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By edict of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1635, the country's regional lords (daimyo) were required to reside in Edo during alternate years.
A word coined in the 19th century to refer to the outcast classes known as "eta" and "hinin." During the Edo period, discrimination was based on the warrior-farmer-artisan-merchant-nonperson hierarchical caste system. This is the title for the territorial warlords who had autonomous control of their domains. Fudai: daimyo from other clans who had been loyal to Tokugawa Ieyasu before he became shogun.
Tozama: daimyo who swore loyalty to the Tokugawa clan after the Battle of Sekigahara when Tokugawa became shogun.
This is the Japanese word for the outdoor footwear in use during the Edo Period, which consisted of a thong attached to a wooden platform with two crosswise supports. A game for two players in which black and white stones are placed on the intersections of lines on a playing board.
Kabuki is one of three major forms of classical theatrical entertainment in Japan (Bunraku and Noh are two others). Abbreviation of the Sei-i-tai-shogun, which means "Barbarian-subduing Generalissimo." The title was first used in the 8th century for Japan's supreme rulers. Established by Tokugawa Ieyasu, the Tokugawa Shogunate consisted of 12 shoguns who ruled from 1603-1868. This period stretched from the late 16th century when Tokugawa Ieyasu cemented his rule over Japan until 1868 when the last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, resigned.
A term that means "pictures of the floating world." Ukiyo-e emerged in the early part of the Edo period and flourished from 1680-1850. Founded in 1617, Yoshiwara was a pleasure district in Tokyo—gated, walled and surrounded by a moat.
There were five major highways in Japan during the Tokugawa Era, and the Tokaido (Eastern Sea Road) was the busiest and most important. Ando Hiroshige, a famous landscape artist, sketched the "Fifty-Three Stages on the Tokaido," which captures the route's 53 government posts. The following sources were consulted during the making of Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire.
Auslin, Michael, Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy, Harvard University Press, 2004.
Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Hideyoshi, Council of East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press, 1982. Bottomley, Ian and Hopson, Anthony, Arms and Armour of the Samurai, Crescent Books, New Jersey, 1996. Cooper, Michael, They Came to Japan: An Anthology of European Reports on Japan 1543-1640, University of Michigan Press, 1995. Cooper, Michael, Southern Barbarians: The First Europeans in Japan, Kodansha International in cooperation with Sophia University, 1971. Cooper, Michael, This Island of Japon: Joao Rodriques's Account of 16th Century Japan, Kodansha International, 1973. Downer, Lesley, Women of the Pleasure Quarters: The Secret History of the Geisha, Broadway Books, 2001. Elison, George, Deus Destroyed, Harvard University East Asian Studies Center, Harvard University Press, 1991.


Farris, William Wayne, Heavenly Warriors, Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1995.
Fields, George, The Japanese Market Culture: George Fields in Japan, The Japan Times, 1988.
Giles, Milton, Samurai William: The Englishman Who Opened Japan, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.
Hurlimann, Martin and Francis King, Japan, Copyright 1970 Thames & Hudson Ltd and Martin Hurlimann.
Ikegami, Eiko, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Modern Japan, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Ikegami, Eiko, Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and Political Origins of Japanese Culture, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Jansen, Marius B., The Making of Modern Japan, The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University Press, 2000. Keene, Donald, Travelers of a Hundred Ages: The Japanese as Revealed Through 1,000 Years of Diarie, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1989. Keene, Donald, The Japanese Discovery of Europe: 1720-1830, Stanford University Press, 1952. Kokichi, Katsu , translated by Teruko Craig, Musui's Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai, The Arizona Board of Regents, reprinted by permission of the University of Arizona Press, 1988. Leupp, Gary, Servants, Shophands, and Laborers in the Cities of Tokugawa Japan, Princeton University Press.
Nakane, Chie and Oishi, Shinzaburo, editors and translation edited by Totman, Conrad, Tokugawa Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 1990.
Saikaku, Ihara, translated by Robert Lyons Danley, Opening Night at the Capital, The Literary Review, Spring, 1996.
Screech, Timon, The Lens Within the Heart: The Western Scientific Gaze and Popular Imagery in Later Edo Japan, University of Hawaii Press, 2002. Seigle, Cecilia Segawa, Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan, University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
Tames, Richard, Servant of the Shogun, Paul Norbury Publications Limited, Kent, England, 1981. Tsunetemo, Yamamoto, The Book of the Samurai Hagakure, Kodansha International, reprinted 1983. Tsujo, Inoue, translated by Sumiko Urquhart and Izumi Tanaka, Tokai Nikki and Kika Nikki, Japan. Vaporis, Constantine, Breaking Barriers: Travel and the State in Early Modern Japan, Harvard University Press, 1995. Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi, Anti-Foreignism and Western Learning in Early-Modern Japan, Harvard University Press, 1986. Wiley, Peter Booth with Korogi Ichiro, Yankees in the Land of The Gods: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan, Viking Press, 1990.
This policy was known as "Sankin Kotai," and it helped the shoguns maintain control of the daimyo since adhering to the requirement was both time-consuming and costly, leaving the daimyo little money to raise armies or munitions.
A versatile chanter provided voices for all the puppets, with musical accompaniment provided by a shamisen. There were approximately 260 domains during the Tokugawa era, categorized according to their relationship to the shogun.


The object is to surround the opponent's stones and secure control of the open spaces on the board. Samurai warriors were the elite of pre-modern Japan and became the ruling class during the late 12th century. The Chinese characters used to write this term are "cutting" and "abdomen," in that order.
The genre is composed mostly of woodblock prints (though it does include some paintings) that became popular among the prosperous merchant classes. The district was maintained until 1957 when licensed prositution quarters were banned throughout Japan. Partly due to Sankin Kotai, which forced the country's daimyo lords to journey to Edo every other year, the roads bustled with elaborate daimyo processions, samurai warriors, masterless samurai (ronin), monks and various other travelers.
Philipp Franz von, Manners and Customs of the Japanese in the Nineteenth Century, Charles E.
Its origin is attributed to a woman who led a company of female performers in outdoor performances featuring dance and bawdy skits. The game is similar to chess, although one difference is that a player can use his opponent's captured pieces. The subject matter usually focuses on life in the entertainment districts, the popular courtesans of the time, and famous Kabuki actors. The principal operator supported the puppet with his left arm and hand, and controlled movable eyelids, eyeballs and mouth with his right hand.
At the time, Kabuki meant "shocking" or "out of the ordinary," and the success of these players stemmed from their eroticism. In committing seppuku, Japanese cut their abdomens because they believed that was where the soul was contained.
In 1607, the Tokugawa Shogunate established an office for shogi and go, which led to professional competitions for these games. Woodblock-print artists depicted Yoshiwara's beauties and kabuki actors, while popular novelists celebrated its escapades. The first assistant operated the puppet's left arm while the second assistant manipulated the puppet's legs. Audience reaction was so extreme to these initial Kabuki performances that female Kabuki players were soon banned, replaced by male performers. Seppuku was considered an honorable form of execution, allowing a samurai to choose the moment of death. Yoshiwara guidebooks best sellers, and fashionable Edo men were expected to know the district's etiquette.
Kabuki became one of Edo's major forms of entertainment with performances starting early in the morning and lasting all day.



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