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The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans.
The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions.
This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American.
According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks.
As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.
In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history.
In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage.
In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism.
The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S.
During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.
21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations".
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.
In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. ACTUALLY DIED AT AGH, WHICH OF COURSE THEY ACCOMPLISHED (even though Canonsburg General Hospital is the rehab's NEXT DOOR NEIGHBOR!). G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school.
The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man.
10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S.
Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890.
In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.
It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v.
Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964.
The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.
On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage.
Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.
The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.


Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American.
Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft.
United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements.
The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.
They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W.
Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000.
More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.
Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks.
This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black.
449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama.
Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.
At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro".
Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks.
He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing.
The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals.
The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.


Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution? Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States).
Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out. So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone.
One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats.
In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy. Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser. You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him.
Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing. This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while.
While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday. The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat. A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group.
Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage. When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations.
This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs. The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs. Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR.
My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war. We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals?
I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians.
By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj. The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just. Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop. Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote.
And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem. Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.




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