accept His Son as Lord and Savior. Life here is just a temporary setback, trial and test to see if we are worthy of everlasting life sharing in His love -- or without it in a very dark place. So accept His Son as your Lord and claim the only real promise that He made to us --- Forgiveness and Salvation.



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