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18.08.2015
Thus, PMCA has indeed become an international community of professionals learning, connecting and growing together for the benefit of the entire confectionery industry. PMCA is an international non-profit trade association of confectionery manufacturers and companies in related industries that was founded in 1907. Crystal Lindell has more than 10 years of journalism experience, and worked primarily at daily newspapers before joining the Candy Industry staff in Dec.
This webinar will address execution: Are commitments to certified chocolate products and sustainability initiatives enough? A recent Nielsen report shows that consumers are calling for healthier options from food manufacturers. Although many foods are appealing, and even perceived as natural, in spite of containing synthetic additives, consumer increasingly prefer food products which are fully natural. The April issue features a look at Quebec's rich chocolate scene, recaps and Kid's Choice from ECRM, and bean-to-bar chocolatier Ethereal Confections. I actually went to the DMV today like a bum, not expecting to have to get a new photo done for just a name change, but I had to. In my old license pic I was wearing Santa earrings and had a mug-shot look on my face because I had my test the day before Xmas Eve and I thought you weren’t allowed to smile! Mine is so bad, hence why the turd bun was rocked, it actually is better now after keratin but I didn’t style it, so I threw it up!
I think my best driver’s license photo was when I was 16…it all went downhill from there!
In Iowa if you wear glasses they make you take them off so you can’t really see where to look for the picture! In court, state that you want to include a notation in your divorce papers that you wish to change your name back to your maiden name.
If name change is part of the divorce papers, be sure to ask for several certified copies of the order of name change from the court clerk. If you live in a state where an order of name change is allowed but not part of the divorce papers, contact the judge who presided over your divorce. Legally changing your name in the state of Kansas requires a series of relatively straightforward steps. Many times when women and men divorce, the woman no longer wants to keep her ex-husband's last name.
La capitale de la Nouvelle-France, fondee en 1608 par Samuel de Champlain, devient tres rapidement un carrefour militaire, religieux, commercial et administratif.
La ville de Montreal, fondee en 1642 par Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, est situee sur une ile a l’extremite navigable du fleuve Saint-Laurent.
Dans le delta du Mississippi, la ville de la Nouvelle-Orleans est fondee en 1718 par Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, frere de Pierre LeMoyne d’Iberville. L’origine de la ville de Saint-Louis, actuellement dans le Missouri, remonte aux premieres annees de la Louisiane francaise. Le site d’origine de la ville de Cayenne se trouve sur la petite colline de Ceperou, ou un fort est construit. Basse-Terre est le plus ancien etablissement de la Guadeloupe, construit avant Pointe-a-Pitre. En 1669, le ministre Colbert ordonne la creation en Martinique d’une ville neuve au pied du Fort Royal. From the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, in 1492, many European powers sought to take possession of the continent’s land and its riches. This article proposes a panorama of the European colonies established in North America that the French had to deal with and indeed, compete with. The author sketches a portrait of communities that were established with sometimes identical, yet often different objectives and means.
From the first quarter of the sixteenth century to the time the United States gained its independence, there were many Spanish, French, English, Dutch, German, and even Finnish-Swedish, settlements on the coast of North America, bordered on the north by Acadia and Maine, and on the south by Florida.
Settlement Attempts by the Spanish, from Florida to the Chesapeake BayOn the whole, the Spanish were only very marginally interested in North America.
The Spanish made one of the first attempts at settlement, long before the French and the English. In 1559, Tristan de Luna y Arellano found himself at the head of a strategic program aimed at linking Pensacola and Santa Elena (present-day Parris Island) — and, thus, the two coasts of the Florida peninsula — but that program met with failure. When Pedro Menendez de Aviles, adelantado (governor) of Florida under Philip II, seized Fort Caroline in August 1565, he built two small forts on the sites occupied by the French and founded San Agustin (Saint Augustine, Florida, the oldest city founded by the Spanish in what is now the United States), then Santa Elena. In 1570, the Jesuits, seeing that the evangelization of Native peoples in Florida was producing little result, sought to establish a mission further north, on the river that would later bear the name James. John Hawkins was the son of one of the pioneers of trade with Africa and Brazil under Henry VIII. He captured 300 slaves in Sierra Leone and managed to sell them for furs, sugar, ginger and pearls. When Hawkins undertook his second voyage, in October 1564, the diplomatic climate had deteriorated.
Something else drew England’s attention to North America, aside from Florida’s strategic location: the possibility of finding the mythical Northwest Passage to the Orient — Cathay (China), Cipangu (Japan) and India — and its immeasurable wealth. The voyage itself would be undertaken by Martin Frobisher (1576, 1577, 1578) and John Davis (1585, 1586, 1587).
For a long time, therefore, the English viewed North America as nothing more than a stop on the route to East India, an obstacle to be bypassed through the northwest or, at best, a corsair base from which to strike Spain.
In 1578, however, Sir Humphrey Gilbert received letters patent authorizing him to explore the region north of Spanish Florida and establish permanent settlements there. Starting in 1570, England toughened its legislation against Catholics, particularly Jesuits. On what would be his last expedition, Gilbert officially took possession of Newfoundland in the name of Queen Elizabeth; his letters patent, valid six years, were thus well confirmed. Walter Raleigh had his eye on the lands located between the thirty-fifth and fortieth parallels, latitudes similar to those of the Mediterranean regions. Guided by a Portuguese pilot who was fiercely hostile to Spain, Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe left on a reconnaissance voyage in the spring of 1584. That same year, Richard Hakluyt wrote a confidential treatise for Elizabeth I that has become known as the Discourse on Western Planting. Hakluyt made it a point of citing, among the geopolitical considerations, the French precedent in Florida, referring specifically to Jean Ribault.
Finally, near the end of his text, Hakluyt presented the future English settlements on the other side of the Atlantic as refuges for Christians the world over who were forced into exile because of their religion. Since the results of the reconnaissance undertaken by Amadas and Barlowe were sufficiently encouraging, a new expedition, led by Richard Grenville, set out in 1585. The Spanish were aware of England’s plans, thanks to their effective network of spies, and in December 1585 they dispatched ships from the Caribbean to inflict on Roanoke the fate the French had suffered twenty years earlier.
The second expedition, to establish a settlement at the Chesapeake Bay and found the city of Raleigh, differed from the first, which was of a more martial nature; families were sent with a view to “planting”. Signet ring from the Croatan Archaeological Site Collection Croatan Archaeological Site Collection (#1061), East Carolina Manuscript Collection, J. An expedition finally left in 1590, but no trace of the inhabitants of Roanoke was found, only the word CROATOAN carved on a palisade as agreed, to indicate that they had gone to the neighbouring island. Roanoke, the first English settlement on North American soil, never stood a chance; the wrong candidates were sent to the wrong place at the wrong time, and with insufficient funds. After Sir Walter Raleigh’s failed attempt to find El Dorado in Guyana (1595), the English waited for peace with Spain in 1604 to launch a few reconnaissance voyages near the coast of present-day Maine, at a time when the French were settling St. That same year, in 1608, as the French founded Quebec, a group of separatists from northern England sought exile in the Netherlands. Upon their arrival at Cape Cod, beyond the northern limits of the land they had been granted near the mouth of the Hudson River, they drew up a covenant, the Mayflower Compact, by which the signatories agreed to obey the laws and abide by the common will. The first few months were particularly trying; only half the passengers survived the first winter, and at times, there were barely enough people alive to bury the dead.
Also in the 1620s, the Scots laid claim to Acadia and called it Nova Scotia, New England’s counterpart. Pastor John White and his associates formed the Dorchester Company, whose objective was to finance a year-round base on the coast of North America to revitalize the fisheries sector in Dorchester while battling unemployment and poverty.
The “great migration” was singular in that it drew mainly Puritans and families, unlike the migration to Virginia, which attracted essentially single young men who often did not intend to remain in North America.
Given the importance the Puritans attached to religious issues, down to the smallest details, disagreements and differences of interpretation were inevitable, and at times their potential political repercussions seemed to compromise the colony’s very existence.
Unlike Virginia, which had tobacco, and the Caribbean, with sugar, New England never had a flagship export, and its soil was relatively barren, especially in coastal areas. The limits of the rocky and sandy soils along the east coast quickly became apparent, and by 1635, attention shifted to the lands in the Connecticut Valley, whose fertility had been praised by Dutch settlers from New Amsterdam … who would later bitterly regret that publicity.
Other Puritans, led by the Reverend John Davenport, another major name associated with the Puritan cause, ventured slightly further along the coast of Long Island Sound to found New Haven and a group of villages within a colony of the same name, the most Puritan colony of all. Lastly, north of Massachusetts, there was a disparate group of coastal villages that were not Puritan.
As early as 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano made a reconnaissance voyage along the mouth of the Hudson River on behalf of Francis I, but it did not lead to settlement. The colony was divided into two economic zones; the north depended on the fur trade and the south on agriculture.
Relations with the Native Americans were also tense; two wars, in the 1640s and 1650s, resulted in massacres. Starting in 1647, the small colony was taken in hand by the energetic Petrus Stuyvesant, who did not know at the time that he would be its last director general. The Dutch also claimed the lands at the mouth of the Delaware River, further south, but given the lack of initiative on the part of the West India Company, a few Dutch merchants turned to the king of Sweden, who gave them his support. Commercially dependent on its Dutch neighbour, the small northern colony, whose inhabitants were of Swedish, Finnish, Dutch and German origin, had but a few villages. New Netherland was not limited to the current state of New York; it also included Delaware and New Jersey, which the Duke of York divided in two (East and West Jersey) and granted to a number of proprietors, particularly Quakers. King Charles II, brother of the Duke of York, paid a debt he owed to William Penn’s father in the form of a land grant, a vast concession in North America where Penn, who had converted to Quakerism, could set up his “holy experiment”. Immigration followed a pattern more along the lines of that in New England than in the southern colonies; Pennsylvania attracted relatively prosperous families, mostly from the middle class, with a clearly defined religious identity.
As a general rule, the population of the middle colonies was more heterogeneous that that of the Chesapeake region to the south and New England to the north.
Also unlike the South, the middle colonies had few slaves; engages (workers on contract) were hired instead.
The middle colonies literally became central in the eighteenth century; Philadelphia and New York had 25,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, and their populations exceeded that of Boston before the middle of the century.
When Jamestown was founded, the French were also trying to establish themselves in North America, under the direction of Samuel de Champlain in particular.
The first group of colonists settled on a strip of land that seemed naturally protected from attacks by Native peoples, and even the Spanish, but the real threat was the brackish water contaminated by dysentery, as well as mosquitoes that spread malaria. The organization has officially become the Professional Manufacturing Confectioners Association. Demand: Can existing cocoa-growing regions meet supply-side challenges as demand grows in developing markets? Do you think consumers will actually buy healthier versions of their favorite candy and snacks if they’re made available? I am however a professional wine drinker ; ) Affiliate Links and Sponsored posts may pop up on HDL.
Hahha my renewed one is much better and the guy even gave me a few options and took several pics! Nate (the bf) came home for lunch one day and was like, let’s go get our new licenses! So it figures that in the six months I went blonde last year I had to get my new drivers licence (also for a marriage name change!), and I’ll be stuck with that photo for 5 years! When a judge approves and signs the order, be sure to request several certified copies from the court clerk.
To do this, bring a copy of your divorce papers or your order of name change to the Social Security office in your city. To do this, bring your new Social Security card along with copies of your court order as a document supporting the fact that you have changed your name. This will enable them to change things such as the name on your pay check, business cards, email addresses and any other company documents. Le premier fort, construit au 17eme siecle, est separe du fleuve Saint-Laurent par une grande falaise tres escarpee, le Cap-aux-Diamants.
A l’origine, elle est un poste de relais installe au confluent de la Riviere Saint-Maurice et du fleuve Saint-Laurent. Le fondateur en 1701 se nomme Antoine de la Mothe-Cadillac, qui avait quitte Quebec avec cinquante colons, cinquante soldats et deux pretres pour creer cette ville.
En 1702, Pierre Le Moyne de Bienville commence a tracer des rues et s’y installent quelques familles. Le site est explore par Louis Jolliet et le Pere Marquette, ainsi que par Robert Cavelier de La Salle. L’extension urbaine de la ville a ete complexe en raison des marecages et de la foret dense. Le projet choisi, celui de l’ingenieur Charles du Coudreau, est un quadrillage regulier en front de mer, sur un terrain plat, sans aucune hauteur aux alentours. Au moment de la Revolution francaise, Pointe-a-Pitre est devastee en 1794 par un incendie devastateur.
While the Spanish and the Portuguese quickly succeeded in taking exclusive ownership of the territories of South America, the French, the English, the Dutch and the Swedes were forced to divide up the northern part of the continent.
It takes us from the shores of Florida, where the Spanish attempted to settle from the early 16th century, to Carolina and Georgia, two colonies founded by the British 200 years later.
This study thus allows readers to discover a multitude of human adventures, both individual and collective, that encountered success, but also failure. Not all of them thrived; indeed, some were quite ephemeral due to a combination of epidemics, Native American hostility and, very often, the fact that settlers were insufficiently prepared for life on the continent.


They focused their attention on the Caribbean, then on Mexico and, finally, on Peru, whose mineral wealth they exploited. It was led by Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon, a wealthy entrepreneur from Hispaniola, who transported several hundred settlers and slaves, as well as a few missionaries, to a site near the mouth of the Savannah River in July 1526 then founded San Miguel de Gualdape in October of the same year, probably near Sapelo Island (Georgia). It was followed by two attempts at settlement by the French, one at Charlesfort (Parris Island, South Carolina) in 1562, under the direction of Jean Ribault, a Huguenot from Dieppe, and another further south, at Fort Caroline (Jacksonville, Florida) in 1564–1565, overseen by Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere, also a Huguenot. These two bases were meant to prevent Spain’s enemies — Huguenot corsairs in particular — from settling in Florida. This undertaking was led by Menendez and Paquiquineo, a Native American from the Chesapeake Bay area who had been Hispanicized in the 1560s and adopted the name Don Luis de Velasco. The black slave trade had been established long before, but the rapid growth of sugar plantations stimulated the demand for slaves, especially in Santo Domingo, but also in Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. At the same time, Jean Ribault, who had left Florida and returned to Dieppe, sought refuge in England because of the first War of Religion.
He captured slaves on the coasts of Africa, sold them for a profit in the Caribbean, then travelled up the coast of Florida as far as the French settlement of Fort Caroline, which was under Laudonniere’s command.
Needing to make repairs, they had no choice but to stop at San Juan de Ulua, next to Vera Cruz, on the coast of Mexico.
Of particular importance was the capture of Panama, the “key” to Peru’s resources, especially the silver from Potosi’s mines, which passed through the region. 1583, attributed to Jodocus Hondius Library of Congress, Hans and Hanni Kraus Sir Francis Drake Collection, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Washington DC, Digital ID: rbdk d055">Franciscus Draeck Nobillissimus… (Portrait of Sir Francis Drake), ca. English travellers had reached the Persian Gulf through the White Sea and the Volga, but no one had managed to go around the north of Russia. The new measures were based on the principle that one could not serve two masters and that Catholics, released from allegiance to Elizabeth when she was excommunicated (in 1570), could not be loyal subjects. When he died on the return trip, his rights were transferred to his half brother, Sir Walter Raleigh, a courtier who was increasingly esteemed by the sovereign. He hoped that Mediterranean crops could be grown there to make England economically independent as far as those products were concerned. In July, they arrived in the Outer Banks region (in present-day North Carolina), a narrow strip of land sheltering a few islands, including Roanoke, which appeared to afford protection against raids by the Spanish. In it, he advocated a vigorous settlement policy in North America, citing evangelization, socio-economic reasons and geostrategic considerations, all for the purpose of countering Spain.
He explained that it would be necessary to “plant” one or two well-fortified settlements, then learn the language and customs of the Native peoples to win them over to the “nectar of the Gospel … slowly and with good judgement”, while avoiding a method that was too direct, which was, in his opinion, the reason Spanish missionaries had been massacred in Florida. Too many of them were idle, leading to increased contestation and dissension, an implicit reference to Puritanism and separatism.
The failure of the French progressively emerged as the counter example par excellence, and the English settlement attempts that would follow (Roanoke and Jamestown) would take into account the proximity of the Spanish, which had proved fatal for the French.
The English settled at Roanoke, but the site was not considered optimal; among other things, the shoals prevented the approach of ocean-going vessels. The expedition set sail in 1587, when the Spanish Armada, considered invincible at the time, was being assembled. If they were in danger, they were also supposed to carve a Maltese cross, but there was none.
They were Calvinists who felt that the Church of England was too corrupt to be effectively reformed, unlike the Puritans, who wanted radical reform but from within.
Louis, 1613, by Samuel de Champlain Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University">Port St.
Far from being the founding act of American democracy, as many too often claim, the document was aimed at maintaining order. Two Native Americans, Samoset and then Squanto, went to meet the colonists, spoke to them in English and offered help, which allowed them to plant their first crops. Several other ventures were launched in the region at the time and were initially related to the fishery.
The first settlement was founded in 1623 at Cape Ann, moved in 1626 to Naumkeag and later renamed Salem. 1630-1691, anonymous artist Courtesy, American Antiquarian Society">Portrait de John Winthrop, painted ca. Sometimes, entire villages followed their pastor to live their faith freely, far from ecclesiastic authorities, who were increasingly openly hostile to Puritan claims. Dissidents such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson paid for it by being expelled from Massachusetts. When the “great migration” came to an abrupt end in the 1640s due to political turmoil in England, the economic crisis that followed as prices collapsed forced the colonists to focus on exports: fish from the coasts of Acadia and Newfoundland, furs, forest products (barrels, masts, barrel staves), shipbuilding, livestock (pigs, cattle) and, eventually, grains (from Connecticut, whose lands were more fertile). Hartford, Wethersfield and Windsor were founded in 1636, as well as Springfield, which was located further upstream and remained in Massachusetts’ fold.
Plymouth and Massachusetts joined forces with New Haven, which was most exposed to the Dutch, and Connecticut, which was exposed to the threat of rival Native American tribes, to found the Confederation of the United Colonies of New England (1643).
Little by little, they were institutionally integrated into Massachusetts and its sphere of influence, the New Hampshire villages (Exeter, Portsmouth, Piscataqua) in 1641 and the Maine villages (Kittery, York, Wells) in 1652.
Hudsono Anglo ad Caurum supra Novam Franciam, 1612, part of: Descriptio ac delineatio geographica… of Hessel Guerritsz General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University">Tabula nautica, qua repraesentantur orae maritimae, meatus, ac freta, noviter a H.
They established trading posts, rather than colonies, at Fort Orange (Albany) and elsewhere, at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, and devoted themselves to the fur trade, which would inevitably lead to conflict with the French.
Its immigrants were of very diverse origins; in addition to Calvinist Walloons and Huguenots, there were Lutherans from Westphalia, fleeing the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, Puritans from New England (in Long Island in particular), and even a few Jews who sought refuge after the Portuguese captured New Holland, in Brazil (1654). 1630, unidentified artist Accession # 1885.5, Collection of The New-York Historical Society">Proposed Coat of Arms for New Amsterdam, New Netherland, ca. Proximity to the New England colonies (Connecticut and New Haven) did not facilitate matters; there were conflicting territorial claims, and the first Anglo-Dutch War in Europe (1652–1654) complicated the situation in North America even more. 1660, attributed to Hendrick Couturier Accession # 1909.2, Collection of The New-York Historical Society ">Portrait of Peter Stuyvesant, ca.
Indeed, because it was a Dutch enclave surrounded by English colonies, New Amsterdam was the collateral victim of Anglo-Dutch rivalry in the slave trade, particularly on the coast of West Africa. For a northern colony, it had a large number of slaves; about two out of five homes possessed them.
In 1638, Pieter Minuit, former director general of New Netherland, founded Fort Christina where Wilmington, Delaware, is now located.
A group of Puritans from New Haven tried to settle there in 1642 but was quickly driven out.
Puritans migrated to East Jersey in large numbers, and the two Jerseys were reunited in 1702. After preparing the migration in Europe, Penn arrived in North America in 1682 and founded Philadelphia, the City of Brotherly Love, at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers.
The colony had exceptionally fertile soil, and prosperity came quickly, particularly because European (Swedish, Finnish, Dutch and English) settlers had been living in the region for decades. In Pennsylvania and Delaware, slaves never accounted for more than 5% of the population, and they were concentrated in cities such as Philadelphia. The South never had a comparable urban centre, apart from Charleston, but to a lesser extent. Virginia was looked upon as a permanent settlement but remained a speculative enterprise; for a long time, its population consisted essentially of single young men, including numerous servants on contract, as opposed to that of New England and Pennsylvania, to which families immigrated. Now, as managing editor of the publication, she has come to enjoy eating chocolate for breakfast. I got my first snow scraper thingy yesterday :)) It snowed this saturday though, and it was beautiful!!!
This form, along with others noted in this article, can be found online at your city or state's court website or at the local city hall. Also notify the human resources department if you got a divorce so that they can change your tax information to reflect single status. Il y a donc des l’origine de la ville une distinction entre la Basse Ville et la Haute Ville, posant des difficultes aux urbanistes.
Les Sulpiciens ont etabli son plan regulier des rues, les deux grands axes etant la rue Saint-Paul et la rue Notre-Dame, a l’origine simples chemins le long du fleuve. La ville est construite sur un plan regulier par les architectes Pierre Le Blond de la Tour et Adrien de Pauger. Dans cette region nommee "Pays des Illinois", en l’honneur du peuple amerindien du meme nom, les Francais creent differents forts, notamment le Fort de Chartres et Prairie du Rocher. Les ilots du bord de mer sont reserves aux negociants qui pouvaient entreposer leurs marchandises et traiter directement avec les bateaux amarres dans la rade. It brings us to the colony of New Amsterdam (today New York), founded by the Dutch in 1614; Plymouth, where the Mayflower pilgrims landed six years later, and then New Sweden, established in 1638. It highlights as well the specific characteristics of each of these settlements that in many respects contrast with those of New France. North America appeared to pale in comparison; the north had a harsh climate and seemingly poor soil, and further south, the Terra Florida was of interest mainly because of its strategic location for protecting the Bahamas Strait, through which the strong currents forced ships to pass on the return trip to Europe. Vazquez de Ayllon died shortly thereafter, and dissension, coupled with pressure from Native peoples, spelled the end of the small colony.
Passage to “Tartary” was among the promises made by Don Luis, who sung the praises of his native region. Hawkins decided to engage in what could be a very lucrative trade, and in 1562 he led the first of his three expeditions, in violation of the Iberian monopoly. He brought Florida’s strategic location — close to the route of the return fleet and Spanish fortresses such as Cuba — to the attention of the English, particularly in maritime circles. The settlement was on its last legs, and Hawkins offered supplies, but his mission also had a strategic purpose; he was there as an observer. The northern part of the Americas — “Florida”, in the broad sense of the word — remained marginal. In a text written in 1566 but published only in 1576, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed that it would be much easier to pass through the northwest.
He was at the service of an association of London merchants, the Moscovia Company, and influential members of Elizabeth I’s court. The initial contact with the local Native American chief, Wingina, was peaceful and encouraging.
Yet, he readily acknowledged that both Spanish and Portuguese missionaries had achieved some commendable results, though their religion was tinged with “superstition”. If pastors were sent to convert the Native Americans, they would be sufficiently occupied to settle for the Anglican version of Protestantism. The Northwest Passage to China was not forgotten, nor the “donation” (the Inter coetera bull of 1493 that confirmed the Treaty of Tordesillas the following year) made by Pope Alexander VI, who, as “a native of Spain”, was deprived of all legitimacy. The colonists were left under the direction of Ralph Lane when Grenville returned to England. There were two influential passengers on England’s expedition, Thomas Hariot, a scientist who authored an account that has become a classic of exploration literature, and John White, whose engravings are also famous.
Unable to meet their needs on their own, like the French in Florida before them, they depended on the Native peoples for survival.
This context sealed the fate of the small colony, whose members ended up going ashore at Roanoke, rather than the Chesapeake Bay, to allow the crew to spend the rest of the summer attacking the Spanish. There are three possible explanations for the colonists’ disappearance: they succumbed to famine, were killed by Native peoples or perished at sea while attempting to leave the island.
After twelve years in the United Provinces, fearing that their children would integrate into Dutch society, which they considered too liberal, some members of the small community decided to emigrate to North America and ended up signing an agreement with unscrupulous investors. The Pilgrims spent several weeks exploring Cape Cod in cold, wet conditions as fall approached, searching for a place to settle. The project met with failure, and in 1628 the moribund Dorchester Company was bought by the New England Company, which sent out its first team the same year under the leadership of John Endecott. Other villages were founded in the surrounding area, all around the large bay, and thus began an expansion that would be amplified by further immigration and natural population growth on which epidemics had little impact. All these products rendered the region self-sufficient and supplied markets in the Caribbean and farther off in the Atlantic; islands such as the Barbados, the Canaries and Madeira were so focused on their principal crops that they resigned themselves to importing all their food.
This consultative body, formed essentially for defensive purposes, played a role in defusing several potential conflicts with both the Native peoples and the Dutch. Indeed, its founders were all religious dissidents banished from Massachusetts, such as Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington and Samuel Gorton. Two years later, a fleet sent by Oliver Cromwell, under the command of Major Robert Sedgwick, captured Acadia, helping to consolidate New England’s northern border. Hudson was employed by the Dutch East India Company and, like Cartier, Champlain and, later, La Salle, was also searching for a western passage to East India, having made several unsuccessful attempts to get there by taking an easterly route. Other posts were set up at the mouth of the Hudson (Fort Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island), a strategic site, and further south, in the Delaware Valley, near present-day Philadelphia (Fort Nassau). The de facto tolerance, and not tolerance in principle, must not make us forget that deep religious prejudice existed, despite the mythical reinterpretations that have been published on the subject. A temporary arrangement had been reached with the Hartford Treaty (1650), and a border had been drawn, splitting Long Island into two parts, one English and the other Dutch. It was captured in 1664 without any real resistance, which would have been futile anyway, given the military superiority of the English expedition, reinforced by troops from New England. It was essentially urban slavery, whereas in the South, slavery was exclusively agricultural. In 1655, Petrus Stuyvesant seized Fort Casimir, and New Sweden was absorbed by New Netherland. Philadelphia was a genuine urban-planning project; rather than spreading out haphazardly, it was laid out as a grid, with wide rectilinear streets, in stark contrast to Boston, for example, with its narrow winding lanes directly inherited from medieval London. Pennsylvania welcomed Quakers by the thousands, mostly from England, but also from Wales and Germany, and they established homogenous communities such as Germantown.
The white population increased by a factor of eight in sixty years, from 63,000 people in 1710 to 520,000 in 1770.
Universities also developed in the region, often founded by Protestant churches, as well as a weekly press of growing importance in the creation of a public space, as in Boston.
Moreover, the early immigrants were ill prepared to meet their needs, especially through fishing and agriculture. Lindell holds a master’s degree in public affairs reporting from the University of Illinois – Springfield and a bachelor’s degree in political science from Western Illinois University.


Best practices: How best practices are communicated across the sector, from researchers to farmers in the field and everyone in between.
I had to get my new passport photos taken on the weekend and they made me push my fringe out of my face. To make a name change, there are special procedures for divorcées, but regardless it can be done by contacting the right authorities in your state.
If name change is not a part of your state's divorce proceedings, you can remedy this after the divorce is final. Malheureusement, de nombreux marecages font echouer cette fondation et la ville est abandonnee neuf ans plus tard.
La ville de Saint-Louis est fondee en 1764 par Pierre Laclede Liguest et son beau-fils Auguste Chouteau, originaire de la Nouvelle-Orleans.
Apres la destruction de Saint-Pierre, "le petit Paris des Antilles" en 1902 suite a l’eruption du volcan de la Montagne-Pelee, Fort-de-France devient la plus importante ville de Martinique. For a long time, geostrategic considerations related to privateering were the primary concern on the coasts of North America; natural resources were secondary. One, and sometimes the only, objective of all the French and English settlements in Florida and Virginia was to possess a corsair base to attack Spanish ships loaded with the riches of the Americas that made Spain the only super power in its “golden century”. Accompanied by eight Jesuits and a young boy, he settled on the banks of the Pamunkey River, but the Spaniards soon grew disillusioned because the region was plagued by famine.
Sir Francis Drake, Hawkins’ cousin, was a member of the crew, and the experience fuelled his hate of the Spanish. He based this claim as much on the writings of classical authors (Plato, Aristotle, Strabo …) as on the Bible (Esther) and the work of the most contemporary cartographers (Ortelius, Mercator). The three expeditions, which got only as far as the bay named after Frobisher (where Iqaluit is located), in Baffin’s Land, did not produce conclusive results; the minerals retrieved had no more value than Jacques Cartier’s “diamonds”, and the goal remained out of sight, due in part to the inclement climate and the rather imprecise geography of the time. The region held another advantage; it was close to Spain’s possessions and the Bahamas Strait, but in a more northerly location and, hence, less exposed than the French settlements in Florida. Upon their return, Amadas and Barlowe embellished the second version of their report even further, praising the region even more. In comparison, Hakluyt asked quite rhetorically how many “infidels” the English had converted. Furthermore, they would help prevent mutinies and ensure a certain level of obedience among the colonists, giving the colony some basic stability, which would increase its chances of survival.
Hakluyt was not the first to contest the Iberian monopoly in the Americas, but he set his arguments at the heart of that contestation and its legal premise.
Unlike Gilbert, however, he opposed the settlement of “papists” in the English colonies, due to their natural tendency to support the king of Spain. Lane explored the region and discovered the Chesapeake Bay, which seemed more appropriate because it was deeper. But they had the misfortune of arriving during the worst drought the region had known in eight centuries. Because of the Armada, all ships were requisitioned, and no reinforcements could be sent to Roanoke. The following year, as the Londoners set out to found Jamestown on the Chesapeake Bay, the Plymouth Company sent an expedition to the mouth of the Kennebec River to found Sagadahoc, under the command of George Popham, son of one of the principal investors.
Tradesmen were hired to support them at their destination, and preparations for the voyage got under way.
In actual fact, the Wampanoags and their chief, Massasoit, had been weakened by the great epidemic and needed allies to support them against their enemies, the powerful Narragansetts (in present-day Rhode Island).
New England’s climate, although not very mild, was temperate and healthy, totally unlike that of the Chesapeake Bay, which was ravaged by malaria and dysentery. The Quakers who were hanged in 1660 had already been banished several times, and those repeated transgressions, added to the threat they posed in the eyes of the Puritan authorities, were what led to their execution, more so than their religious convictions.
The transportation of merchandise added to the prosperity and placed New Englanders in competition with the Dutch, and Boston quickly emerged as a hub of Atlantic trade. It was a short-lived speculative venture for which the major players in Puritan political circles had shown some enthusiasm. One source of tension was the control of wampum, belts made of shells that were greatly prized by Native Americans and used as currency. The name Rhode Island referred to the English villages on Narragansett Bay: Providence, Portsmouth, Newport and Warwick. However, Acadia was returned to France in 1667 despite vigorous protest by Massachusetts, which feared it would lose access to the rich fishing grounds that were crucial to the prosperity of New England’s merchants, who were increasingly involved in the Atlantic economy. He perished the following year, abandoned by his crew in the bay that bears his name while searching for a passage to Asia. The first immigrants sent to Manhattan were, for the most part, Protestant Walloon refugees. New Amsterdam was not ahead of its time, and pragmatism accounted for a great deal where tolerance was concerned. In the Treaty of Breda, which ended the second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667), the Netherlands opted to cede the small colony to England and keep the English possessions captured during the conflict, including Suriname, for its sugar resources, and the small island of Run, in the Moluccas (in present-day Indonesia), one of the world’s principal sources of nutmeg. The population increased only after the English conquest; in 1685, 3,000 of the colony’s 15,000 inhabitants lived in New York City.
True, unlike Boston, Philadelphia was founded after the great fire that ravaged the English capital in 1666.
Tolerance, one of the colony’s founding principles, did not prevent the Quaker oligarchy in power from being looked upon unfavourably, or the English from showing prejudice against the Germans. Due as much to natural growth as to immigration, the population explosion led to colonial expansion that was blocked only by the Native American allies of the French in the Great Lakes region, for example, or by the Appalachian Mountains, which formed a barrier. On the other hand, in New York City, slaves accounted on average for 15% of the population, the numbers peaking at 30% in the mid-eighteenth century. Like the English in Roanoke and the French in Florida, they relied on Native peoples for food. But the lady at the DMV asked what I weighed and I said 132 and she goes, oh we can put 125 if you want. Everybody kept telling me to wait and see and that it will not be exciting later when it REALLY snows :))) I’m enjoying it for now!
Son architecture creole est encore visible dans le Vieux Carre, appele aussi French Quarter. The objective was to either establish corsair bases to strike Spanish ships or ports, or to occupy land to prevent the establishment of such bases. It was therefore vital for the Spanish to prevent their European rivals from settling in the region. Relations with the Native peoples became tense as well, and Don Luis ended up joining his people.
After his round-the-world expedition (1577–1580), devoted largely to the plundering of Spanish possessions and ships, Drake led numerous excursions against Spanish settlements in North America, including Saint Augustine, which he ravaged in 1586. An Inuit man was taken back to England, and his features recalled those of the “Tartars”, raising hopes that the Orient might not be far off. Sir Thomas Gerrard, who had considered creating a refuge for Lancashire Catholics in Ireland as early as 1569, and Sir George Peckham approached Gilbert and proposed the establishment of a community on the other side of the Atlantic where Catholics could live their faith in peace.
Virginia, named in honour of Elizabeth I, was described as a land of milk and honey inhabited by Native peoples who seemed quite well disposed towards the English, implying that colonization would be relatively easy. North American settlement would also ease population pressures in the prisons and the country as a whole, provide work for the unemployed and revitalize the maritime sector and related activities, at least in the coastal regions. Because Catholics were, by nature, disloyal subjects, they would, in his opinion, be the first to betray and compromise the colony’s existence. In a climate of mutual distrust, patience wore thin as the spectre of famine grew, and the English ended up attacking the Native Americans and killing Wingina.
John White returned to England and never saw his daughter again, nor his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, the first European born in North America. This lead was suggested as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, and DNA tests might elucidate it in the years to come.
The colonists did not find the precious metals they dreamed of and abandoned the site the following spring. Since one of the two ships chartered for the occasion, the Speedwell, had to return to port, the colonists had no choice but to make the crossing, in the fall of 1620, aboard one ship, the smaller of the two: the famous Mayflower.
It had the considerable advantage of not being occupied by Native peoples, as they had been decimated by a smallpox epidemic a few years before. The Pilgrim Fathers thus found themselves caught up in a Native American diplomacy that was beyond their grasp, perhaps more so than they were willing to admit. It obtained a royal charter in March 1629, and large-scale migration got under way that year; about a thousand colonists crossed the Atlantic, most of them in 1630. The colony of New Haven, which greatly feared its Dutch neighbours, was absorbed by Connecticut during the imperial reorganization that accompanied the restoration of the Stuarts to the British throne (1660). The Puritans did not use the terms “dissident” and “heterodox”; they spoke instead of “enthusiasts”, “fanatics” and “heretics”, and rather than hanging or burning them, they merely expelled them from their midst. This episode shows that the American colonies and their claims did not carry much weight in diplomatic negotiations between the European powers. In 1626, the colony’s director general (governor), Pieter Minuit, concluded a famous deal, “purchasing” the island from the Lenapes for sixty florins. Moreover, the Netherlands essentially imposed tolerance on the recalcitrant colonial authorities. What was still only a large village was renamed New York in honour of the Duke of York, the future James II. The northern region, around Albany, remained very Dutch for a long time and was anglicized quite slowly, whereas Long Island had twelve English villages and five Dutch villages. Demographic growth also spurred economic expansion; the soaring agricultural production made the region the granary of North America, supplying not only the domestic market, but also the Caribbean, Europe, and even Africa. In some counties of the colony of New York, over 20% of the population consisted of slaves.
Since Jamestown was founded during the worst drought the region had known in several centuries, any surpluses the Native Americans might have been able to offer were considerably reduced.
Certains noms de rues sont les memes depuis la fondation, notamment la celebre Rue Bourbon. North America was also an obstacle to be bypassed on the route to East India and its immense wealth.
He returned only to massacre the Jesuits, sparing just the boy, Alonso, who relayed the events. Pedro Menendez de Aviles attacked the fort and massacred almost all the French (Protestants) he found there, including Ribault. John Davis, a friend of the Gilbert family, made a more methodical voyage along the coast of Greenland, reaching a latitude of 72° N and Baffin Bay. The first English colony founded in North America for reasons that were not essentially economic and geostrategic would have been a Catholic refuge, which is ironic in view of what would follow in the history of the United States, long marked by hostility to Catholicism. Amadas and Barlowe took two Native Americans back with them, Manteo and Wanchese, who learned English and became interpreters.
Poor relations with the Native peoples, culminating in a deadly attack, a particularly harsh and early winter, and insufficient provisions broke their courage. John Winthrop, a Puritan squire from Suffolk and London lawyer, was appointed governor and agreed to emigrate. In New Amsterdam, the Reverend Megapolensis viewed Rhode Island as the “cesspool” of the region.
The soil was fertile, the climate healthy, and no Native attacks ravaged the settlement, which was named New Amsterdam and immediately became self-sufficient.
When placed within the context of the Netherlands’ seventeenth-century “empire”, New Amsterdam was not the “island at the centre of the world”, far from it.
In this respect, the colony of New York differed from the others; although not strictly speaking a slave colony, it was without question a colony “with slaves”. The Native peoples had barely enough to survive, so they could not meet the needs of the English parasites, who arrived at a really bad time. Exploiting the land’s resources (tobacco, rice, lumber) came second, and Europeans did so alone or with African slaves (who helped quite involuntarily), but they never lost sight of their initial objectives.
Without news of the expedition, Menendez set off for the region in 1572 and found only Alonso. That voyage came to an end when England faced the threat of invasion by the Spanish Armada sent by Philip II, which was still considered invincible.
Gilbert’s death in a shipwreck off the coast of Newfoundland in 1583 contributed to the project’s demise, as did pressure exerted by Spain, mainly through ambassador Bernardino de Mendoza.
In the meantime, the diplomatic climate had grown quite tense, particularly between England and Spain, whose ambassador had been deported in January 1584. The English investors were rather dissatisfied, and William Bradford’s companions worked hard to pay their debts. The idea of religious tolerance, well received among English Puritans at the time, eventually took hold in a Rhode Island where, in any case, the diversity of opinions was such that tolerance was the only viable solution.
In Pennsylvania, starting in the 1750s, the possession of slaves became increasingly common, despite opposition from the Quakers. North America could promise religious freedom, with its share of exceptions, and prosperity or, to a lesser extent, economic independence for the middle classes.
Upon learning that the Jesuits had been massacred, he resolved to get revenge with the same vigour he had displayed against the French a few years earlier. However, besides the numerous commercial failures and innumerable lives sacrificed, North America was also synonymous with captivity for some and the irreparable loss of ancestral lands for others, as the European colonies expanded. At that point, the colonization of Florida was an unending series of failures, massacres and acts of vengeance. To attract colonists, a manor system (patroonship) was instituted around Fort Orange, but it failed to produce results; only Kiliaen van Rensselaer, one of the company’s wealthy shareholders, agreed to settle there.




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