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May you seek, discover and embody, the profound peace, kindness and wisdom that is within us all. In the past few decades, the use of mindfulness has, especially within psychotherapy but also outside of the therapy world, become a sort of trend. Detached from the whole of Buddhist psychology, mindfulness can easily be seen simply as a mechanical, one-dimensional technique. In the following, I will attempt to introduce the canonic idea of mindfulness (sati) , included in the basic concepts of Buddhist psychology, as well as its connection with the healthy mind.
In this article, the terms of Buddhist psychology will be written in the language of Pali. According to American philosopher Ken Wilber, a knowledge of history may hold two types of meaning (Wilber,1999, p.
It is estimated that the classical phase began with the first World Parliament between religions, in 1893 (Kwee, 2010). The so-called second generation Buddhist psychologists, starting with Jung, have created a modern Buddhist psychology through their numerous scientific articles and books. In 1979, American medical professor Jon Kabat-Zinn founded a pain clinic into the medical school of the University of Massachusetts. Within the last ten years, in the postmodern phase of Buddhist psychology, a new wave called new Buddhist psychology has been born.
In order to understand Buddhist psychology in general and its concept of mindfulness in particular, it is good to know something about the basic tenets of the Buddhist wisdom tradition, the Dhamma. This tradition describes our ordinary, conditional existence through three empirical signs  (Rahula, 1974). Life as it is usually lived cannot give us a perfect and lasting satisfaction, because our existence contains a thoroughgoing dissatisfaction, which causes suffering (duhkha).
The basis of Buddhist thinking is also traditionally expressed through the so-called Four Noble or Ennobling Truths (Nyanaponika Thera, 1962). There are eight strategies (the Noble Eightfold Path), with which we may be liberated from the suffering brought on by selfish wanting. These basic tenets of Buddhism contain certain assumptions about the human mind and practicing it. People are often unaware of experiencing the present moment and act reactively, on so-called autopilot. We have the skill to develop and practice a non-judging, accepting and clear understanding, which offers us more awareness of the contents of our minds. The rich feeling of living comes from being aware of our experience that changes from one moment to the next, and of how it is constructed. This sort of tenacious and non-judging attention of mind contents makes it possible to perceive reality as it is. When our skill of perception with both internal and external stimuli has advanced to a more precise level, that is a level that corresponds to reality, we may also act more freely and purposefully in any given situation.
Buddhist psychology describes the structure of our experience with five categories, called khandas or the five aggregats. This experience and practicing mindfulness begins when we are in contact (phasso) with what happens in the now. So far, I have discussed four out of the five khandas or aggregates labelled by the Abidhamma: material form, consciousness, emotion, and perception.
Therefore, what we usually call the self is, according to Buddhist pscyhology, a process made of five dynamic, psychophysical phenomena groups or aggregats.
The wide-reaching description of human experience and analysis introduced in the Abhidhamma has become a particular object of interest for Western human sciences lately.
Mindfulness (sati) has a very central significance among the different categories of Buddhist psychology (Table 1).
Therefore, mindfulness does not simply mean being there in the now, but rather being aware of our body, emotions, thoughts and mind. In Buddhist psychology, clear comprehension means an understanding of the nature of conditional reality: impermanence (anicca), thoroughgoing dissatisfaction (dukkha), and the lack of self (anatta). By paying attention to the constant disappearance and reappearance of phenomena in the different areas of our experience, we may gradually reach a visceral understanding of the impermanence of our minds, worlds, and selves.
By observing our each experience from both an external and an internal viewpoint, we may gradually begin to understand the interaction of our sense organs and the objects of sensing, as well as the way in which our minds build the inner world of experience in this process. By practicing pure attention of our experience, without conceptualizing, interpreting, or valuing, we may catch a glimpse of ever-changing reality. Observing one’s breathing in the way Buddha guides us to do is perhaps the most central and traditional area of mindfulness. Another area of body awareness in satipatthā meditation is the awareness of various body positions. The third traditional area of body awareness in Buddhist psychology are the various functions of the body. The traditional Indian mandala of the four elements represents the four states of matter: solidity, liquidity, temperature and movement.
The final part of body awareness, awareness of the body’s destruction and death, is realized through visualization or reflection. While practicing mindfulness, we experience, in addition to our intellectual understanding, we understand the mutual dependent origins of the phenomena of our bodyminds, as well as gradually realize that no phenomenon exists based on an independent, inner identity. When practicing mindfulness regularly and for longer periods of time,  the meditator usually gains a new relationship with his or her mind contents and reality.
As relative reality is real in our experience, the relative health one experiences is also true in one’s mind. Liberating ourselves of the virtual world created by our minds happens when we see it as it is, in its suchness. Buddhist psychology and Western psychotherapies have very different understandings of suffering. According to Buddhist thinking, our egos are born out of a lack of trust we have for our human existence, a difficulty to accept the basic emptiness of our existence, i.e.
At their most ideal, healthy and skillful states of mind manifest themselves in the life of an enlightened person, or arahat.
It may be that the interest in Buddhist psychology and its methods, ever growing in Western science, tells us of one common fact and the longing related to it: suffering that is part of human life, and the wish to be free of it. Mindfulness practice, inherited from the Buddhist tradition, is being employed in Western psychology  to alleviate a variety of mental and physical conditions, including obsessive compulsive disorder and anxiety, and in the prevention of relapse in depression and drug addiction.
Mindfulness is a beneficial practice for everyone.  Over time, mindfulness brings mental fitness, just as exercise brings physical fitness.
You can live life in a more fulfilling way when you are engaged with the reality of your present experience, setting aside habits such as being judgemental or critical of yourself or others and letting life be just as it is.
Releasing yourself from the constant conflict inherent in wanting things to be other than how they actually are frees you up to make the most of what life offers. There may be hints to the answer in the texts of Buddhist psychology, which examine the nature of life itself and suggest ways to live more successfully and with greater discipline.
Before considering the best path toward change, however, it is important to consider how much control we actually have over our minds in the first place. The following highlights from the Eightfold Path, otherwise known as the Middle Way, describe what is necessary in order to realize our most cherished aspirations and New Year's resolutions. Wisdom: A major component of wisdom is coming to grasp the truth of the human condition more fully. Mental Development: Most important to keeping promises to ourselves in the new year is the development of our mental attitude and the maturing of our moral toughness.
This site is designed to provide you with helpful information as you decide whether to enter therapy and, if so, with whom.
Please call me at (206) 898-0515 with your questions or to schedule an initial appointment.
Mindfulness is the focusing of attention and awareness, based on the concept of mindfulness in Buddhist meditation, though not inherently religious, and is often taught independent of religion. The first component of mindfulness involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment.
The practice can disrupt the brain's ability to tell the difference between real and false memories, scientists find.
People are wasting valuable thinking time on mediation and mindfulness and should stop trying to clear their heads, an Oxford University academic has claimed.
Talk of mindfulness -- and its capacity to improve health and well being -- seems to be everywhere these days. In the past few decades, research on meditation and other mindfulness practices has flourished, shedding light on both the way that mindfulness affects the brain and its physical and mental health benefits. Group mindfulness treatment is as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with depression and anxiety, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden and Region Skane.
New published research has shown that mindfulness meditation has the ability to temporarily alter practitioners' perceptions of time - a finding that has wider implications for the use of mindfulness both as an everyday practice, and in clinical treatments and interventions.
Led by Dr Robin Kramer from Kent's School of Psychology, the research team hypothesized that, given mindfulness' emphasis on moment-to-moment awareness, mindfulness meditation would slow down time and produce the feeling that short periods of time lasted longer. To test this hypothesis, they used a temporal bisection task, which allows researchers to measure where each individual subjectively splits a period of time in half. The reasons for this have been interpreted by Dr Kramer and team as the result of attentional changes, producing either improved attentional resources that allow increased attention to the processing of time, or a shift to internally-oriented attention that would have the same effect.
The benefits of mindfulness and mindfulness-based therapies in a variety of domains are now being identified. Mindfulness-based treatments also appear to provide broad antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects, as well as decreases in general psychological distress.
Demonstrating that mindfulness has an effect on time perception is important because it opens up the opportunity that mindfulness could be used to alter psychological disorders that are associated with a range of distortions in the perception of time - such as disorders of memory, emotion and addiction. We are told to live in the present moment, eat, make love, parent mindfully, be there, banish our stress and enrich our personal experience with the help of mindful presence.
I do this partially for myself, but also for all of those who are dealing with this skill in this moment, or will be dealing with it in the future. It is the language used by Buddha, and it was used to write down his teachings from the oral tradition four hundred years after he died. There are many separate schools, which however contain several universal and shared views.
It can be roughly divided into four phases: the archaic, the classical, the modern and the postmodern (Kwee, 2010).

According to Timo Klemola, the actual basis of mindfulness is exploring and understanding the suffering nature of life and becoming free of suffering (Klemola, 2013). All conditional things and events exist only as a result of the combined effects of reasons and consequences.
This path combines wisdom, ethicalness and  mind practising in a way that provides us with the opportunity to enlighten our delusions and wake up to a good life. When our unconscious and reactive actions are replaced with appropriate responses, we are also more free to make choices.
Its function is to interpret what we are seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling or thinking, at any given moment. Ignorance (avidyā) does not mean that we know nothing, but rather that we consider the perishable, unclean, painful and non-self eternal, pure, happy and self. This process is constantly recreated while we are in contact with a constantly changing environment (Olendzki, 2005). When we verbalize this event and describe ourselves through social roles, strengths, weaknesses, and desires, we are making this living process solid. In addition to being a mental skill, a wholesome and skillful mind quality that arises only in certain special situations, it is also an important component among the seven qualities leading to enlightenment and the separate inner powers.
Atāpi, ardency or energy, refers to that inner power that we consciously need when we begin to meditate. Here, gone to the forest, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut,he sits down; having folded his legs crosswise, set his body erect, and established mindfulness in front of him, mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. We may practice mindfulness in all the informal meditation situations of everyday life: when we direct our eyes to the front or back, when we stretch or bend our bodies, when we eat, drink, defecate, urinate, walk, fall asleep, wake up, talk, or as we are quiet.
For instance, if we believe that physical exercise is healthy, we experience an enhancement in our health after strenuous physical exercise. Mental health, then, is the perfect and unconditional acceptance of the realities of human life. They are psychological functions we use to shield ourselves against existential suffering. In the world of such an ideal person, unwholesome mind states have entirely disappeared and been permanently replaced by motives, perceptions, and actions brought on by wholesome mind states. They receive their power from the belief systems dominant in each culture at any given time. Just being able to concentrate and focus better brings rewards.  People report more zest for life and feeling calmer and happier with regular practice. New Year's Eve comes and goes, and our New Year's resolutions, promised so fiercely at the stroke of midnight, are dismissed shortly thereafter, fading away over time, like friends who've moved to another city. In these teachings, one might find a blueprint for how to generate the commitment necessary to keep those well-intended resolutions. They include: right view, right intention (wisdom), right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration (mental discipline). If we do not know this, we are victims of the unsettled quality of the mind and our confused thinking process. The skillful means to do so are achievable by focusing on these five particular aspects of the Eightfold Path: having the right view and intention, and exerting right effort, mindfulness and concentration. Using a mindfulness-based approach, I work with people who are feeling stuck, overwhelmed, or at a crossroads — whether due to depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties, loss and grief, eating concerns, health issues, or career and life transitions — to find their way to a greater sense of possibilities, freedom and ease. I would be glad to talk with you by phone if you would like to learn more about my work and how it might meet your needs. Modern clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications.
The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one's experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance. Mindfulness, the form of meditation embraced by business leaders, celebrities and the NHS, might not be so beneficial for the mind after all, according to research.
Theodore Zeldin said too many people were avoiding using their brains and instead escaping into a state of blank mental oblivion. From stress reduction, to exercise, to eating and weight management, mindfulness practices are increasingly being recognized for their therapeutic benefits. Mindfulness is a practice of gently focusing one's attention and awareness on the present moment. Personality scientists are forging new insights about how mindfulness affects human motivation and behavior, alongside health and wellbeing. This is the first randomized study to compare group mindfulness treatment and individual cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with depression and anxiety in primary health care. Within your space you can then become aware of your body, its posture and all of its sensations such as those coming from skin, muscles, organs and so on.
Participants' responses to this task were collected twice, once before and then again after a listening task. Findings represent some of the first to demonstrate how mindfulness meditation can alter the perception of time. These include decreases in rumination, improvements in cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity and sustained attention, and reductions in reactivity, anxiety and depressive symptoms.
As such, these interventions have been applied with a variety of patients, including those suffering from fibromyalgia, psoriasis, cancer, binge eating and chronic pain. Mindfulness, in the spirit of neo-liberalism, is becoming or has already become an external consumer or brand product, along with other products that accentuate our individuality.
What we need is constant long-term practice, so that bare attention and clear understanding can be used in a way that helps us acknowledge the effects of wholesome or skillful and unwholesome or unskilled states of mind on our well-being. Thus we may perhaps understand how extensive this issue is, and through this understanding, our own experience of it may become richer and more multilayered. I use these terms to arouse interest for the original concepts, which are sometimes impossible to fully translate. Instead it is a process, an event that we have identified with and grasped during our lives (anatta). Each sensation is unique and tells us what it feels like to have the experience in question right now. Through a wide net of association, memories, analyzing, learned perception categories, and linguistic functions, we create knowledge from each object of perception.
Ignorance is the first of the twelve explanations or reasons (nidānas) that cause for the Wheel of Life to spin reactively, causing us suffering. Our mind creates the illusion of continuity from separate, momentary experiences, somewhat similarly as a film’s separate still images create the illusion of constant movement (Malinen, 2011). This reminds us of how, in its original form, mindfulness is not passive, all-accepting, non-judging attention, but instead a very proactive sort of action with a certain mission. According to Buddhist psychology, it is good to understand the significance of these terms for functioning meditation practices.
With the help of widely understood and experienced mindfulness, it is possible to realize our body’s real, perishable nature as well as the delusion-like nature of the self, and to not attach oneself to these in an egocentric way. Thoughts, feelings, actions are happening as if by themselves without the impact of a separate self.
Or if we think that intercourse twice a week is a sign of health, our sexual well-being may decrease if we have not realized this concept during some weeks. It might also be inner pain because we cannot always get what we want, or we get what we do not want. All conditional things come into being only through the network that has a connection to this thing. Instead, the goal was to liberate the one practising them from what could nowadays be called pathogenic beliefs or suffering-causing cognitions. In the mind of the arahat, there is no greed for sensual pleasures, no anxiety, hatred, or fears. The healing methods of Maori culture have had only very little practical use in Helsinki, and psychoanalysis has been poorly suited to the Oriental societies of the globe. Our most important goal, which affects everything else we go, is the wish for inner satisfaction, joy and peace, a good life. Much as a monk learns to adhere to the rigors of a daily meditation practice, what might seem at first daunting in anticipation is experienced in reality as a breath of fresh air. That is why we find it so difficult to stick with our commitments: Our minds have an innate and persnickety tendency to wander here and there.
Right view simply means remembering the fact that we will never be able to get our mind to behave in the ways we want it to one hundred percent of the time. The only way to keep working to make resolutions come true is to want them to, with earnestness and committed engagement.
In order to play a tune on the piano, the student must concentrate on learning the music and using his or her hands in such a way as to make the music come alive.
Despite methodological weaknesses, the research on the application of mindfulness practices is promising.
The practice, which emphasizes paying deliberate attention to the present moment, can implant false memories, a study found. Mindfulness has been widely championed for inspiring creative thought, lowering depression and improving physical health and is even recommended by the NHS. In a mindful state, we allow ourselves to be aware of any thoughts, feelings, and physical experiences that occur, as well as to be aware of the environment that surrounds us.
Last week, some of the world's leading mindfulness researchers presented new studies highlighting outcomes of meditation at a symposium on mindfulness at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology's annual conference in Long Beach. The researchers, led by Professor Jan Sundquist, ran the study at 16 primary health care centres in Skane, a county in southern Sweden.
By separating people into two groups, participants listened for ten minutes to either an audiobook or a meditation exercise designed to focus their attention on the movement of breath in the body. Given the increasing popularity of mindfulness in everyday practice, its relationship with time perception may provide an important step in our understanding of this pervasive, ancient practice in our modern world. Our self has become a target of constant product development for the Western person; all of our time goes into the constant modification and training of the self.
When this happens, we may active fresh neural paths in our brains and, little by little, bring into our lives loving kindness, compassion and equanimity. First, however, a brief glimpse of how this concept and the practices related to it have landed in the Western world. On the one hand, it may be a mind-blowing metamorphosis, the death of all external beliefs.

At this time, it was a philosophical-ethical teaching, Dhamma, a sort of empirical-phenomenological science of the mind and experience. Mindfulness, however, helps make us aware that the stimulus and the feeling-tone related to it are two different things. Practising mindfulness gives us the opportunity to learn to enlighten the formations of our mind, so that we may gradually move away from automatic reactions to creative, compassionate action governed by the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex (Siegel, 2012).
This process of selfing is recreated again and again as we create a purposeful order for external and internal information.
Mindfulness is simply the bare attention of how the mind produces experiences of acceptance and aversion and the reactive reactions related to them (Mikulas, 2010). By practising our minds, slowing down our process of awareness, we may become aware of the way in which our concepts and understanding are born out of phenomena. This understanding also prevents Western therapy culture from adapting an overly bare version of mindfulness. In addition to this, mindfulness is practiced by becoming aware of the mind’s ethical qualities.
Or it might be pain related to our strivings to get what we do want, or our trying to hold onto what we like. In Buddhism, the various forms of suffering are described as the Six Realms (De Wit, 2000).
In Western psychology, ego is often imbued with the meaning of inner strength and self-esteem.
These unhealthy or unskilful perception-related, perishable cognitive-affective events that arise in the moment, as well as their opposites, could be observed systematically with the help of mindfulness.
As long as we make sure that in our interaction of Buddhist psychology and Western science, we act ecologically rather than ego-logically, and that we understand mindfulness from a wider perspective, we may move into an entirely new era of removing suffering in the future. In fact, resolutions usually made in desperation (I've got to lose weight this year!) become another excuse for guilt and self-denigration, another opportunity to feel like a failure. The way to get there can be found in what is called the Eightfold Path, the heart of the Buddha's famous "Four Noble Truths" and well-known way toward enlightenment.
Until we are aware of this undisciplined pattern of mind, we are at a loss to re-direct it. By getting rid of this unattainable expectation, we are more open to doing what is called for in the moment.
When the mind is more settled, like sand in a glass of water, thinking is clearer and decision-making wiser.
Research suggests that mindfulness practices are useful in the treatment of pain, stress, anxiety, depressive relapse, disordered eating, and addiction. Participants who engaged in a 15-minute meditation sessions were less able to distinguish between words they had seen written down, and those they had only thought about in their heads. Dr Zeldin said the practice was distracting people form discovering more about other people and the world around them, and encouraged them to instead seek to make new relationships with those who shared different views. This moment-to-moment awareness is accompanied by a non-judgmental acknowledgement of any and all thoughts and feelings.
They trained two mindfulness instructors, from different occupational groups, at each primary health care centre during a 6-day training course.
The results showed that the control group (audiobook) didn't change in their responses after the listening task compared with before. The goal was to end the suffering, the thoroughgoing unsatisfaction, related to human life. Suzuki, Carl Jung, Trungpa Rinpocke, Eric Fromm, Abraham Maslow, Jack Kornfield, Joseph Goldstein, just to mention a few.
This understanding is usually in the beginning simply an intellectual event, but by practicing mindfulness regularly and deepening it, our understanding generally turns into an experiential one. With the help of mindfulness we may, however, increase our attentiveness of this process, and with this, our perceptions may become more and more precise. Our mission, then, is to wake up into reality as it is, as well as illuminate our minds so that we may be liberated of the suffering caused by our selfish wanting (Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 2010). We learn to see reality as it is, not as we would wish to see it, or as it appears in our prejudices. Modern market economy-based advertising, which appeals to health, maintains this conceptual health based on the constant yearning of our minds. Seeing the samsara indirectly through the ego = experiencing the suffering of the samsara. They may be understood as inner states, forms of emotional-affective clinging with which we attempt to control existential suffering.
In Buddhist psychology, however, it is seen as a complex survival mechanism rooted deeply within the structure and function of our brains – which can change with experience, just like all the other mechanisms (Yongey, 2007). Penicillin, on the other hand, works and heals us despite culture, because the biological structure of human beings is by nature a universal whole.
How can resolutions be a point of positive self-growth, instead, where we make them, and keep them, and benefit from their healing and restorative powers? Becoming a student of this teaching, particularly in the areas that focus on wisdom and mental development, could show us how to follow through with resolutions, keeping the promises we make to ourselves.
Once we understand that the mind, by nature, jumps around, and we need not let its untamed nature distract us from the task at hand, we discover that a wide range of thoughts come and go, which we do not have to follow. In this way we don't necessarily have to feel like doing something -- with our thinking in total agreement -- in order to do what we know we must in order to stay committed to our goals. The most intense of the tasks we are called upon to do demand our concentration and heartfelt attention. There are also studies looking into the benefits of mindfulness for those who do not suffer from these disorders, such as Mindfulness-based stress reduction. When we practice mindfulness, we accept all thoughts and feelings as they come and go, assigning no judgment or criticism to them -- or to ourselves for having them.
It was gathered from oral tradition to a unified whole approximately 400 years after the death of Buddha, and it has been introduced in a canonic text, or basket, titled Abhidhamma. History as an interpretation, a translation, provides the separate self with the experience of meaningfulness and significance. Buddhist psychoanalysts like Mark Epstein, Jeffrey Rubin, Jeremy Safran, Joseph Bobrow, Robert Langan, Harvey Aronson , and Barry Magid have also helped enrich both psychoanalysis and Buddhist psychology with their studies that emphasize mutuality. Does it arise from greed, hatred and ignorance, or from generousness, loving kindness and wisdom? The mind only feels restlessness in its many forms and gradations: the mind equals restlessness. However, according to the contemplative tradition, everyone that has not freed him- or herself of the conceptual world can only experience relative health. In a state of absolute health, even happiness is a state of mind that comes and goes, much like joy, sadness, or depression (Klemola, 2012). The common factor in both of these forms of suffering is that they are born out of the unskillful moves of our minds.
The Buddhist concept of non-self, however, does not mean minimizing the strengths of normal pscyhological functions or the self. It is nearly impossible to show a similar universality when it comes to psychological structures. We come to see that we can always return our discursive minds to the present moment, making the choice to stay on task and follow through on commitments to goals we have set. In a mindful state, with our focus on the present moment, we look neither forward to backward.
The fourth object of attention and mindfulness in the Satipatthāna Sutta are the various mental categories that help define Buddhist psychology.
Despite these changing states of mind, we may be content with our lives and experience it as a good state of constant fulfillment (sukha), after we have liberated ourselves of the blindness and conflicting feelings of the mind. When we do not experience existential suffering, there is also no psychological suffering.
It is the language that was spoken in India from the sixth to the third century before the beginning of our chronology.
These are the five hindrances to enlightenment, the seven factors of awakening (it is not possible to describe these in more detail in this context), the five aggregates, the sense-speres, and the four noble truths. In fact, one of the goals of mindfulness is to build, instead of representations of the self, an identification to awareness itself, which ends suffering created by the mind. And when our minds are filled with psychological suffering, there is no existential suffering. Critique of the Buddhist concept of anatta is only directed at the so-called ontological self, not the pscyhological self. Its systematically and empirically proven, extensive theory of the human mind and the phenomenology of experience may, nowadays, also be seen as a postmodern, neurobiological proven model of human consciousness (Siegel, 2012).
Nothing can, or needs to be, done because there is no one to do it, and more importantly, there is also no one to leave it undone! The assumption is that we are already at our destination at all times, our task is simply to become aware of our original nature. In other words, the feeling or belief that there is an innate, ontological center in the core of a separate identity (Aronson, 2004).
This model is based on the view that our mind is a self-organizing, embodied process arising from interaction and regulating the flow of energy information. This experience is usually connected to a deep peace of mind, joy, and compassion for all sentient beings. In addition to a conceptual experience of reality, we also have a conceptual experience of health. For me, getting to know the history of Buddhist psychology has provided an opportunity to rejoice of its roots without grasping, and at the same time, to see its truthfulness in the relative reality. The basic traits of our experience are born out of this unique, constantly changing process created by sensation and mind functions, where various different mind factors are interacting (Olendzki, 2008).
The Abidhamma classifies and names 52 different factors that define individual consciousness states and their reason-consequence relations.

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