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Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12 in the periodic table of elements. In human biology, magnesium is the eleventh most abundant element by mass in the human body. Magnesium is not easily absorbed in the body unless first attached to a transporting substance.
Magnesium Chloride (E511): This is a form of magnesium which is found in nature and is a common component of sea waters.
Magnesium acetyl taurinate (ATA-Mg): ATA Mg®, a new Magnesium Vector with proven physiological effect. Magnesium glycinate: Chemists form magnesium glycinate by bonding the mineral magnesium ions with glycine. Magnesium amino chelate or Magnesium chelate: The generic drug name for chelated magnesium is magnesium amino acids chelate. Magnesium aspartate: Vitamin and mineral supplements are often wasted, because of inadequate absorption by the body.
The amount of chelation of the aspartic acid with the magnesium affects the chemistry of the final product. Magnesium stearate (E572): Magnesium stearate, also called 'octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt'. Magnesium stearate is made by hydrogenating palm or cottonseed oil, and makes it an effective lubricant for supplement production.
Magnesium sulphate (E518): This is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulphur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. Magnesium carbonate (E504): Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is an inorganic salt that is a white solid.
In large doses, magnesium carbonate goes from antacid to laxative and can therefore be used to soften the stool as well.
E-number E504 as an acidity regulator, alkali, and anti-caking agent for many different products. In 1618 a farmer by the name of Henry Wicker at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well. In 1808, Sir Humphrey Davy first isolated several of the alkaline earth metals, naming them after their oxides as barium, strontium, calcium, and magnium.
Richard Willstatter won the Nobel prize in 1915 for describing the nature of the structure of chlorophyll in plants, noting magnesium as the central element.
Magnesium compounds ensure proper bowel function, strengthen the stomach and provide a good acid-base balance in the stomach.
Magnesium supplements are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, chews, liquids and powders. One factor that affects the effectiveness of magnesium supplements is the amount of elemental magnesium they contain.
The Magnesium substances which are allowed to be added to food in Europe, according to Regulation (EG) Nr. Magnesium is an important catalyst for chemical reactions of the body, which means that it increases the rate at which chemical reactions occur.
Magnesium is required for strong bones, a healthy immune system, normal nerve and muscle function, a regular heart rhythm and to convert food into energy. Magnesium provides support in maintaining the normal balance in the water and mineral management.
Magnesium helps to maintain the normal balance in the water and mineral metabolism of the body.
Magnesium contributes to the brain and nervous functions that are involved in the reasoning. For Magnesium is under "SOURCE OF [NAME OF MINERA (A) L (S)]" means a daily amount which is at least 15% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Magnesium is an important catalyst for the body's chemical reactions, meaning that it increases the rate at which chemical reactions occur.
Studies show supplemental magnesium in pregnancy also decreases the risk of birth defects such as cerebral palsy.
Low levels of magnesium in the body have been associated with the development of a number of human illnesses such as; asthma, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Magnesium is needed for strong bones, a healthy immune system, normal nerve- and muscle function, a steady heart rhythm and for turning food into energy.
In vegetation, magnesium is the metallic ion at the centre of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.
A refractory material is one that is physically and chemically stable at high temperatures. Magnesium stearate is often used as an anti-adherent in the manufacture of beneficial tablets, capsules and powders. Magnesium stearate is also used to bind sugar in hard candies like mints, and is a common ingredient in baby formulas.
Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate is used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria. Acute magnesium poisoning is rare and difficult to achieve unless magnesium compounds are administered intravenously.
In 2010 the European Parliament approved the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) dosage of Magnesium to be 375 mg Magnesium per day for adults.
The UL, on the other hand, is the maximum daily intake unlikely to result in adverse health effects. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for magnesium represents intake from pharmacological agents only, and does not include intake from food and water. Magnesium supplements may not be safe for people who take diuretics, heart medicines, or antibiotics. People with diabetes, intestinal disease, heart disease or kidney disease should not take magnesium before speaking with an expert. Extreme magnesium overdose can result in serious complication such as slow heartbeat, low blood pressure, nausea, drowsiness, etc. High doses of magnesium (typically delivered by IV) should not be given to people with heart block. Avoid in patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to magnesium or products made from it.
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Conclusion: This study demonstrates a correlation between higher neonatal magnesium levels and decreased risk for long-term abnormal motor exam.
Preterm birth can lead to a wide range of motor and intellectual disabilities affecting up to 35% of survivors (1–4).
The neurodevelopmental problems in prematurely born infants are caused by a variety of complex pathophysiological mechanisms (10, 11) with few therapeutic options (12). Magnesium sulfate administered antenatally has been found to reduce rates of cerebral palsy when given prior to preterm birth (18–20).
Our hypothesis was that postnatal magnesium could serve a neuroprotective role in the developing premature brain. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated serum magnesium levels in VLBW infants and compared these with long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, specifically epilepsy, and abnormal motor exam.


This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare (IH). Data extraction and analysis were performed retrospectively in a cohort of premature infants born at an IH hospital and who were seen in follow-up in the Utah State Department of Health Neonatal Follow-up Program. We queried the EDW using unique identifiers assigned to each of the cohort infants for the period including up to 5 years after birth. We collected all total serum magnesium levels (n = 223) drawn on a cohort of 75 very-low birth weight (VLBW) infants during their initial, post-birth hospitalization (Table 1). We examined the correlation between postnatal magnesium levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Our study raises the possibility that there may be a broader window of opportunity for magnesium administration in premature infants to help improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Animal model data show a neuroprotective role for magnesium against injury in the developing CNS (25–27). Limitations of this study included sample size, retrospective data collection, and missing follow-up for some infants. Our pilot findings raise the possibility that magnesium levels during a critical developmental time window could affect neurological outcome.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Background: Therapeutic hypothermia provides up to 30% neuroprotection in moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). How to cite this article:Rahman SU, Canpolat FE, Oncel MY, Evli A, Dilmen U, Parappil H, Anabrees J, Hassan K, Khashaba M, Noor IA, Lum LC, Siham A, Akar M, Tuzun H, Rahmani A, Rahman M, Haboub L, Rijims M, Jaafar R, Key LY, Tagin M. How to cite this URL:Rahman SU, Canpolat FE, Oncel MY, Evli A, Dilmen U, Parappil H, Anabrees J, Hassan K, Khashaba M, Noor IA, Lum LC, Siham A, Akar M, Tuzun H, Rahmani A, Rahman M, Haboub L, Rijims M, Jaafar R, Key LY, Tagin M. 23.Lawn JE, Cousens S, Zupan J, Lancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team 4 million neonatal deaths: When?
34.Costantine MM, Weiner SJ, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network.
Its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. For this reason, many supplement manufacturers have "chelated" magnesium to organic and amino acids. As an amino acid, taurine can enhance absorption of magnesium due to the active transport systems that exist for these compounds. Magnesium chelate helps maintain strong bones, aids in lowering cholesterol levels and has a soothing effect on the head. The best form is magnesium citrate powder, which can be taken every day when mixed with water. As a supplement, magnesium gluconate has the best bio-availability of all magnesium supplements. Some of the most important chemical reactions that involve magnesium are in the Krebs's cycle, the cycle inside every cell that leads to energy production. Dietary Reference Intakes is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intake for healthy people.
However, a moderate overdose will be excreted through the kidneys, unless one suffers from serious kidney problems.
This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Magnesium supplementation has been suggested to have neuroprotective function in the developing brain. Average total serum magnesium level in the neonate during the period of prematurity was the main independent variable assessed, tested using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
Larger studies are needed to evaluate the hypothesis that higher neonatal magnesium levels can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Very-low birth weight (VLBW) infants with birth weight less than 1500 g have elevated rates of cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, intellectual disability, and behavioral problems (5, 6).
Further, the complications of preterm birth are now also recognized to damage both gray matter and axon tracts and to lead to impaired neurodevelopment (13–17).
Magnesium has also been found in small studies to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in term infants with birth asphyxia (21–24). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data suggest that longer exposure of premature infants to the extrauterine environment results in increasing impairments of CNS connectivity (28).
We recorded magnesium levels during the initial hospitalization, for the time period when the infants were still premature (less than 37 weeks gestation). Data were anonymously collected and analyzed with no identifying information, and a waiver of informed consent was obtained. Selected demographic, birth, laboratory, and outcome characteristics of the excluded patients n = 27 (no magnesium levels drawn). First, for the outcome of the abnormal motor exam, data from the Utah State Department of Health Neonatal Follow-up Program were obtained. Abnormal motor exam, which was defined as the presence of cerebral palsy, hypotonia, or spasticity, was assessed between 20 and 36 months after birth. Strip scatterplots of average magnesium levels (x-axis) and neurodevelopmental outcomes, for abnormal motor exam (A), and epilepsy (B). While prenatal magnesium administration has been associated with a decreased risk of cerebral palsy (18–20), our study demonstrates that postnatal serum magnesium levels in VLBW infants may be associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. That is, perhaps magnesium supplementation could also be considered in premature infants and not only in mothers at risk for preterm birth. Further, in term infants with birth asphyxia a potentially protective role has been suggested for magnesium (21–24).
While the presence of an abnormal neuro-motor exam can be determined by age 20 months as was done in this study, a more extensive longitudinal study with objective scoring, such as using the Bailey Scale of Infant Development, would provide more reliable outcomes data. Additional neuroprotection may be achieved by using concomitant pharmacologic neuroprotective agents.
Multicenter randomized controlled trial of therapeutic hypothermia plus magnesium sulfate versus therapeutic hypothermia plus placebo in the management of term and near-term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (The Mag Cool study): A pilot study.
Hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: Synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data. Magnesium is not consistently neuroprotective for perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in term-equivalent models in preclinical studies: A systematic review. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: An updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. Neuropsychological and educational problems at school age associated with neonatal encephalopathy. Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: A review.
Magnesium for newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia: A safety study.


Long-term neuroprotective effects of allopurinol after moderate perinatal asphyxia: Follow-up of two randomised controlled trials. Erythropoietin improved neurologic outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Effects of antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate on neuroprotection and mortality in preterm infants: A meta-analysis. Combined magnesium and mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) treatment reduces infarct volumes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat at 2 and 4, but not 6 h. Post-ischemic modest hypothermia (35 degrees C) combined with intravenous magnesium is more effective at reducing CA1 neuronal death than either treatment used alone following global cerebral ischemia in rats.
Cardiovascular changes during mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Magnesium is a useful supplement for PMS symptoms that involves irritability and mood swings.
It regulates the heartbeat, prevents the calcification of arteries and relaxes arterial vessels to prevent hypertension. Our objective was to determine whether higher neonatal serum magnesium levels were associated with better long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in very-low birth weight infants.
While survival rates have improved dramatically for premature infants (7), neurodevelopmental outcomes have not (8). Further, several animal model studies suggest that magnesium could play neuroprotective roles in the developing vertebrate CNS (25–27).
We posited that magnesium could help protect connectivity development of premature infants, and that higher magnesium levels throughout the premature period could be neuroprotective.
The objective of our study was to determine whether higher neonatal magnesium levels are associated with improved long-term neurological outcomes.
Five patients were lost to follow-up; 27 patients had incomplete or missing data and were not included in analysis (Table 2). Of note, diagnoses of seizures at any time during the NICU hospitalization were excluded, as was the diagnosis of febrile seizures.
A standardized neurological motor exam was performed by a developmental pediatrician or pediatric neurologist when the infant was between 20 and 36 months of age. Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests were used to compare magnesium levels for the outcomes of seizures and of composite abnormal motor exams.
On average infants had their magnesium levels checked three times, but the number of magnesium levels checked ranged from 1 to 17 times (Table 3). The outcome of epilepsy was assessed for by following patient outcomes for up to 5 years after birth. Specifically, higher serum magnesium levels in preterm infants were associated with lower rates of an abnormal motor exam (spasticity, cerebral palsy, or hypotonia). Use of magnesium sulfate would have to be balanced with concerns for potential adverse side-effects in premature infants (29, 30). There are multiple potential mechanism(s) by which magnesium could exert neuroprotective effects. We excluded 32 infants from our analysis because of incomplete data, including a lack of magnesium levels. 500,000 births each year are premature, while worldwide it is estimated that 12.9 million infants yearly are born before 37 weeks gestation (9, 37, 38).
Neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, 1993-1994. The effect of chronic or intermittent hypoxia on cognition in childhood: a review of the evidence.
Cognitive, educational, and behavioural outcomes at 7 to 8 years in a national very low birthweight cohort. Motor development in very preterm and very low-birth-weight children from birth to adolescence: a meta-analysis.
Aim: The aim was to evaluate the safety of concomitant neuroprotective therapy of therapeutic hypothermia and magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) in the management of moderate and severe HIE in term and near-term infants. Magnesium has also been researched for its ability to reduce cholesterol and to protect against osteoporosis. Despite efforts to reduce preterm birth, the rate has remained relatively stable over the last few decades and was 11.7% in the United States in 2011 (9).
Serum magnesium levels were those drawn during the initial hospitalization up through the end of the premature period; defined as less than 37 weeks gestation. We also performed logistic regression analyses that included birth weight and magnesium level.
Another issue requiring further study will be research on the mechanism(s) of potential neuroprotection. The small sample size also led to limitations on performing multivariate regression analyzes (34).
This significant burden of prematurity, with its attendant risks for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, warrants further investigations into potential neuroprotective roles for magnesium after preterm birth. Sources of financial support: RGF was funded in part by NIH grant U10 HD053124 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. IH is a large, vertically integrated not-for-profit health care system in the Intermountain West encompassing 23 hospitals including the single children’s hospital. Second, for the outcome of epilepsy, we followed the infants for up to 5 years after birth using the EDW.
For multivariate logistic regression analysis we modeled birth weight and magnesium levels by analysis of quartiles.
While they showed a trend toward lower magnesium levels associated with increased risk for abnormal motor outcome or for epilepsy, the sample size was underpowered and did not show statistically significant differences (Table 5).
Another bias could arise because timing of magnesium level blood draws were not evenly distributed in the different infants; and were not distributed evenly across the hospitalization.
EASC was funded in part by NIH grant K23 HD061910 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Antenatal, perinatal, and follow-up data were extracted for each patient in the cohort from the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) maintained by IH. We defined epilepsy as any encounter that had a record of the patient having had a seizure and for which the patient was placed on an anti-epileptic drug.
JLB was funded in part by NIH grants K08 DA024753 and DP2 MH100008, from the March of Dimes Foundation, and from the Primary Children’s Medical Center Foundation. The outcome of epilepsy excluded seizures that occurred solely during the NICU hospitalization; and febrile seizures. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of serum magnesium can be affected by both endogenous and iatrogenic factors, including medications and calcium metabolism.
In fact, normative premature infant magnesium levels, and effects of maternal magnesium administration on neonatal levels, are under active study (35, 36), and are important subjects for future research. Conclusions: The combined use of therapeutic hypothermia and MgSO 4 appears to be safe particularly with respect to maintaining normal blood pressure and coagulopathy.



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