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06.09.2014
Most epithelial tissues are essentially large sheets of cells covering all the surfaces of the body exposed to the outside world and lining the outside of organs. Epithelial tissues provide the body’s first line of protection from physical, chemical, and biological wear and tear.
Many epithelial cells are capable of secretion and release mucous and specific chemical compounds onto their apical surfaces. Epithelial cells are typically characterized by the polarized distribution of organelles and membrane-bound proteins between their basal and apical surfaces.
Cilia are microscopic extensions of the apical cell membrane that are supported by microtubules.
At one end of the spectrum is the tight junction, which separates the cells into apical and basal compartments. In contrast with the tight and anchoring junctions, a gap junction forms an intercellular passageway between the membranes of adjacent cells to facilitate the movement of small molecules and ions between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
Epithelial tissues are classified according to the shape of the cells and number of the cell layers formed ([link]). The shape of the cells in the single cell layer of simple epithelium reflects the functioning of those cells. In simple cuboidal epithelium, the nucleus of the box-like cells appears round and is generally located near the center of the cell. In simple columnar epithelium, the nucleus of the tall column-like cells tends to be elongated and located in the basal end of the cells. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is a type of epithelium that appears to be stratified but instead consists of a single layer of irregularly shaped and differently sized columnar cells.
Both simple and pseudostratified columnar epithelia are heterogeneous epithelia because they include additional types of cells interspersed among the epithelial cells. Another kind of stratified epithelium is transitional epithelium, so-called because of the gradual changes in the shapes of the apical cells as the bladder fills with urine. A gland is a structure made up of one or more cells modified to synthesize and secrete chemical substances.
Exocrine glands release their contents through a duct that leads to the epithelial surface. The multicellular exocrine glands known as serous glands develop from simple epithelium to form a secretory surface that secretes directly into an inner cavity. Exocrine glands can be classified by their mode of secretion and the nature of the substances released, as well as by the structure of the glands and shape of ducts ([link]).
In contrast, the process of holocrine secretion involves the rupture and destruction of the entire gland cell. In epithelial tissue, cells are closely packed with little or no extracellular matrix except for the basal lamina that separates the epithelium from underlying tissue.
In observing epithelial cells under a microscope, the cells are arranged in a single layer and look tall and narrow, and the nucleus is located close to the basal side of the cell.
Which type of epithelial tissue specializes in moving particles across its surface and is found in airways and lining of the oviduct? The ________ exocrine gland stores its secretion until the glandular cell ruptures, whereas the ________ gland releases its apical region and reforms. Columnar epithelia, which form the lining of the digestive tract, can be either simple or stratified.
A blistering version of a€?Stagger Leea€? occurs seven tracks deep into Danielle Miragliaa€™s most recent album, Box of Troubles.
So it is that Danielle Miraglia puts her own stamp on a€?Stagger Lee.a€? Of course, ita€™s not her own composition, but surely a cornerstone of her repertoire.
An interview with this refreshingly affable, down-to-earth performer reveals how she became the player and writer she is today. While her musical aspirations took a back seat during her college career, there was still some dabbling. When Danielle left Emerson, she felt lost for a while, describing herself as a€?unfocused.a€? She wasna€™t able to translate a degree in writing into meaningful employment. Danielle had a fantasy about moving to Arizona and starting a whole new life out there, getting a fresh start.
Her first songs, coming off the dissolution of a relationship were (again) a€?cheesy breakup songs,a€? she said. At that point, she was a€?writing a ton,a€? and within about six months she enlarged her repertoire to six decent songs and another six months to beginning her first recording. In addition to the strong, steady thumb beat on the bass strings, Danielle also uses a hollow foot stomp, sometimes amplified. I asked her about the guitars shea€™s favored and she mentioned that the Yamaha her boyfriend got her in high school was a nice beginnera€™s guitar (he took it back when they broke up a€” song opportunity!). Danielle feels that her first two CDs were of little consequence a€” a part of the learning process a€” and that her recording career started in earnest with the album, Nothing Romantic.
In a€?You dona€™t Know Nothin,a€™a€? a reaction to some right-wing radio talk shows, Danielle flashes metaphoric sharpness. The a€?eight oa€™clock shadowa€? then displays his own ignorance, condemning abortion rights marchers on the bara€™s television. Although I first got cold-cocked by a€?Stagger Leea€? and a€?Loud Talkera€? from Daniellea€™s latest CD, Box of Troubles, there are other standouts. Wea€™re ecstatic that wea€™ve caught up to this supremely intelligent and talented performer.
Danielle has had purists disagree with her about not following original styles note-for-note. A major jump forward on the path to folk music was the discovery in the late 1980s of the existence of Godfrey Daniels folk club in Bethlehem, PA. When Chris announced to the songwriters at Jack's that he'd joined the Army, they all shuddered in disbelief. Although the lead character is a female, Chris says that she's partially his alter ego in the.
When Chris was finally discharged from the Army in 1995, he got back to the business of being a folksinger. Anyone who's ever strapped on a hollow-body in Jack's vicinity has heard that howl of protest.
Through all the violence of the military novels and the stumbling forward of Thatcher in Hoboken, Chris describes all three novels as love stories. Chris has made a number of appearances on NPR, as a guest on Terry Gross's Fresh Air and as a semi-regular commentator on All Things Considered, and links to his ATC radio essays are available through his site. The above descriptive passage encapsulates why my reaction to Chris's work is so strong.A  You look down and you read and it's all there. The epithelia lining the skin, parts of the mouth and nose, and the anus develop from the ectoderm. This tissue is highly cellular, with little or no extracellular material present between cells. For instance, no blood vessels cross the basement membrane to enter the tissue, and nutrients must come by diffusion or absorption from underlying tissues or the surface.
The cells of an epithelium act as gatekeepers of the body controlling permeability and allowing selective transfer of materials across a physical barrier. Particular structures found in some epithelial cells are an adaptation to specific functions. Three basic types of connections allow varying degrees of interaction between the cells: tight junctions, anchoring junctions, and gap junctions ([link]). An anchoring junction includes several types of cell junctions that help stabilize epithelial tissues.
These junctions allow electrical and metabolic coupling of adjacent cells, which coordinates function in large groups of cells. Cell shapes can be squamous (flattened and thin), cuboidal (boxy, as wide as it is tall), or columnar (rectangular, taller than it is wide). Like the cuboidal epithelia, this epithelium is active in the absorption and secretion of molecules.
In pseudostratified epithelium, nuclei of neighboring cells appear at different levels rather than clustered in the basal end.
For example, a goblet cell is a mucous-secreting unicellular “gland” interspersed between the columnar epithelial cells of mucous membranes ([link]). Hormones are released into the interstitial fluid, diffused into the bloodstream, and delivered to targets, in other words, cells that have receptors to bind the hormones. Mucous, sweat, saliva, and breast milk are all examples of secretions from exocrine glands.
The unicellular glands are scattered single cells, such as goblet cells, found in the mucous membranes of the small and large intestine. These glands line the internal cavities of the abdomen and chest and release their secretions directly into the cavities.
That portion of the cell and its secretory contents pinch off from the cell and are released. The serous gland produces watery, blood-plasma-like secretions rich in enzymes such as alpha amylase, whereas the mucous gland releases watery to viscous products rich in the glycoprotein mucin.


The main functions of epithelia are protection from the environment, coverage, secretion and excretion, absorption, and filtration.
Describe how the structure of individual cells and tissue arrangement of the intestine lining matches its main function, to absorb nutrients.
Tom Bianchi, her husband and producer on this album, uses an electric violin, a blues harp and a sinuous lead electric guitar with a wah-wah pedal to sustain the cloud of doom that hangs over this historic piece. Her family lived in Everett until she was 8, then moved to nearby Revere, where she grew up.
As kids will, she and some friends tried to form a band, even though no one actually played an instrument. She took a couple of lessons from the aforementioned frienda€™s father who was going to teach her friends to play their instruments. Using an acoustic guitar, shea€™d get together with a friend back home to play and write songs. Her first stop was the open mic at The Kendall Cafe in Cambridge (now closed), just to a€?check it out.a€? She saw people who were very advanced and some raw beginners. However, a€?They had grit to them.a€? Although she cringes when she looks back on her early writing, she still feels that the songs werena€™t all that bad considering her level of development.
She was a fan of the late Janis Joplin and would belt her songs out, Janis-style,without giving thought to vocal dynamics or microphone control. Additionally, she studied the Stefan Grossman transcriptions (written and audio) of the guitar of Mississippi John Hurt. Shea€™s been told, a€?If youa€™re not doing it exactly the way they did it, youa€™re not doing it.a€? For Danielle, ita€™s all about enjoying it and getting into the a€?feela€? of it [we agree].
Although shea€™d seen performers like Chris Smither use this sort of device, she never intended to copy it. She later got an Ovation, then a Guild and then found her first love in a Gibson [lots of blues in those Gibsons]. Thata€™s about when we made her acquaintance (as well as taking note of her impact at the 2009 Northeast Regional Folk Alliance Conference). She uses a nimble Mississippi John Hurt-style fingerpicking pattern for this philosophical gem. Tongue-in-cheek, she asks for a drum machine, and, in a reference to Robert Johnson, Tell me where the roads cross, Ia€™m ready to sell my soul.
Ita€™s a plus that finding out how good a writer she is now reinforces our first impression of a highly energetic blues artist. John told them that, if they really wanted to take songwriting seriously, they should get themselves to Greenwich Village in New York City to Jack Hardy's song circle.
It contains some of the most harrowing scenes of what fatigue and nerves can do to a human being from boot camp onward into the battle zone.
Again he pulls the reader underneath the skin of the characters to bring a more complete understanding of what it is to be soldier.
Although he was basically a Pennsylvanian, he spent enough time in Hoboken with friends, crashing on couches, that he was easily assimilated into the cadre that would become Camp Hoboken.
Those of us who knew Chris and the Hoboken crew back then are having a field day connecting the characters with their real-life counterparts.
Chris could've stopped there, but, of course he would need to describe Geoff's small apartment with the pictures of the wall of a€?Geoffa€? and other icons of folk music, the imbibing of wine and sharing of songs. There are entries for reviews, interviews and some stories of day-to-day experiences that are infused with humor. There are entries for reviews, interviews and someA  stories of day-to-day experiences that are infused with humor. Adjoining cells form a specialized intercellular connection between their cell membranes called a cell junction.
Cells lining the respiratory tract secrete mucous that traps incoming microorganisms and particles. Certain organelles are segregated to the basal sides, whereas other organelles and extensions, such as cilia, when present, are on the apical surface. Ciliated epithelium lines the ventricles of the brain where it helps circulate the cerebrospinal fluid. Anchoring junctions are common on the lateral and basal surfaces of cells where they provide strong and flexible connections.
Similarly, the number of cell layers in the tissue can be one—where every cell rests on the basal lamina—which is a simple epithelium, or more than one, which is a stratified epithelium and only the basal layer of cells rests on the basal lamina.
Squamous cell nuclei tend to be flat, horizontal, and elliptical, mirroring the form of the cell. Simple cuboidal epithelia are observed in the lining of the kidney tubules and in the ducts of glands. Simple columnar epithelium forms the lining of some sections of the digestive system and parts of the female reproductive tract.
The arrangement gives the appearance of stratification; but in fact all the cells are in contact with the basal lamina, although some do not reach the apical surface. The stratified epithelium is named by the shape of the most apical layer of cells, closest to the free space. When the bladder is empty, this epithelium is convoluted and has cuboidal apical cells with convex, umbrella shaped, apical surfaces. A gland can be classified as an endocrine gland, a ductless gland that releases secretions directly into surrounding tissues and fluids (endo- = “inside”), or an exocrine gland whose secretions leave through a duct that opens directly, or indirectly, to the external environment (exo- = “outside”). The endocrine system is part of a major regulatory system coordinating the regulation and integration of body responses.
The secretions are enclosed in vesicles that move to the apical surface of the cell where the contents are released by exocytosis.
New gland cells differentiate from cells in the surrounding tissue to replace those lost by secretion.
Danielle had a Casio keyboard; a frienda€™s father played guitar, so it was assumed that hea€™d show others in the group how to play their instruments. There were writing courses of every kind, including journalism, childrena€™s writing and poetry.
She figured, a€?OK, I can fit into this mixa€¦ I can pull this off.a€? She signed up to play the following week and found that others were very polite, offering encouragement. It wasna€™t until she got to the open mic of blues master Geoff Bartley at the Cantab Lounge that her mistakes were pointed out. The practice really evolved from using a foot stomp on stage to keep rhythm and provide percussion. It actually took another year for her to digest and learn what Geoff had taught her.A  a€?It was like I got all the food and then I processed it,a€? she told me. In his late teens, Chris began to read more about Woody Guthrie and take a deeper interest the music of Woody, Pete Seeger and traditional folk.
Chris made sure to take his notebook and his memory of events was till fresh enough in the late 90's to build evocative scenes and crisp dialogue.
Chris spent the next few years traveling around the country singing in coffeehouses and clubs. The one about editing a book about chefs, then taking a trip to a restaurant in California is sidesplitting (figuratively, and for Chris, almost literally).
Chris madeA  sure to take his notebook and his memory of events was till fresh enough in the late 90's to build evocative scenes and crisp dialogue. Other areas include the airways, the digestive tract, as well as the urinary and reproductive systems, all of which are lined by an epithelium.
The epithelium that lines vessels in the lymphatic and cardiovascular system derives from the mesoderm and is called an endothelium.
The epithelial cells exhibit polarity with differences in structure and function between the exposed or apical facing surface of the cell and the basal surface close to the underlying body structures. Sloughing off of damaged or dead cells is a characteristic of surface epithelium and allows our airways and digestive tracts to rapidly replace damaged cells with new cells. Some epithelia often include structural features that allow the selective transport of molecules and ions across their cell membranes. The ciliated epithelium of your airway forms a mucociliary escalator that sweeps particles of dust and pathogens trapped in the secreted mucous toward the throat.
Pseudostratified (pseudo- = “false”) describes tissue with a single layer of irregularly shaped cells that give the appearance of more than one layer. The endothelium is the epithelial tissue that lines vessels of the lymphatic and cardiovascular system, and it is made up of a single layer of squamous cells. Ciliated columnar epithelium is composed of simple columnar epithelial cells with cilia on their apical surfaces. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium is found in the respiratory tract, where some of these cells have cilia.
Stratified squamous epithelium is the most common type of stratified epithelium in the human body. As the bladder fills with urine, this epithelium loses its convolutions and the apical cells transition from cuboidal to squamous.
A few examples of endocrine glands include the anterior pituitary, thymus, adrenal cortex, and gonads.


Secretions into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, technically outside of the body, are of the exocrine category.
The duct is single in a simple gland but in compound glands is divided into one or more branches ([link]). For example, watery mucous containing the glycoprotein mucin, a lubricant that offers some pathogen protection is a merocrine secretion.
Both merocrine and apocrine glands continue to produce and secrete their contents with little damage caused to the cell because the nucleus and golgi regions remain intact after secretion. Mixed exocrine glands contain both serous and mucous glands and release both types of secretions. They can also be connected by gap junctions, which allow free exchange of soluble molecules between cells, and anchoring junctions, which attach cell to cell or cell to matrix. Ciliated columnar epithelium is composed of simple columnar epithelial cells that display cilia on their apical surfaces. She credits two older boys, her upstairs neighbors, in helping to add to her musical knowledge.
She went back again and again and found a€?a whole new crew of friends.a€? They were a€?on the same wavelength,a€? she said. On a gig where she needed to use a box for added height, she found herself rhythmically tapping on the box and liking the sound. Although she told me that her husband Tom hosts it now, shea€™s still listed as the host on The Burren website. Danielle developed a a€?roguea€? mixture of what Geoff taught her and the Grossman transcriptions.
An intensified interest in acoustic music was sparked by hearing James Taylor, Crosby, Stills and Nash, Bob Dylan and the band America. First, he said, "Make sure you bring a notebook And your guitar if you can, but if you can't, take your notebook.
His sharp-witted humor came across in his performances and would serve him well in the career to come. But sure, that was him, Stephen Foster all shacked up at 601 Bloomfield in the cold year of our Lord 1854. I bring this up because it's not an easy thing to do and many writers seem clumsy in that area. Hollow organs and body cavities that do not connect to the exterior of the body, which includes, blood vessels and serous membranes, are lined by endothelium (plural = endothelia), which is a type of epithelium. The basal lamina, a mixture of glycoproteins and collagen, provides an attachment site for the epithelium, separating it from underlying connective tissue.
It is called an escalator because it continuously pushes mucous with trapped particles upward. Transitional describes a form of specialized stratified epithelium in which the shape of the cells can vary. Simple squamous epithelium, because of the thinness of the cell, is present where rapid passage of chemical compounds is observed. These epithelial cells are found in the lining of the fallopian tubes and parts of the respiratory system, where the beating of the cilia helps remove particulate matter. The apical cells are squamous, whereas the basal layer contains either columnar or cuboidal cells. It appears thicker and more multi-layered when the bladder is empty, and more stretched out and less stratified when the bladder is full and distended. In tubular glands, the ducts can be straight or coiled, whereas tubes that form pockets are alveolar (acinar), such as the exocrine portion of the pancreas. The different types of epithelial tissues are characterized by their cellular shapes and arrangements: squamous, cuboidal, or columnar epithelia.
Danielle and another friend, Brenda, who Danielle said, a€?has a twisted sense of humor,a€? would write songs with ridiculous lyrics.
For Danielle, they included John Irving (for his humor as well as his dramatic flair), Tim Oa€™Brien (Vietnam War novelist, not the bluegrass performer), satirist David Sedaris and Lorrie Moore (a€?humorous and poignant short storiesa€? a€” Wikipedia). There was an epiphany of sorts in that they both realized life is too short to waste on doing things you have no love for.
Later, she asked a friend to follow her design to make a hollow device like a footrest that she could attach to her stool. Also, she mentioned that it seemed less desperate than standing when playing in a noisy bar. For Danielle, they includedA  John Irving (for his humor as well as his dramatic flair), Tim Oa€™Brien (Vietnam War novelist, not the bluegrass performer), satirist David Sedaris and Lorrie Moore (a€?humorous and poignant short storiesa€? a€” Wikipedia). She finds it fundamentally impossible to repeat someone elsea€™s stylings note-for-note a€” shea€™ll develop her own version instead.
He married his high-school sweetheart and his first daughter, Kristina, was born the day before he graduated high school. Second, when you pull the pin, don't forget to throw the grenade!" Chris found both pieces of advice very useful. The basal lamina attaches to a reticular lamina, which is secreted by the underlying connective tissue, forming a basement membrane that helps hold it all together.
The alveoli of lungs where gases diffuse, segments of kidney tubules, and the lining of capillaries are also made of simple squamous epithelial tissue. Combinations of tubes and pockets are known as tubuloalveolar (tubuloacinar) compound glands.
Apocrine glands release secretions by pinching off the apical portion of the cell, whereas holocrine gland cells store their secretions until they rupture and release their contents.
However the world views her as a blues singer, shea€™s well-prepared for original songwriting.
Danielle also studied from an instructional DVD of Mississippi John Hurta€™s guitar style by Happy Traum and John Sebastian that combined video and tablature transcription. When Chris heard this, he didn't believe it at first, thinking that way of life had ended around 1942.
Some of the songs played in that circle would go on to be included in the recordings of the Fast Folk Musical Magazine, founded by Hardy. And Mr Marconi, ladies and gentlemen, with his transmitters and wireless signals You might ask where would Francis Albert be without Mr.
In both cases, the transported materials are usually swallowed, and end up in the acidic environment of your stomach. The adhesion molecule, cadherin, is embedded in these patches and projects through the cell membrane to link with the cadherin molecules of adjacent cells.
The mesothelium is a simple squamous epithelium that forms the surface layer of the serous membrane that lines body cavities and internal organs. When she returned home, Danielle began attending open mics, kick-starting what would become her career.
I would be putting together help desk manuals, and then Ia€™d write a song about how miserable I was. Along with Jack, Chris was hanging out with Frank Tedesso, David Massengill, Richard Shindell, Richard Julian and Hugh Blumenfeld. He also played guitar and sang around the local circuit.A  Although he would realize later, that a number of elements in his life were leading up to the next chapter in his life, there was one catalyst that sealed the deal. The lining of the mouth cavity is an example of an unkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. The male of the species got off easy this time, but that doesna€™t mean she hasna€™t been watching.
Then Ia€™d tell someone to re-boot their computer, which is usually the solution to every problem.
Hemidesmosomes, which look like half a desmosome, link cells to the extracellular matrix, for example, the basal lamina. Mesothelial cells are squamous epithelial cells that secrete a fluid that lubricates the mesothelium.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium and stratified columnar epithelium can also be found in certain glands and ducts, but are uncommon in the human body. She tinkered around with some acoustic fingerstyle guitar while in high school, copying selected songs by Randy Rhodes and the band, Heart.
Bauman began regularly attending Hardy's weekly workshops at age 19 and continued coming into the city for Jack's song circle for almost 3 years. While similar in appearance to desmosomes, they include the adhesion proteins called integrins rather than cadherins. Adherens junctions use either cadherins or integrins depending on whether they are linking to other cells or matrix. Observing that music could be personal, something you could write yourself and tell your own story in ita€¦ that's when it all clicked. The junctions are characterized by the presence of the contractile protein actin located on the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane.



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