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31.12.2013
Second Passover ;Thirty days ago we cleaned our homes and souls of leaven, and matzahed our way through the week-long festival of Passover. Fast of Tish'a B'Av - July 15 - 16, 2013 ,The 15th of Av ;,Our sages proclaimed the 15th of Av as one of the two greatest festivals of the year, yet they ordained no special observances or celebrations for it . 1492 Sultan Bayezid II welcomes Jews fleeing the Spanish inquisition; in Istanbul , the Jewish population double and Salonika becomes a major Jewish centre. 1516 - 1517 The Ottoman conquest of Palestine and Egypt leads to the strengthening of Jewish communities in their ancient homeland of Eretz Israel. 1922-23 Hayim Nahum Turkey's Chief Rabbi is an adviser to the Turkish delegation to the Lausanne Conference.,1923 The Turkish Republic is founded under the preseidency of Mustafa Kemal ATATURK . 1940s Turkey stays neutral in World War II,1942 Wealth tax ( varlyk vergisi ) places a disproportionately heavy burden on non Muslim communities and sets off a massive migration of Jews to Palestine . The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain. Ottoman diplomacy was often carried out by Jews. Joseph Nasi, appointed the Duke of Naxos, was the former Portuguese Marrano Joao Miques.
Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi. A Community Calendar (Halila) is published by the Chief Rabbinate every year and distributed free of charge to all those who have paid their dues (Kisba) to the welfare bodies. Social clubs containing libraries, cultural and sports facilities, discotheques give young people the chance to meet. Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. Tu B’Shevat, the 15th of Shevat on the Jewish calendar, is the day that marks the beginning of a “new year” for trees. Purim celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from the wicked Haman in the days of Queen Esther of Persia. Thirty days ago we cleaned our homes and souls of leaven, and matzahed our way through the week-long festival of Passover. The “Three Weeks” and Tisha B’Av are designated as a time of mourning over the destruction of the Holy Temple and the galut (exile).
Our sages proclaimed the 15th of Av as one of the two greatest festivals of the year, yet they ordained no special observances or celebrations for it .
Virtually everything you need to know about Yom Kippur, the holiest day on the Jewish calendar: How-To Guides, Essays and Insights, Prayer Service Overviews, Stories, Multimedia, and much more! Virtually everything you need to know about the holiday of Sukkot: How-To Guides, Sukkah and “Four Kinds” Wizards, Essays and Insights, Recipes, Stories, Multimedia, and much more! Virtually everything you need to know about the holidays of Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah: How-To Guides, Essays and Insights, Recipes, Stories, Multimedia, and much more! Chanukah commemorates the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem after a group of Jewish warriors defeated the occupying mighty Greek armies. We do our best to establish our travel itinerary early, but there can be circumstances beyond our control that occasionally force us to make changes. Shown below are links where you can find background information on some of the sites that you will visit.A  We suggest that you click on them and check them out to have an idea of where you will be going and what you will encounter on your travels during the 14 days.
Day 1 - students arrive in Las Vegas, Nevada and are escorted to the host hotel where they are assigned to teams, have a short orientationA and enjoy some get acquainted activities.A  Late afternoon, you'll head to the world famous Las Vegas Strip where you'll get to attend a live performance of Blue Man Group that's been called a€?visually stunning,a€? a€? wildly inventive,a€? and a€?hysterically funnya€?. Day 4 - today's travels will take you to San Diego where youa€™ll have free time in the evening to visit the museums, art galleries and shops plus restaurants of San Diego Old Town, the birthplace of California in 1769.
Day 5 - youa€™ll spend the day using the Old Town Trolley as you tour the many sites of San Diego, California.


Day 6 - today will be a busy day with a trip to Sea World, an animal theme park, oceanarium, outside aquarium and marine mammal park. Day 10 - this morning youa€™re headed to Morro Bay to experience tandem sea kayaking among the seals and otters.
Day 11 - this morning you'll travel to one of the most majestic and picturesque national parks in the U.S. Day 12 - youa€™ll drive to San Francisco where youa€™ll get a birda€™s eye view from Twin Peaks and then on to the Golden Gate Bridge.
Day 13 - today, youa€™ll have the opportunity to walk down Lombard Street, the world's crookedest street in the world and some time to take in the sites such as riding on a cable car. Day 14 a€“ today you'll say goodbye to the many newly made friends as you fly back to your host city.A  This just might be the busiest and most exhausting 2 weeks you've ever had as you will have experienced many new things you've never done, seen sights you've only dreamed of and made new friends that will last a lifetime. Breakfast is included in every hotel stay.A  You will receive cash back to buy all meals that are not done as a group or included with the hotel stay.
A While the East Coast Discovery Tour is just tentative at this time, click on the link below to see the proposed travel itinerary. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands. In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. It is the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve, and a day of judgement and coronation of God as king.
After a fun group dinner on Santa Monica Pier, you'll head to the hotel to wash off the California sand that got between your toes.A  This will be a day that you will long remember. Youa€™ll have a relaxing evening in Atascadero and a chance to catch up on your rest as tomorrow will be a long and full day. After an afternoon cruise of San Francisco Bay, past Alcatraz National Monument, you can spend some leisure time strollingA along Fisherman's Wharf as well as Pier 39.A  You'll have a group dinner tonight before heading back to the hotel so you can pack for the trip home. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.,1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital. A letter sent by Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati (from Edirne) to Jewish communities in Europe in the first part of the century"invited his co-religionists to leave the torments they were enduring in Christiandom and to seek safety and prosperity in Turkey". (3)When Mehmet II "the Conqueror" took Constantinople in 1453, he encountered an oppressed Romaniot (Byzantine) Jewish community which welcomed him with enthusiasm. In 1493, only one year after their expulsion from Spain, David & Samuel ibn Nahmias established the first Hebrew printing press in Istanbul. Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters. Both cities have homes for the aged (Moshav Zekinim) and several welfare associations to assist the poor, the sick, the needy children and orphans. The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community.
They find a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule.The Jews greet the Ottomans as saviours. Eventually he converts to Islam with his Jewish followers creating a new sect by accepting Islam outwardly but practising a new type of ' Sabbatean Judaism ' eventually leaving the realm of the Jewish community.,1839 - 1876 The Tanzimat reforms lead to the application of news laws,bringing equality to all Ottoman citizens,regardless of religion. Over time Judeo-Spanish would be phased out and Turkish takes hold as the Jewish communities mother tongue.1933 Turkey recruits German Jewish academics facing Nazi discriminative policies in order to strengthen Istanbul and Ankara universities.


In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
In the early 19th century, Abraham de Camondo established a modern school, "La Escola", causing a serious conflict between conservative and secular rabbis which was only settled by the intervention of Sultan Abdulaziz in 1864.
Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank?? Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? The Pope had no other alternative than to release them, the Ottoman Empire being the "Super Power" of those days. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire.
Louis Fishman is assistant professor of Middle East history at Brooklyn College City University of New York. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality. Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students.
As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor. Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system.
During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. Now one newspaper survives: SALOM (Shalom), a fourteen to sixteen pages weekly in Turkish with one page in Judeo-Spanish. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure.
Mr. Salahattin Ulkumen, Consul General at Rhodes in 1943-1944, was recognized by the Yad Vashem as a Righteous Gentile "Hassid Umot ha'Olam" in June 1990. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc.
Our Passover megasite has tools, guides, insights, stories, inspiration—and just about everything you need to celebrate Passover (but bring your own wine).
There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.



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