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This is a€?Treating Psychological Disordersa€?, chapter 13 from the book Beginning Psychology (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.
Lucien is speaking about his friend, companion, and perhaps even his therapist, a Russian wolfhound named Sascha. Shea€™ll come up and touch me, and that is enough of a stimulus to break the loop, bring me back to reality.
These dramatic stories of improvement from debilitating disorders can be attributed to an alternative psychological therapy, based on established behavioral principles, provided by a€?psychiatric service dogs.a€? The dogs are trained to help people with a variety of mental disorders, including panic attacks, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and bipolar disorder. Despite the reports of success from many users, it is important to keep in mind that the utility of psychiatric service dogs has not yet been tested, and thus would never be offered as a therapy by a trained clinician or paid for by an insurance company. Psychological disorders create a tremendous individual, social, and economic drain on society. The goal of this chapter is to review the techniques that are used to treat psychological disorder. The psychological approach to reducing disorder involves providing help to individuals or families through psychological therapy, including psychoanalysis, humanistic-oriented therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and other approaches.
The biomedical approach to reducing disorder is based on the use of medications to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, as well as the employment of brain intervention techniques, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and psychosurgery. The social approach to reducing disorder focuses on changing the social environment in which individuals live to reduce the underlying causes of disorder.
A clinician may focus on any or all of the three approaches to treatment, but in making a decision about which to use, he or she will always rely on his or her knowledge about existing empirical tests of the effectiveness of different treatments.
Outline and differentiate the psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to psychotherapy.
Explain the behavioral and cognitive aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy and how CBT is used to reduce psychological disorders. Treatment for psychological disorder begins when the individual who is experiencing distress visits a counselor or therapist, perhaps in a church, a community center, a hospital, or a private practice. In addition to the psychological assessment, the patient is usually seen by a physician to gain information about potential Axis III (physical) problems.
After the medical and psychological assessments are completed, the therapist will make a formal diagnosis using the detailed descriptions of the disorder provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; see below). To be diagnosed with ADHD the individual must display either A or B below (American Psychiatric Association, 2000):American Psychiatric Association. If a diagnosis is made, the therapist will select a course of therapy that he or she feels will be most effective. To many people therapy involves a patient lying on a couch with a therapist sitting behind and nodding sagely as the patient speaks.
These data show the proportion of psychotherapists who reported practicing each type of therapy.
Many people who would benefit from psychotherapy do not get it, either because they do not know how to find it or because they feel that they will be stigmatized and embarrassed if they seek help. Remember also that confronting issues requires time to reflect, energy to get to the appointments and deal with consequential feelings, and discipline to explore your issues on your own.
If it becomes apparent that a psychologist may be called on to perform potentially conflicting roles (such as family therapist and then witness for one party in divorce proceedings), the psychologist takes reasonable steps to clarify and modify, or withdraw from, roles appropriately. When psychologists provide services to several persons in a group setting, they describe at the outset the roles and responsibilities of all parties and the limits of confidentiality. Psychodynamic therapy (psychoanalysis)A psychological treatment based on Freudian and neo-Freudian personality theories in which the therapist helps the patient explore the unconscious dynamics of personality. The patient may be asked to verbalize his or her thoughts through free associationA technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship or filtering., in which the therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship or filtering. One problem with traditional psychoanalysis is that the sessions may take place several times a week, go on for many years, and cost thousands of dollars. Just as psychoanalysis is based on the personality theories of Freud and the neo-Freudians, humanistic therapyA psychological treatment based on the personality theories of Carl Rogers and other humanistic psychologists.
Carl Rogers developed person-centered therapy (or client-centered therapy)An approach to treatment in which the client is helped to grow and develop as the therapist provides a comfortable, nonjudgmental environment., an approach to treatment in which the client is helped to grow and develop as the therapist provides a comfortable, nonjudgmental environment. Carl Rogers was among the founders of the humanistic approach to therapy and developed the fundamentals of person-centered therapy. The development of a positive therapeutic alliance has been found to be exceedingly important to successful therapy. Psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are recommended primarily for people suffering from generalized anxiety or mood disorders, and who desire to feel better about themselves overall. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT)A structured approach to treatment that attempts to reduce psychological disorders through systematic procedures based on cognitive and behavioral principles. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behavior reinforce each other and that changing our thoughts or behavior can make us feel better.
CBT is a very broad approach that is used for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, attention-deficit, and psychotic disorders. Depending on the particular disorder, some CBT treatments may be primarily behavioral in orientation, focusing on the principles of classical, operant, and observational learning, whereas other treatments are more cognitive, focused on changing negative thoughts related to the disorder.
As the patient practices the different techniques, the appropriate behaviors are shaped through reinforcement to allow the client to manage more complex social situations. When the disorder is anxiety or phobia, then the goal of the CBT is to reduce the negative affective responses to the feared stimulus.
Some of the advantages of the virtual reality treatment approach are that it is economical, the treatment session can be held in the therapista€™s office with no loss of time or confidentiality, the session can easily be terminated as soon as a patient feels uncomfortable, and many patients who have resisted live exposure to the object of their fears are willing to try the new virtual reality option first.
Trained clinicians use computer-generated, three-dimensional, lifelike images of spiders instead of the real thing in systematic desensitization programs to help combat client fears. Aversion therapyA behavioral therapy in which positive punishment is used to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior. While behavioral approaches focus on the actions of the patient, cognitive therapyA psychological treatment that helps clients identify incorrect or distorted beliefs that are contributing to disorder. The goal of cognitive therapy is not necessarily to get people to think more positively but rather to think more accurately. To this point we have considered the different approaches to psychotherapy under the assumption that a therapist will use only one approach with a given patient. As we have seen in Chapter 12 "Defining Psychological Disorders", one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders is borderline personality disorder (BPD). If the therapist is trained in a psychodynamic approach, he or she will probably begin intensive face-to-face psychotherapy sessions at least three times a week. The eclectic therapist will continue to monitor Bethanya€™s behavior as the therapy continues, bringing into play whatever therapeutic tools seem most beneficial.
Psychoanalysis is based on the principles of Freudian and neo-Freudian personality theories.
Humanist therapy, derived from the personality theory of Carl Rogers, is based on the idea that people experience psychological problems when they are burdened by limits and expectations placed on them by themselves and others. Behavior therapy applies the principles of classical and operant conditioning, as well as observational learning, to the elimination of maladaptive behaviors and their replacement with more adaptive responses. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck developed cognitive-based therapies to help clients stop negative thoughts and replace them with more objective thoughts.
Imagine that your friend has been feeling depressed for several months but refuses to consider therapy as an option.
Imagine that you have developed a debilitating fear of bees after recently being attacked by a swarm of them. Classify the different types of drugs used in the treatment of mental disorders and explain how they each work to reduce disorder.
Critically evaluate direct brain intervention methods that may be used by doctors to treat patients who do not respond to drug or other therapy.
Like other medical problems, psychological disorders may in some cases be treated biologically. Psychologists understand that an appropriate balance of neurotransmitters in the brain is necessary for mental health.
Unlike some medical therapies that can be targeted toward specific symptoms, current psychological drug therapies are not so specific; they dona€™t change particular behaviors or thought processes, and they dona€™t really solve psychological disorders. The major classes and brand names of drugs used to treat psychological disorders are shown in Table 13.2 "Common Medications Used to Treat Psychological Disorders". It may seem surprising to you that a disorder that involves hyperactivity is treated with a psychostimulant, a drug that normally increases activity. The most common side effects of psychostimulants in children include decreased appetite, weight loss, sleeping problems, and irritability as the effect of the medication tapers off. The original antidepressants were the tricyclic antidepressants, with the brand names of Tofranil and Elavil, and the monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). The antidepressants most prescribed today are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft, which are designed to selectively block the reuptake of serotonin at the synapse, thereby leaving more serotonin available in the CNS.
Recently, there has been concern that SSRIs may increase the risk of suicide among teens and young adults, probably because when the medications begin working they give patients more energy, which may lead them to commit the suicide that they had been planning but lacked the energy to go through with. Because the effects of antidepressants may take weeks or even months to develop, doctors usually work with each patient to determine which medications are most effective, and may frequently change medications over the course of therapy. Patients who are suffering from bipolar disorder are not helped by the SSRIs or other antidepressants because their disorder also involves the experience of overly positive moods. People who take lithium must have regular blood tests to be sure that the levels of the drug are in the appropriate range. The most common class of antianxiety medications is the tranquilizers, known as benzodiazepines.
Until the middle of the 20th century, schizophrenia was inevitably accompanied by the presence of positive symptoms, including bizarre, disruptive, and potentially dangerous behavior. Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics)Drugs that treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders. The discovery of chlorpromazine and its use in clinics has been described as the single greatest advance in psychiatric care, because it has dramatically improved the prognosis of patients in psychiatric hospitals worldwide. Psychological disorder is more or less better identified as a significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that happens with an individual which causes significant distress (for instance, an unpleasant symptom) or disability (that is, impairment in a number of important regions of functioning) or having a considerably elevated chance of suffering pain, death, discomfort, disability, or an essential lack of freedom.
Psychological Disorders have been known to human kind at least for as long as human history had been recorded. The definition and classification of psychological disorders are a key issue for effective treatment by providers of mental health services. Psychological disorder is not a sign of weakness in individual’s character or lack of intelligence. A large percentage of people with psychological disorders remain untreated for various reasons.
Recently, there has been paid more attention to the influence of culture in person’s psychological distress.
Hanoi (VNA) - With an increasing number of students suffering from mental disorders, educational psychology experts urged schools to effectively manage psychological consultative centres.
Ngu Duy Anh, director of the Student Affairs Department under the Ministry of Education and Training, said the rising prevalence of mental disorders among teenagers was caused by the heavy academic workload, family and school-related conflicts, career pressures and negative impacts from the internet. A new survey co-organised by the Health Ministry, Ministry of Planning and Investment's General Statistics Office of Vietnam, UNICEF and WHO interviewed 3,000 students aged 10-16 in Hanoi and the northern city Hai Duong. Nine percent of interviewees said they used to think about committing suicide, six percent had attempted suicide and 19.5 percent said they suffered from mental disorders.
On October 6, a male student of the Chu Van An secondary school in the northern mountainous province of Lang Son killed himself by jumping off a bridge. Assistant Professor Nguyen Duc Son, head of the Educational Psychology Faculty at Hanoi Teachers' Training College, said expanding consultative centres at schools was essential, but few schools had such facilities. Chairman of the Hanoi Education Psychology Association Nguyen Tung Lam said psychological consultation for students had never before been such a hot issue.
The psychological consultation workforce at many schools was comprised of civics teachers or youth union officials. Deputy Minister of Education and Training Nguyen Thi Nghia said the ministry has asked provincial and city departments to establish psychological consultation centres based on each school's infrastructure and financial condition. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Lucien suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disorder that has had a profoundly negative impact on his life for many years.
Sometimes Ia€™ll scratch my hand until ita€™s raw and wona€™t realize until she comes up to me and brings me out.
They help veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan cope with their traumatic brain injuries as well as with PTSD. If the doga€™s owner is depressed, the dog will snuggle up and offer physical comfort; if the owner is having a panic attack, the owner can calm himself by massaging the doga€™s body.
Although interaction between humans and dogs can create positive physiological responses (Odendaal, 2000),Odendaal, J. Disorders make it difficult for people to engage in productive lives and effectively contribute to their family and to society.


Just as psychologists consider the causes of disorder in terms of the bio-psycho-social model of illness, treatment is also based on psychological, biological, and social approaches. These approaches include group, couples, and family therapy, as well as community outreach programs. These tests, known as outcome studies, carefully compare people who receive a given treatment with people who do not receive a treatment, or with people who receive a different type of treatment. The therapist will begin by systematically learning about the patienta€™s needs through a formal psychological assessmentAn evaluation of the patienta€™s psychological and mental health., which is an evaluation of the patienta€™s psychological and mental health.
In some cases of psychological disordera€”and particularly for sexual problemsa€”medical treatment is the preferred course of action. The therapist will summarize the information about the patient on each of the five DSM axes, and the diagnosis will likely be sent to an insurance company to justify payment for the treatment. One approach to treatment is psychotherapyProfessional treatment for psychological disorder through techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight., the professional treatment for psychological disorder through techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight. Though this approach to therapy (known as psychoanalysis) is still practiced, it is in the minority. The decision to not seek help is a very poor choice because the effectiveness of mental health treatments is well documented and, no matter where a person lives, there are treatments available (U.S. It is possible that some of your colleagues, friends, and family members will know that you are seeking help and some may at first think more negatively of you for it. This question is not always easy to answer because there is no clear demarcation between a€?normala€? and a€?abnormala€? behavior. Begin in your school, community, or church, asking about community health or counseling centers and pastoral counseling. Be sure to ask about the degrees that the therapist has earned, and about the reputation of the center in which the therapy occurs. All people have the right to appropriate mental health care just as they have a right to general health care. The client may also be asked to report on his or her dreams, and the therapist will use dream analysisA technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist listens while the client describes his or her dreams and then analyzes the symbolism of the dreams. The therapist listens while the client talks about whatever comes to mind, without any censorship or filtering. The therapist listens while the client describes his or her dreams and then analyzes the symbolism of the dreams in an effort to probe the unconscious thoughts of the client and interpret their significance. The therapist uses the patienta€™s expressed thoughts to try to understand the underlying unconscious problems. The patienta€™s use of defense mechanisms to avoid the painful feelings in his or her unconscious.
The unconscious redirection of the feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist. To help more people benefit, modern psychodynamic approaches frequently use shorter-term, focused, and goal-oriented approaches. But the goals of people with other psychological disorders, such as phobias, sexual problems, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are more specific. CBT treats the symptoms of the disorder (the behaviors or the cognitions) and does not attempt to address the underlying issues that cause the problem. In some cases observational learning may also be used; the client may be asked to observe the behavior of others who are more socially skilled to acquire appropriate behaviors. Exposure therapyA behavioral therapy based on the classical conditioning principle of extinction in which people are confronted with a feared stimulus with the goal of decreasing their negative emotional responses to it. An agoraphobic might be taken to a crowded shopping mall or someone with an extreme fear of heights to the top of a tall building. Systematic desensitizationA behavioral treatment that combines imagining or experiencing the feared object or situation with relaxation exercises. The continued pairing of the relaxation responses with the feared stimulus as the patient works up the hierarchy gradually leads the fear response to be extinguished and the relaxation response to take its place.
Fears of spiders are more directly habituated when the patient interacts with a real spider, and fears of flying are best extinguished when the patient gets on a real plane. Specially designed computer equipment with a head-mount display is used to create a simulated environment. For instance, a person who thinks a€?no one cares about mea€? is likely to feel rejected, isolated, and lonely. Beck and the psychologist Albert Ellis (1913a€“2007) together provided the basic principles of cognitive therapy. She was fighting with her parents almost daily, and the fights often included violent behavior on Bethanya€™s part. Her suicide attempt was not successful, but the authorities required that she seek psychological help. First, because her negative mood states are so severe, they will likely recommend that she start taking antidepressant medications.
Person-centered approaches will be used in which the therapist attempts to create a therapeutic alliance conducive to a frank and open exchange of information.
The therapist may focus on childhood experiences related to Bethanya€™s attachment difficulties but will also focus in large part on the causes of the present behavior.
For one, cognitive therapy will likely be used in an attempt to change Bethanya€™s distortions of reality.
Hopefully, Bethany will stay in treatment long enough to make some real progress in repairing her broken life. In eclectic therapy, the therapist uses whatever treatment approaches seem most likely to be effective for the client. Based on what youa€™ve learned in this section, what treatment options would you explore in your attempt to provide him with the best help available? Biomedical therapiesTreatments designed to reduce psychological disorder by influencing the action of the central nervous system. If there is a proper balance of chemicals, then the persona€™s mental health will be acceptable, but psychological disorder will result if there is a chemical imbalance.
However, although they cannot a€?curea€? disorder, drug therapies are nevertheless useful therapeutic approaches, particularly when combined with psychological therapy, in treating a variety of psychological disorders. The most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD are psychostimulants, including Ritalin, Adderall, and Dexedrine. These medications work by increasing the amount of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine at the synapses, but they also have severe side effects including potential increases in blood pressure and the need to follow particular diets. In some cases other types of antidepressants may be used instead of or in addition to the SSRIs.
Potential negative side effects of lithium are loss of coordination, slurred speech, frequent urination, and excessive thirst. These drugs, which are prescribed millions of times a year, include Ativan, Valium, and Xanax. As a result, schizophrenics were locked in asylums to protect them from themselves and to protect society from them. Using antipsychotic medications has allowed hundreds of thousands of people to move out of asylums into individual households or community mental health centers, and in many cases to live near-normal lives. Additionally, this pattern or syndrome must not be an expected response to a particular event, for instance, when a loved one dies. It affects people of diverse groups that belong to all ages, genders, religions, occupational, economic & social circles. He added that some schools in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City had regular professionally-trained psychology teachers. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (46 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
If a stranger gets too close to Lucien in public, Sascha will block the stranger with his body.
The serenity shown by the dogs in all situations seems to reassure the PTSD sufferer that all must be well. Disorders lead to disability and absenteeism in the workplace, as well as physical problems, premature death, and suicide. The community approach is likely to be the most effective of the three approaches because it focuses not only on treatment, but also on prevention of disorders (World Health Organization, 2004).World Health Organization. Taken together, these studies have confirmed that many types of therapies are effective in treating disorder.
During the assessment the psychologist may give personality tests such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personal Inventory (MMPI-2) or projective tests, and will conduct a thorough interview with the patient. For instance, men who are experiencing erectile dysfunction disorder may need surgery to increase blood flow or local injections of muscle relaxants.
The fundamental aspect of psychotherapy is that the patient directly confronts the disorder and works with the therapist to help reduce it. It is estimated that there are over 400 different kinds of therapy practiced by people in many fields, and the most important of these are shown in Figure 13.2 "The Many Types of Therapy Practiced in the United States". Most generally, you will know that you or others need help when the persona€™s psychological state is negatively influencing his or her everyday behavior, when the behavior is adversely affecting those around the person, and when the problems continue over a period of time. Just as you go to a dentist for a toothache, you may go to therapy for psychological difficulties.
The analyst engages with the patient, usually in one-on-one sessions, often with the patient lying on a couch and facing away. The therapist then tries to interpret these free associations, looking for unconscious causes of symptoms.
The analyst may try out some interpretations on the patient and observe how he or she responds to them. The patient might forget or miss appointments, or act out with hostile feelings toward the therapist. For instance, the patient may transfer feelings of guilt that come from the father or mother to the therapist. In these a€?brief psychodynamic therapies,a€? the therapist helps the client determine the important issues to be discussed at the beginning of treatment and usually takes a more active role than in classic psychoanalysis (Levenson, 2010).Levenson, H.
Humanistic therapy is based on the idea that people develop psychological problems when they are burdened by limits and expectations placed on them by themselves and others, and the treatment emphasizes the persona€™s capacity for self-realization and fulfillment.
A person with a social phobia may want to be able to leave his or her house, a person with a sexual dysfunction may want to improve his or her sex life, and a person with OCD may want to learn to stop letting his obsessions or compulsions interfere with everyday activities.
As you can see in Figure 13.4 "Cognitive-Behavior Therapy", CBT is based on the idea that there is a recursive link among our thoughts, our feelings, and our behavior.
The goal is simply to stop the negative cycle by intervening to change cognition or behavior. People who learn to improve their interpersonal skills through skills training may be more accepted by others and this social support may have substantial positive effects on their emotions.
The assumption is that the fear will subside as the client habituates to the situation while receiving emotional support from the therapist during the stressful experience. An unpleasant stimulus is intentionally paired with a harmful or socially unacceptable behavior until the behavior becomes associated with unpleasant sensations and is hopefully reduced. In cognitive therapy the therapist helps the patient develop new, healthier ways of thinking about themselves and about the others around them. If the therapist can remind the person that she has a mother or daughter who does care about her, more positive feelings will likely follow. She had very severe separation anxietya€”if her mother left the room, Bethany would scream until she returned. At times she seemed terrified to be without her mother, but at other times she would leave the house in a fit of rage and not return for a few days. These drugs are likely to help her feel better and will reduce the possibility of another suicide attempt, but they will not change the underlying psychological problems.
The therapist will understand that because Bethany does not have good relationships with other people, she will likely seek a close bond with the therapist, but the therapist will probably not allow the transference relationship to develop fully. She feels that people are rejecting her, but she is probably bringing these rejections on herself.
The most frequently used biological treatments provide the patient with medication that influences the production and reuptake of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS).
Short-acting forms of the drugs are taken as pills and last between 4 and 12 hours, but some of the drugs are also available in long-acting forms (skin patches) that can be worn on the hip and last up to 12 hours. Although they are used primarily in the treatment of depression, they are also effective for patients who suffer from anxiety, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. These medications also work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Though side effects often cause patients to stop taking their medication, it is important that treatment be continuous, rather than intermittent.
The benzodiazepines act within a few minutes to treat mild anxiety disorders but also have major side effects. In the 1950s, a drug called chlorpromazine (Thorazine) was discovered that could reduce many of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Today there are many antipsychotics, including Thorazine, Haldol, Clozaril, Risperdal, and Zyprexa.
The idea of psychological disorder, like a number of other concepts in science and medicine, lacks a regular operational description or definition which covers every situation.
Instead it’s a manifestation of mental, behavioral or biological disorder within the individual.
Over 50% of adult population will experience some type of Psychological Disorder at some point in their life.
Stigma can lead to mistreatment or discrimination towards mentally ill, which can affect person’s ability to have a functional social life or even ability to find a decent employment.


Lucien has tried many solutions, consulting with doctors, psychiatrists, and psychologists, and using a combination of drugs, group therapy, and anger-management classes. Sascha is trained to sense when Lucien is about to have a nightmare, waking him before it starts. Or they may be prescribed medications (Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra) that provide an increased blood supply to the penis, which are successful in increasing performance in about 70% of men who take them. Therapy includes assessing the patienta€™s issues and problems, planning a course of treatment, setting goals for change, the treatment itself, and an evaluation of the patienta€™s progress. The therapists who provide these treatments include psychiatrists (who have a medical degree and can prescribe drugs) and clinical psychologists, as well as social workers, psychiatric nurses, and couples, marriage, and family therapists.
Feeling good about yourself is the most important thing you can do, and seeking help may be the first step in doing so. Often people seek therapy as a result of a life-changing event such as diagnosis of a fatal illness, an upcoming marriage or divorce, or the death of a loved one. Youa€™ll probably be surprised at how many people have been to counseling, and how many recommend it. Furthermore, you can be confident that you will be treated with respect and that your privacy will be protected, because therapists follow ethical principles in their practices. The goal of the psychotherapy is for the patient to talk about his or her personal concerns and anxieties, allowing the therapist to try to understand the underlying unconscious problems that are causing the symptoms (the process of interpretationA technique of psychotherapy in which the therapist uses the patienta€™s expressed thoughts to understand the underlying unconscious problems.).
On the basis of the thoughts expressed by the patient, the analyst discovers the unconscious conflicts causing the patienta€™s symptoms and interprets them for the patient. The therapist attempts to help the patient develop insight into the causes of the resistance. Humanistic therapies attempt to promote growth and responsibility by helping clients consider their own situations and the world around them and how they can work to achieve their life goals.
In these cases it is not necessary to revisit childhood experiences or consider our capacities for self-realizationa€”we simply want to deal with what is happening in the present. For instance, if we are feeling depressed, our negative thoughts (a€?I am doing poorly in my chemistry classa€?) lead to negative feelings (a€?I feel hopeless and sada€?), which then contribute to negative behaviors (lethargy, disinterest, lack of studying). The client and the therapist work together to develop the goals of the therapy, the particular ways that the goals will be reached, and the timeline for reaching them. An advantage of the flooding technique is that it is quick and often effective, but a disadvantage is that the patient may relapse after a short period of time. Recent advances in virtual reality have allowed clinicians to provide CBT in what seem like real situations to the patient. A child who wets his bed may be required to sleep on a pad that sounds an alarm when it senses moisture. The idea of cognitive therapy is that changing thoughts will change emotions, and that the new emotions will then influence behavior (see Figure 13.4 "Cognitive-Behavior Therapy"). The therapist will also realize that Bethany will probably try to resist the work of the therapist. If she can learn to better understand the meaning of other peoplea€™s actions, she may feel better. These therapies primarily involve the use of medications but also include direct methods of brain intervention, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and psychosurgery. The use of these drugs is rapidly increasing, and drug therapy is now the most common approach to treatment of most psychological disorders. Antidepressants work by influencing the production and reuptake of neurotransmitters that relate to emotion, including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The increased level of GABA helps inhibit the action of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, creating a calming experience. Some of these drugs treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and some treat both the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Symptoms may occur from early childhood or develop later in life, with varying intensity, duration & consistency.
The cost of treatment is generally expensive, in many cases the mentally ill have no means of affording these expenses, so many remain untreated because of this. Before road rage can set in, Sascha gently whimpers, reminding his owner that it doesna€™t pay to get upset about nutty drivers. Therapy is practiced by thousands of psychologists and other trained practitioners in the United States and around the world, and is responsible for billions of dollars of the health budget. But therapy is also effective for general depression and anxiety, as well as for specific everyday problems. Your sessions with the help provider will require discussing your family history, personality, and relationships, and you should feel comfortable sharing this information. The following provides a summary of these principles as developed by the American Psychological Association (2010).American Psychological Association. When we or other people look at the negative behavior, the negative thoughts are reinforced and the cycle repeats itself (Beck, 1976).Beck, A.
The procedures are problem-solving and action-oriented, and the client is forced to take responsibility for his or her own treatment.
In virtual reality CBT, the therapist uses computer-generated, three-dimensional, lifelike images of the feared stimulus in a systematic desensitization program.
Why rational emotive behavior therapy is the most comprehensive and effective form of behavior therapy. She started acting out more and morea€”yelling at her parents and teachers and engaging in impulsive behavior such as promiscuity and running away from home.
When confronted about them, Bethany said that one night she just got more and more lonely and nervous about a recent breakup until she finally stuck a lit cigarette into her arm.
And the therapist will likely begin using some techniques of behavior therapy, for instance, by rewarding Bethany for successful social interactions and progress toward meeting her important goals. Growth deficits in ADHD children revisited: Evidence for disorder-associated growth delays? Although exactly why they work is not yet known, as the amount of the neurotransmitters in the CNS is increased through the action of the drugs, the person often experiences less depression. The causes are often explained in terms of a diathesis-stress model or biopsychosocial model. Rogers argued that therapy was most productive when the therapist created a positive relationship with the clienta€”a therapeutic alliance. The client is assigned tasks to complete that will help improve the disorder and takes an active part in the therapy. Specially designed computer equipment, often with a head-mount display, is used to create a simulated environment. At times Bethany would have a close friend at school, but some conflict always developed and the friendship would end.
DBT is essentially a cognitive therapy, but it includes a particular emphasis on attempting to enlist the help of the patient in his or her own treatment.
In biological psychiatry, psychological disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and life experiences, thus there are inborn, inherited & environmental factors. Depending on culture symptoms may be expressed differently, public response to these expressions can greatly vary too, in many ways they are interconnected.
Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in anxiety disorders: A systematic review. The therapeutic allianceA relationship between patient and client that occurs when the therapist is genuine, treats the client with unconditional positive regard, and develops empathy with the client. Exposure treatment can be carried out in real situations or through imagination, and it is used in the treatment of panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The client and the therapist work together to prepare a hierarchy of fears, starting with the least frightening, and moving to the most frightening scenario surrounding the object (Table 13.1 "Hierarchy of Fears Used in Systematic Desensitization"). A common use is in helping soldiers who are experiencing PTSD return to the scene of the trauma and learn how to cope with the stress it invokes.
In a standard approach, patients are treated at a hospital where they are administered a drug, antabuse, that makes them nauseous if they consume any alcohol. A dialectical behavioral therapist begins by attempting to develop a positive therapeutic alliance with the client, and then tries to encourage the patient to become part of the treament process.
Misunderstanding by families of the sufferers may also leave many untreated, which is more affecting children, teens & younger adults. The patient then confronts her fears in a systematic manner, sometimes using her imagination but usually, when possible, in real life.
Ellis noticed that people experiencing strong negative emotions tend to personalize and overgeneralize their beliefs, leading to an inability to see situations accurately (Leahy, 2003).Leahy, R. In DBT the therapist aims to accept and validate the clienta€™s feelings at any given time while nonetheless informing the client that some feelings and behaviors are maladaptive, and showing the client better alternatives. Additionally, the best drug and best dosage varies from child to child, so it may take some time to find the correct combination. Autonomic and behavioral effects of dextroamphetamine and placebo in normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys. The most well-known mood stabilizer, lithium carbonate (or a€?lithiuma€?), was approved by the FDA in the 1970s for treating both manic and depressive episodes, and it has proven very effective. Clinical management of depression, hopelessness, and suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder. The therapist will use both individual and group therapy, helping the patient work toward improving interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills.
The antidepressant quandarya€”Considering suicide risk when treating adolescent depression. Costs of nine common mental disorders: Implications for curative and preventive psychiatry. Similarly, in panic disorder a patient may misinterpret his or her feelings of anxiety as a sign of an impending physical or mental catastrophe (such as a heart attack), leading to an avoidance of a particular place or social situation.
Neuropsychological predictors of functional outcome in cognitive behavioral social skills training for older people with schizophrenia. Follow-up of 180 alcoholic patients for up to 7 years after outpatient treatment: Impact of alcohol deterrents on outcome.
Aversion therapy is also used to stop other specific behaviors such as nail biting (Allen, 1996).Allen K. Discontinuation of benzodiazepine treatment: Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with panic disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants a meta analysis of efficacy and tolerability.
His goal was to develop a short-term therapy for depression that would modify these unproductive thoughts. The sessions may also lead to transferenceAn occurrence in psychotherapy in which the patient redirects feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist., in which the patient unconsciously redirects feelings experienced in an important personal relationship toward the therapist.
In REBT, the therapista€™s goal is to challenge these irrational thought patterns, helping the patient replace the irrational thoughts with more rational ones, leading to the development of more appropriate emotional reactions and behaviors. SSRIs are effective, but patients taking them often suffer a variety of sometimes unpleasant side effects, including dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, headache, agitation, drowsiness, as well as a reduction in sexual enjoyment. Furthermore, because the effects of the benzodiazepines are very similar to those of alcohol, they are very dangerous when combined with it. Chronic nailbiting: A controlled comparison of competing response and mild aversion treatments. If a client claims that a€?everybody at work is out to get me,a€? the therapist might ask him to provide instances to corroborate the claim.
Some therapists believe that transference should be encouraged, as it allows the client to resolve hidden conflicts and work through feelings that are present in the relationships. Despite their effectiveness, antipsychotics have some negative side effects, including restlessness, muscle spasms, dizziness, and blurred vision. In addition, their long-term use can cause permanent neurological damage, a condition called tardive dyskinesia that causes uncontrollable muscle movements, usually in the mouth area (National Institute of Mental Health, 2008).National Institute of Mental Health.
Effect size of lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Social skills training augments the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder.
If the patient has trouble dressing or grooming, then reinforcement techniques, such as providing tokens that can be exchanged for snacks, are used to reinforce appropriate behaviors such as putting on onea€™s clothes in the morning or taking a shower at night. If the patient has trouble interacting with others, reinforcement will be used to teach the client how to more appropriately respond in public, for instance, by maintaining eye contact, smiling when appropriate, and modulating tone of voice. Treatment costs and use of community mental health services for schiziphrenia by age cohorts. Pharmacological and psychological treatments for depressed older patients: A metaanalysis and overview of recent findings.
Consensus statement on the upcoming crisis in geriatric mental health: Research agenda for the next two decades. The efficacy, safety and tolerability of antidepressants in late life depression: A meta-analysis.
Pharmacological treatment of depression in older primary care patients: The PROSPECT algorithm.
Prevalence of mental disorders in the elderley: The Australian National Mental Health and Well-Being Survey.



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Comments Psychological disorders lack of confidence

  1. Natalyu
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  2. Svoyskiy
    Would have agreed that there's a time for utilizing mindfulness to find.