Old inventions that changed the world,how to get self confidence back after having a baby 101,secret nuclear bunker england - For Begninners

So the wheel has become a symbol today of the way you move things forward in organizations. THE FOLLOWING ARE PRINCIPLES AND THINKING TOOLS WHEN CONSIDERING WHETHER YOU WILL REINVENT THE WHEEL OR NOT. Most organizations are unaware that the wheel they are traveling on is about to get reinvented. According to the historical record, in the 1400s coffee became a very popular drink among Muslims in Yemen, in the southern Arabian Peninsula. Regardless of whether or not the story of the shepherd ever really happened, coffee found its way from the highlands of Yemen to the rest of the Ottoman Empire, the premier Muslim empire of the 15th century. While many secondary school students struggling through math classes may not particularly appreciate the importance of algebra, it is one of the most important contributions of the Muslim Golden Age to the modern world.
In his monumental book, Al-Kitab al-mukhta?ar fi ?isab al-jabr wa-l-muqabala (English: The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), he set forth the basic principles of algebraic equations.
Al-Khawarizimi’s books were translated into Latin in Europe in the 1000s and 1100s, where he was known as Algoritmi (the word algorithm is based on his name and his mathematical works). The first formal madrasa was al-Karaouine, founded in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri in Fes, Morocco. These first degree-granting educational institutes quickly spread throughout the Muslim world.
Many students who attended high schools and universities in the Western world are familiar with the marching band. As part of the elite Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, the mehter band’s purpose was to play loud music that would frighten enemies and encourage allies.
Eventually, Christian Europe also caught on to the use of military bands to frighten enemies. Working in the imperial city of Cairo in the early 1000s, Ibn al-Haytham was one of the greatest scientists of all time. Ibn al-Haytham’s discoveries regarding cameras and how to project and capture images led to the modern development of cameras around the same concepts. The ability to remove sewage from and bring clean water into places of dense human habitation makes the modern city possible. The printing press was the first one of many communication mediums, changing how information was collected, stored, retrieved, criticized, discovered, and promoted. In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was invented by French mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot. Thomas Savery was an English military engineer and inventor who in 1698, patented the first crude steam engine.
In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer that he called “The Analytical Engine”. The transistor is the fundamental building block of the circuitry that governs the operation of computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronics. Plastic is composed of organic condensation or addition polymers and may contain other substances to improve performance or economics.
You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. He went to school at a school for blind youth in Paris where he learned to play the cello and the organ. When Louis was twelve, an ex-French army officer came to the school to demonstrate a code of twelve raised dots and dashes. Louis became a teacher at the school but his Braille system was not adopted there during his lifetime.
In 1800 he offered a prize of 12,000 francs to the man who could come up with a way of preserving food to supply daily rations for an extended period of time. His method involved sealing a thick glass bottle full of food, wrapping it in canvas for protection, and then dunking it in boiling water to cook. French chemist and inventor, Louis Pasteur studied the process of fermentation, and postulated that fermentation was produced by microscopic organisms (other than yeast), which Pasteur called germs. Applying his theories to foods and drinks, Pasteur invented a heating process (now called pasteurization) which sterilizes food, killing micro-organisms that contaminate it. Jacques-Yves Cousteau was a French undersea explorer, environmentalist, innovator and a member of the Academie Francaise. Among the innovations in their device was a mechanism that provided inhalation and exhaust valves at the same level. The first successful hot-air balloon was made by Joseph and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, two French bothers from Vidalon-les-Annonay, near Lyons. It all happened in Spain in the early 18th century, when Louis XIV dispatched his favourite general, the Duc de Richelieu, to root out some troublesome Englishmen who were holed up in the fort overlooking the harbour of Mahon.
He wanted an interesting sauce to liven things up, but all he could find was eggs and olive oil. In 1790, the French National Assembly directed the Academy of Sciences of Paris to standardize units of measurement.
Barthelemy Thimonnier was a tailor by trade and worked tirelessly his whole life, at perfecting his "Couseuse", the sewing machine. Thimonnier never saw the proliferation of his machine, even though it won prizes and was highly esteemed. These first refrigerators were very expensive, costing nearly a thousand dollars, which was about twice the cost of a car in those days.
It began round in shape and made it easier to move something rather than dragging it over the ground. When you see others in your space suddenly whizzing past you, you suddenly want to reinvent the wheel. Ask yourself, what will make the “wheel” my organization runs on obsolete and leave me on the side of the road? They are relentless in pushing your business agenda and will tell you the truth, even when it’s uncomfortable. Legend goes that a shepherd (some say in Yemen, some say in Ethiopia) noticed that his goats became very energetic and jumpy when they ate beans from a particular tree.

Coffeehouses specializing in the new drink began to spring up in all the major cities of the Muslim world: Cairo, Istanbul, Damascus, Baghdad.
It was developed by the great scientist and mathematician, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi, who lived from 780 to 850 in Persia and Iraq. The name of the book itself contains the word “al-jabr”, meaning “completion”, from which the Latin word algebra is derived.
Without his work in developing algebra, modern practical applications of math, such as engineering, would not be possible. Her school attracted some of the leading scholars of North Africa, as well as the land’s brightest students. Al-Azhar University was founded in Cairo in 970, and in the 1000s, the Seljuks established dozens of madrasas throughout the Middle East. Made up of a group of a few hundred musicians, a band marches onto a field during an sporting event to entertain the audience and cheer on the players.
Using enormous drums and clashing cymbals, the sounds created by a mehter band could stretch for miles. Legend has it that after the Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683, the retreating Ottoman army left behind dozens of musical instruments, which the Austrians collected, studied, and put to their own use. Billion dollar companies like Instagram and Canon are based on the idea of capturing light from a scene, creating an image from it, and reproducing that image. To regulate scientific advancements, he developed the scientific method, the basic process by which all scientific research is conducted.
Without his research into how light travels through apertures and is projected by them, the modern mechanisms inside everyone’s cameras would not exist.
The first known pesticide was elemental sulfur dusting used in Sumeria about 4,500 years ago. Due to limited finance, and an inability to resist tinkering with the design, Babbage never actually built his Analytical Engine. Nikola Tesla’s invention of alternating current (AC) technology then made it possible to transmit electricity over long distances, leading to the nationwide grid we know today.
When the plague broke out in 1347, it killed nearly half of Europe–in about two years. At three years old, he accidentally stabbed himself with one of his father's saddle-making tools, causing an infection that left him blind. However, he was continually frustrated by the complicated system of raised letters used to teach students how to read. It was designed to be used at night when lamps could not be lit, to communicate combat orders. Sixteen years after his death, the Royal National Institute of the Blind was established and books using Braille's ingenious code began to be published. They were always on the move to far flung places and without adequate means of securing fresh provisions, mass starvation was a very real danger. In 1943, Cousteau and the French engineer Emile Gagnan invented the aqualung, a breathing apparatus that supplied oxygen to divers and allowed them to stay underwater for several hours.
This safe, easy-to-use, and reliable device was the first modern scuba system and it has enabled the study and exploration of all things relating to the ocean, from sea life, to historic shipwrecks. During the long siege, the Duke's cook found himself struggling to keep his master - accustomed to the fabulous banquets of Versailles - entertained at table.
So, he started beating and beating, and with the help of some vinegar produced what was christened as "la sauce mahonnaise”. A committee of renown mathematicians from the Academy used a decimal system and defined the meter to be one 10-millionths of the distance from the equator to the Earth's Pole (that is, the Earth's circumference would be equal to 40 million meters). In 1830 he opened up a sewing factory on the Rue de Sevres in Paris, but the next year it was destroyed by about 200 irate tailors, who trashed 80 machines, claiming that this invention threatened to put them all out of business. It was the American, Isaac Merrit Singer who turned the sewing machine into big business, with his ingenious marketing strategies appealing to the modern woman, guaranteed service of machines and installment payment plans. He was also a physicist, interested in developing a device to keep liquids cool, including wine drunk at the monastery. Leaders fall into two camps – those who have a bias for wanting to reinvent the wheel and those who believe we should continue in time honored ways. Knowing when, how, and how much to change is one of the most important skills of a corporate leader. Is the wheel I’m running on out there being reinvented and I’m not even aware of it? Kodak, the iconic camera brand just emerging from bankruptcy, never took digital cameras seriously. How can you reinvent the wheel of your organization in small incremental ways from the flow of work to the configuration of office space. The pace of business today confirms that one startling reinvention is obliterated by something else more spectacular. From the Muslim world, the drink found its way into Europe through the great merchant city of Venice.
In the book, al-Khawarizmi explains how to use algebraic equations with unknown variables to solve real-world problems such as zakat calculation and inheritance division.
His works were used as math textbooks in European universities for hundreds of years after his death. The same people who led prayers would teach groups of students about Islamic sciences such as Quran, fiqh (jurisprudence), and hadith. At al-Karaouine, students were taught by teachers for a number of years in a variety of subjects ranging from secular to religious sciences.
The concept of institutes that grant certificates of completion (degrees) spread into Europe through Muslim Spain, where European students would travel to study.
These school marching bands developed from the use of marching military bands during the Gunpowder Age in Europe that were designed to encourage soldiers during battle.
During the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans throughout the 14th -16th centuries, mehter bands accompanied the fearsome Ottoman armies, who seemed almost invincible even in the face of huge European alliances. Armies all over Europe soon began implementing marching military bands, revolutionizing the way war was fought in Europe for centuries.

But doing so is impossible without the trailblazing work of the 11th century Muslim scientist, Ibn al-Haytham, who developed the field of optics and described how the first cameras work. When he was put under house arrest by the Fatimid ruler al-Hakim, he had the time and ability to study how light works. In 1885, Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests. Now, anyone in the West and throughout most of the world can tap into the grid to power everything from light bulbs to computers.
When diseases such as smallpox reached North America, they reduced the indigenous population by about 90 percent within a century. The code was difficult to learn, but Louis saw its potential and by the time he was fifteen, he had developed a much simpler system using only six dots, easily scanned by a single fingertip. The next innovation came from another Frenchman, Pierre Durand, who made the switch from glass jars, to the tin can, where the term "canning" was introduced.
Pasteur disproved the notion of "spontaneous generation" which stated that organisms could spring from nothing; Pasteur showed that organisms came from other, pre-existing organisms. The Montgolfiére balloon was made of paper and used air heated by burning wool and moist straw. In 1960, the definition of the meter changed to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of the orange-red radiation of krypton 86. Although other inventors had been working on the idea as well, it was Thimonnier's chain-stitching machine that provided the first practical application of the invention.
In 1894 he was granted a patent for a hand or machine-cranked unit, which served this purpose.
If you were in the milk business in 1940, your wheel would be the milkman, delivering product to your door. Is there a technology or methodology that someone is beginning to use that really irritates me and I’m sure it won’t work and I somehow think is wrong? If your organization is able to thrive and survive, you need several vehicles to deliver your product. Over time, the tradition of roasting the beans and immersing them in water to create a sour yet powerful drink developed, and thus, coffee was born. Although it was at first denounced as the “Muslim drink” by Catholic authorities, coffee became a part of European culture. A unique aspect of his reasoning for developing algebra is the desire to make calculations mandated by Islamic law easier to complete in a world without calculators and computers. As the Muslim world grew however, there needed to be formal institutions, known as madrasas, dedicated to the education of students. At the end of the program, if the teachers deemed their students qualified, they would grant them a certificate known as an ijaza, which recognizes that the student understood the material and is now qualified to teach it. The Universities of Bologna in Italy and Oxford in England were founded in the 11th and 12th centuries and continued the Muslim tradition of granting degrees to students who deserved them, and using it as a judge of a person’s qualifications in a particular subject. This tradition has its origins in the Ottoman mehter bands of the 1300s that helped make the Ottoman army one of the most powerful in the world.
Remove apartment buildings, office towers, and dense downtown cores from your picture of the world and you have to change the whole rest of your picture too, because the implications keep rippling. In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler took the internal combustion engine a step further and patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine and later built the world’s first four-wheeled motor vehicle. His centrifugal governor kept the engine running at the desired rate, and is a modification so simple and elegant that it may be one of the best ideas of all time. Census in 1890 by tabulating machines designed by Herman Hollerith and manufactured by the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, which later became IBM. His patents were purchased by an American company and refrigeration machines meant for residential use were first manufactured by General Electric, and offered for sale to the public, in 1911. If you were in the banking business in 1960, the delivery system would be the bank location.
That technology or product delivery system that you dislike and discount today may your biggest nightmare tomorrow. If I can reinvent my own wheel before someone adds it to the encyclopedia of what used to work, my new version of my own wheel will allow me to race ahead. Race cars crash, and sometimes you need a cement truck or a long haul carrier to get the job done. Some of us remember dragging suitcases around in airports, and suddenly someone had the idea of putting wheels on them, and that enabled all of us to speed down airport corridors and significantly improve our personal productivity. There is no wheel that will not be reinvented, however, and I surround myself with people in my organization that are eager for reinvention. The coffeehouses of the 1600s was where philosophers met and discussed issues such as the rights of man, the role of government, and democracy.
Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to realize that when a tiny hole is put onto the side of a lightproof box, rays of light from the outside are projected through that pinhole into the box and onto the back wall of it.
If you were in the music business in the 1980s, your wheel would be the 8-track tape, which delivered music to your listener. The mindset of reinvention is the key factor that will take a person through a career today. These discussions over coffee spawned what became the Enlightenment, one of the most powerful intellectual movements of the modern world.
He realized that the smaller the pinhole (aperture), the sharper the image quality, giving him the ability to build cameras that were incredibly accurate and sharp when capturing an image. This technology went through many changes through the amazing electric typewriters of the 1980s, incremental change that happened over 100 years.
Then came the civilization changing persona computers that made that technology obsolete in less than a decade.

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