Rosalind franklin secret of photo 51 worksheet answers,the secret files 3 gameplay android,the secret power of yoga - Step 2

29.11.2013
Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray studies of molecules played a crucial role in the 1953 discovery of the structure of DNA. The mysterious story of molecular biologist Rosalind Franklin will be explored next week at the World Science Festival’s The Secret Behind the Secret of Life: Facts and Fictions with The Ensemble Studio Theatre Production of Anna Ziegler’s Photograph 51. The photo was one in a series of what was then the most detailed images of the three-dimensional structure of a complex molecule ever captured. Their model was based on Franklin’s evidence, and their epic publication included one of the most controversial authorship lists in scientific history. Franklin wasn’t the first or last woman in science with an extraordinary, elusive story.
All this week, I’ll be uncovering other exceptional, under-heralded women in the history of science.
Sign up for our free newsletter to see exclusive features and be the first to get news and updates on upcoming WSF programs. In 1962, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was a awarded jointly to Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins for their discovery of the structure of DNA. 1962 Nobel laureates Maurice Wilkins, Max Perutz, Francis Crick, John Steinbeck, James Watson, and John C Kendrew.
Sir John Randall assembled a team of scientists to work on the problem of DNA at his Kings College laboratory that included both Wilkins, who had just left work on the Manhattan Project, and Franklin, who had become renowned for her work in x-ray crystallography in Paris. Watson and Crick began to suspect that DNA took a helical pattern, but were looking into the possibility of a triple-twist helix. In May of 1952, Franklin and Gosling took a x-ray diffraction image that became known as "photo 51." Gosling presented the photo to Wilkins as part of his graduate work.
Franklin studied photo 51 and independently saw the double-helix model in February of 1953. Rosalind Franklin, born in 1920, received her bachelor's degree in chemistry from Cambridge University in 1941 and her PhD in 1945.
Nicole Kidman makes her much anticipated return to the London stage in the role of Rosalind Franklin, the woman who discovered the secret to Life, in the UK premiere of Anna Ziegler’s award-winning play.
Rosalind Franklin died of ovarian cancer in 1958, so she never learned that she’d been cheated of credit for her role in one of the greatest breakthroughs in science. Modern theatrical productions usually portray Franklin as a stylishly dressed lady in a lab coat, which seems pretty close to the mark.
And furthermore: Rosalind Franklin was a brilliant scientist whose contribution to DNA research went far beyond just taking a great X-ray image. The image one of about a million resources related to genetics being put online by the Wellcome Trust.
Shortened URLGuestsSherwin Nulandwas a clinical professor of surgery at Yale University, where he also taught bioethics and medical history.
The photo itself has been hailed by the British scientific icon and expert x-ray crystallographer John Bernal as “the most beautiful x-ray photograph of any substance ever taken.” But the photographer, Rosalind Franklin, The Dark Lady of DNA, has remained a cipher. It was the product of years of equipment optimization and meticulous experimentation by Franklin. Franklin’s story is a cautionary tale of the devastating consequences of strained intercolleague relationships, and the dangers of cultural, personal, and professional isolation.
From the Photograph 51 event to the celebrity-peppered opening night celebration dedicated to Marie Curie to a fun cocktail-infused talk series focused on the female half of life, the World Science Festival has obviously gone out of its way to honor the many extraordinary women of science—both past and present.
Wilkins had been working on x-ray diffraction, but when his work lagged, Randall assigned Rosalind Franklin and graduate student Raymond Gosling to study the structure of DNA by X-ray diffraction. Wilkins assumed, depending on the source, that either Franklin was working as his partner or as his assistant.
Franklin had her doubts about a helix pattern at all, because her mathematical models did not support the theory, but she did not dismiss the possibility.
In January of 1953, Wilkins shared the picture, and some of Franklin's unpublished notes, with Watson and Crick, without Franklin's knowledge. She and Gosling prepared a paper in March, and it appeared in the journal Nature along with Watson and Crick's announcement of the double-helix discovery in April of 1953. She worked constantly in the laboratory until she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1956. But when Crick, Watson, and Wilkins won the Nobel, none of them gave Franklin any credit for her contribution to the research.
She is also the managing editor at Neatorama and keeps a small humor blog called Miss Cellania.
The photograph is an X-Ray diffraction image of hydrated DNA, the result of a 60-hour exposure, and was the key to the development of the double-helix model of DNA. His books include How We Die, Lost in America, Maimonides, and How We Live: The Wisdom of the Body. For James Watson and Francis Crick, it was the key visual evidence for a helical model of DNA, or so the story has been told.
Also central: themes of solitary brilliance pitted against the collaborative good humor of the old order, and of a female scientist who slipped while treading a rocky road that had been dominated by men.
But the world had known about DNA since 1944, when Oswald Avery declared it to be the molecule that carried genetic information. Watson and Crick saw that photo 51 held the secret that confirmed the double-helix model, and ran with it. Interest in her work was ignited when James Watson published a memoir in 1968 called The Double Helix, in which he criticized Franklin's appearance and minimized her role in DNA research. In her spare time, she is raising a frightening number of children in a small Kentucky town. With rival scientists looking everywhere for the answer, who will be first to see it and more importantly, understand it? 29, 2016 at the Walter Kerr TheaterFATHER, THE starring Frank Langella on Broadway, beginning March 22, 2016FRONT PAGE on Broadway.
She studied coal during World War II and then spent a few years in France before returning to King’s College in London as a research fellow. Watson and Crick won the great race in molecular biology to discover the structure of DNA, and their subsequent Nobel Prize went down in history. When she arrived in 1951, Maurice Wilkins missed the meeting in which she was introduced as a colleague. Franklin had long been patronized for being a woman scientist, and she preferred to work alone or with her assistant Gosling. Franklin was unaware of Watson and Crick's breakthrough before publication, but she accepted it, not knowing how her work contibuted to it.
There is speculation that her years of work with x-rays, during which she took little if any precaution against radiation, contributed to her death. During her life, Franklin had been a world-renowned chemist, virologist, and expert in crystallography within the scientific community. Anna Ziegler’s extraordinary play looks at the woman who cracked DNA and asks what is sacrificed in the pursuit of science, love and a place in history. Her specialty was X-ray crystallography: the analysis of crystals formed by certain molecules. Then the backlash generated by Watson's book made Franklin a symbol of sexism in science, as the unsung hero of DNA research.
A detailed X-ray photograph she made in 1952, which she called Photo 51, clearly suggested the double-helix structure of DNA. Physicist Maurice Wilkins was one of several scientists working on DNA at Kings College in London. While Franklin poured herself into new research, Watson and Crick were celebrated for the discovery of DNA.


REVOLT AGAIN by Alice Birch at Soho Rep, April 5-May 15, 2016RIGHT NOW by Catherine-Ane Toupin and Chris Campbell.
Franklin continued to do research, mainly on viruses, until her untimely death from cancer at the age of 37 in 1958. Through May 7, 2016ROBBER BRIDEGROOM at Roundabout, February 18, 2016 — May 29, 2016ROSS & RACHEL by James Fritz.
And when cells divide — of course it's impossible for the DNA to replicate perfectly each time, so little mistakes are made, you know, this is how mutations arise.
Brits Off Broadway, May 17, 2016 — June 5, 2016ROYALE by Marco Ramirez at Lincoln Center Theater, beginning February 11, 2016SCHOOL FOR SCANDAL by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. As part of his coming to terms with the legacy that he would bear as an adult, Nuland discusses his depression in the opening chapter:I have never read a single textbook paragraph on the subject of depression.
2014 Pulitzer Prize winner THE FLICK by Annie Baker returns to Off-Broadway beginning May 5, 2015FONDLY, COLETTE RICHLAND by Sibyl Kempson: Elevator Repair Service at NYTWFOOL FOR LOVE by Sam Shepard. The solitary torment of a depressed mind eludes any attempt to make it apprehensible to those who have not experienced it. And even for those of us who have endured those desolate months or years, no matter the generalized similarities of the depression, each of us has suffered uniquely, and alone.
Neither vivid description nor the empathy of others can pierce the darkness of the long night.
And yet, after depression lifts, it can only be remembered but not retrieved—thank God it cannot be retrieved! Gurney, on Broadway beginning October 2, 2015TRAVELS WITH MY AUNT adapted by Giles Havergal. Just as physical pain loses its intense reality once it has been eased, the anguish of profound melancholia evades even the most determined attempts at clear perception when its dreadful grip has relaxed. It goes to some underplace where it can be seen through a glass, darkly—but not face-to-face.
Depression resists being called up again, unless its own tortured purposes determine that a proper time has come to exert authority once more.
Then, enveloping reason in a foreboding of ill, its all-pervasive fog rolls back in as though it had never left, to suffocate undisturbed thought in its own terrifying, familiar way. Could a recurrence of depression give itself voice, it would speak in the muffled and mocking tones of a vengeful enemy. I think the foundation of religion is trying to just make sense of the mess in which we find ourselves living half the time.
And it's also — the foundation's also the fact that we've evolved to sort of, to be like this. In humans, this internal environment of the body is primarily composed of fluids such as blood plasma, tissue fluid, and intracellular fluid. That quality, which I call spirit, has permeated our civilization and created the moral and esthetic nutriment by which we are sustained. As I define it, the human spirit is a quality of human life, the result of living, nature-driven forces of discovery and creativeness; the human spirit is a quality that Homo sapiens by trial and error gradually found within itself over the course of millennia and bequeathed to each succeeding generation, fashioning it and refashioning it—strengthened ever anew—from the organic structure into which our species evolved so many thousands of years ago. Whatever else of a man may remain to join the consciousness of eternity, this magnificence I call the human spirit does not exist a moment beyond the moment of death. Also, the Web site for the PBS-produced feature, "The Secret Life of the Brain," provides a wealth of information about the brain as it develops from an infant to elderly adult, and features three-dimensional maps of the brain and its corresponding anatomy. According to Charles Darwin, an organism does so in order to increase its chances of survival and proliferation.
Those organisms that don't adapt quickly enough are eventually weeded out, and evolution occurs as a consequence of this process. Perhaps the greatest feat of the humanizing process is the recognition of beauty, both the beauty that we find around us and the beauty we can create.
Beauty in and of itself would seem to be of no direct consequence to the DNA's survival needs (nature has provided other ways of attracting members of the opposite sex), and that alone makes its recognition one of the supreme accomplishments of the human mind: Beauty of image, of sound, and of thought give us the sense of enrichment, even of spirituality, that goes well beyond our constant seeking of mere survival and the most elementary forms of gratification and pleasure. The human spirit and its perpetual search for beauty are the defining characteristics of our humanity at its best.
Its most fundamental characteristic is in the line, however constructed; the line is the tissue of poetry.
Although any of its words, like any cell, is insignificant when taken by itself, its presence in the line is essential to the cadence and the meaning of the whole; it therefore demands attention in its own right. Every word is the precise word—every pause is the precise pause, whether indicated by the voice or in the punctuation. Each depends for its significance on the entire poem, and at the same time each gives its own significance to the entire poem.
The whole gives meaning to each constituent part and to the specific location of that part within it.
It is precisely the right kind of cell, but standing alone by itself without context, its work has no meaning. The various elements of a poem combined—are organized, are integrated, are unified—into the complex organism we behold. We create a poem in our own image.Over the ages, philosophers and scientists have discussed the poetic beauty of mathematics.
In Quarks, Chaos, and Christianity, physicist John Polkinghorne emphasizes that, to his former professor and colleague Paul Dirac, mathematics was more than a tool giving human beings the ability to understand the physical universe. It was an instrument of beauty:I suppose one of the greatest scientists I've ever known was Paul Dirac, who, for more than thirty years, occupied Newton's old professorship in Cambridge [Lucasian Chair of Mathematics]. He was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory, and he spent his life looking for beautiful equations. You might find this a rather odd idea, but mathematical beauty is something that those with an eye for such matters can recognize quite easily.
Dirac looked for beautiful equations because, time and again, we've found that they're ones that describe the physical world. Dirac once said that it was more important to have beauty in your equations than to have them agree with experiment!
Of course, he didn't mean that it didn't matter whether or not the equations fitted the facts, but if there was a discrepancy it might be due to not solving the equations correctly, or, even, that the experiments might be wrong.
At least, there was a chance that it would all work out in the end, but, if the equations were ugly … , well, then there was no chance at all. When we use mathematics in this way—as the key to unlocking the secrets of the universe—something very strange is happening.
Our mathematical friends sit in their studies and they dream up, out of their heads, the beautiful patterns of pure mathematics (that's what mathematics is really about, making and analyzing patterns). What I'm saying is that some of the most beautiful of these patterns are actually found to occur, out there, in the structure of the physical world around us. So, what ties together reason within (the mathematics in our heads), and the reason without (the structure of the physical world)? Remember, it's a very deep connection, going far beyond anything we need for everyday survival. Why is the world so understandable?(20:43) View of Good and EvilOrthodox Jews view each human being as entering the world without the burden of sin, whether it be personal sin or the sin of one's ancestors, albeit that doesn't mean a child enters free from sin. Sin — in Hebrew het, which literally means "something that goes astray" — comes about through human inclinations, the yetzer, not being properly channeled. Rabbinic texts often refer to this as yetzer hatov, the good inclination, and yetzer hara, the evil inclination. Here are the opening lines to this text:In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters.


That battle is expressed in the psychological conflict between Eros and Thanatos—the forces of love (and therefore life) against the forces of death instinct. Because the two are irreconcilable, the central nervous system of man has had, since the time it originally came into existence with the birth of the first Homo sapiens, to conjure with itself—to try various combinations of circuitry and chemistry, and to turn to its excess reserve capacity in exploratory ways—until it became what it is today, a vast machine works of intellect, spirituality, and even neurosis. It might be pointed out, and properly so, that all of the foregoing presupposes a state of constant improvement, and therefore presents Pollyanna's view of the mind and its potentialities. But my definition of the human spirit is not restricted to the sublime qualities developed within our species.
It includes, as well, those other characteristics of which we are far less proud, the baser qualities in all that is subsumed under the rubric of humanness.
If there is an antonym for everything we customarily associate with spiritual, it must surely be mean-spirited. The same adaptive use of circuitry and molecular interactions that allows humankind to perform the mental gymnastics leading to our finest accomplishments is also in thrall to our baser instincts. The maladaptations, the conflict between order and chaos, as well as the imperatives of living in societies in which individualistic drives must be restrained in the interest of community—these are the stuff of antisocial behavior and neurosis. The very instability of the multitudinous mechanisms that maintain our homeostasis is reflected in the instability and ambivalence with which we view our fellows and the universe, but especially ourselves.
Echoing his inner physiology, man is engaged in a constant struggle to maintain the equilibrium that permits daily living. The conflict between constancy and consistency on the one hand and chaos and destruction on the other is mirrored in the mind's equally persistent struggle between the goodness that is in us and the dark drives of anarchic catastrophe.
That luminous quality of reason that we value so highly is precariously perched on the unsettled knife edge between good and evil. The human mind being some 200 million years younger than the mammalian body to which it can trace its origin, the quality we might call mental homeostasis is not yet as effective as its physical counterpart.
We function not only physically but mentally too, in a crucible of conflicting forces; we continue in stable emotional life only because a degree of balance is achieved by the internalized morality that is sustained by our individual and societal equivalents of enzymes and other regulatory mechanisms.
The result is mental illness, injustice, and the maleficence to which we give daily witness.
My rabbinic teachers first made me aware of the Talmudic teaching that man lives in eternal conflict between the yetzer hatov and the yetzer hara, his good and evil inclination. Civilization began and persists because the maintenance of what might be called social homeostasis, and therefore a civilized society, demands that the forces of equilibrium—the forces of the good—win out.
But the history of the twentieth century and the events of which we read in our daily newspapers tell us that this is an ideal too often unattained. The physician's role is to be the cornerman—stitch up the lacerations, apply the soothing balm, encourage the use of the fighter's specific abilities, say all the right things—to encourage the flagging strength of the real combatant, the pummeled body.
As doctor's, we do our best when we remove the obstacles to healing and encourage organs and cells to use their own nature-given power to overcome. Every system of so-called primitive medicine I have ever encountered views disease as the imbalance of certain factors, whose proper interrelationships must be reestablished if recovery is to take place. Hippocrates and his followers inherited from earlier healers the belief in the four humors, whose equilibrium maintains health: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.
Although we have long since abandoned those seemingly fanciful conceits, their symbolism remains, and some of us have begun to wonder whether they will prove, after all these centuries, to be more than symbols. We speak nowadays of such things as hormones, and transmitters, and tissue factors floating around our bodies, and we have even come to introduce terminology that sounds eerily familiar, as though emerged from some cobwebbed cranny in the long-forgotten cellar of our history—such as humoral-mediated immunity.
I have provided it with whatever boost was needed, cheered it on, and felt the exhilaration of watching its formidable powers wheel into action once I have helped remove the impediments.
An inflamed organ is excised, an obstruction is bypassed, excessive hormone levels are reduced, a cancerous region is swept clean of tumor-bearing tissue—and the wrongs are redressed, thus allowing cells and tissues to take over the process of reconstituting equilibrium. Surgeons are no more than agents of the process by which an offending force may be sufficiently held at bay to aid nature in its inherent tendency to restore health. We live with the memory how persons, neighbors, friends, relatives basically within a very short period ceased to be persons.
During this time he would watch the health of his beloved "Bubbeh," as she was called in Yiddish, deteriorate. Since earliest memory, I had amused myself from time to time by playing idly with the loose, unresilient skin on the backs of her hands or near her elbows, gently drawing it out like stretched taffy, then watching in easy languor that made me thing of molasses. She would slap my hand sharply when I did this, in mock annoyance at my boldness, and I would laugh teasingly until her eyes betrayed her own amusement at my feigned disrespect. Later, I became aware that I could produce a shallow pit in the tissues of her shin simply by pressing the lisle-stockinged skin hard against the bone with my fingertip. As the years passed, the walk became a shuffle, and finally a kind of slow sliding, the foot never leaving the floor.
At first, it became my job to thread her sewing needles, but when she found herself unable to guide her fingers, she stopped mending altogether, and the holes in my socks and shirts had to await the few free evening moments of my chronically fatigued aunt Rose, who laughed at my puny attempts to teach myself to sew.
Nevertheless, she wouldn't give up trying, in a futile effort to retain even this small evidence of her usefulness.
Her persistent attempts to clean became a source of some of the small daily frictions that must have made her feel increasingly isolated from the rest of us. In my early teens, I saw the last traces of the old combativeness disappear and my grandmother became almost meek. She had always been gentle with us kids, but meekness was something new—perhaps it was not so much meekness as a form of withdrawal, an acquiescence to the expanding power of the physical disablements that were subtly increasing her separation from us and from life. Relying largely on her still-intact long-term memory, she recited the liturgy at home, sitting by the open window as she had done every Saturday morning during all the years I knew her. She could barely see the sentences and her memory for the prayers learned in her youth was giving out. Maimonides, a great Jewish philosopher and physician who questioned the Torah, composed the Mishneh Torah, a book that intended to guide Jews on how to behave in all situations by reading the Torah without having to spend large amounts of time searching the Talmud. Rather, the world has the freedom to make itself:Well, if the world were clockwork, then I suppose you'd have to hope God had designed the clockwork and wound it up in such a way that things wouldn't turn out too badly. But 20th century science has seen the death of a merely mechanical and merely clockwork view of the world. And we've learned, of course, from chaos theory, the "butterfly effect" — very small disturbances producing enormously big consequences — that even the everyday world described by the sort of physics that would have been familiar to Newton isn't as clockwork as people thought it was. And I think, actually, we always knew that because we have always known that we are not mechanisms. And if we can act in the world, then I think there's no reason to think that God can't act in the world as well. It's a world in which we can conceive ourselves as the inhabitants and acting in it and helping to bring about the future. Not, of course, as magic, but as cooperating with God, if you like, to bring about the best for the future.
Barrington Brown)(45:10) Reference to Watson and CrickJames Watson and Francis Crick are attributed with discovering the "double helix" structure of DNA and confirmed that DNA carried the genetic code that was passed down from generation to generation in 1953. It enables me to reason, to sublimate my instinctual drives, to be of use to society, and to love in a way that only members of my species can love. But it also enables me to do harm, to scheme against the interests of others, and to so misinterpret the unconsciously recalled traumas of my childhood that I become depressed, anxious, or a danger to society. The human spirit can be the high road to the fulfillment of my greatest hopes, but it can be the grim pathway to my self-destruction. Either way, it is the transcendent product of my body and its wisdom, and of the most complex structure on the human planet: the three-pounds of human brain.



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