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24.03.2016
Between January 1st, 1991 and November 9, 2012 there has been 13,950 peer-reviewed scientific articles on climate change with a total of 33,690 authors (rounded up in the figure below).
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The consensus estimate is that sea-levels are rising by 2mm a year (and 3mm lately, with adjusted satellite data). We suggest that the difference between the two estimates is induced by the widespread use of data reconstructions which inform the consensus estimates. It is clear from Figure 1 that not only were new tide gauges commissioned, but some tide gauges were also decommissioned.
Beenstock et al note that tide gauges show rising trends (red dots below) in places which are right next to gauges showing the sea level is falling (blue dots). Sea level rise is regional rather than global and is concentrated in the southern Baltic, the Ring of Fire, and the Atlantic coast of the US.
We therefore study individual tide gauge data on sea levels from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) during 1807 – 2010 without recourse to data reconstruction. It is interesting to note that tide guages measure that which is important and relevant to us… How much the sea level is actually changing in relation to the land we are living on.
All this work to refute the simplistic notion that more CO2 = dangerous warming = dangerous sea level rise! The demonization of CO2 is probably one of the most stupid things humankind has ever done !! Cheyne-Stokes breathing pattern at the end of life is getting rid of CO2 in our bloodstream in preparation for that last breath when we exhale and call it quits. If you do I could prosecute my case in the CofPO (Court of Public Opinion) and I am sure that 97% PO’s will support me. This is another rifle that I'm not planning on getting rid of "anytime soon" because of how well it shoots. Thank you for sharing your experiences with such a very fine shooting air arm and I'm grateful that I was able to add one to my collection when I did. Yesterday it seemed to go down 10 to 15 fps to the 730s here at sea level, down from 750 at the farm altitude. He said he'd recently replaced the seal in it, & that the factory seal had fallen apart.
Low mv has been put down to a very tight piston seal which needs re-sizing slightly, and a lack of appropriate lubrication. With kind folks advice and a better spring compressor, when acquired or made, I will get it back together and see how it goes. For scientists studying the impacts of climate change, such questions - and answers - are constantly being revised and refined as more information is gathered, models are fine-tuned, and feedbacks are better understood.
Because we know that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, we can reasonably infer that increasing the amount of CO2 that enters the atmosphere, particularly at the level of 90 million tons a day, will increase the greenhouse properties of the atmosphere and thus lead to warming. Furthermore, scientists know, from analyzing the isotopes of the carbon in the atmosphere, that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is the result of burning fossil fuels and forests, and not the result of natural processes. Holidaymakers crowd a beach resort during a summer scorcher in Dalian city, northeast China's Liaoning province, in July 2012. Whether measured from land or from satellite, it is clear that global temperatures are increasing. Even with year-to-year natural variations, underlying global surface and lower atmosphere warming trends are maintaining an upward trajectory. This year, a brand new study combined data from 73 sites around the world to show that temperatures today are warmer than they have been during 70-80 percent of the Holocene Epoch - the stretch of time, beginning about 11,300 years ago, since the last major Ice Age - and that, under all existing scenarios for different levels of greenhouse gas emissions, virtually every model shows temperatures will exceed the very hottest periods during that time.
The extent of summer sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean is now decreasing by a rate of about 13 percent per decade, compared to the 1979-2000 average. Much of the ice that remains is thinner, first-year ice, rather than the thicker multiyear ice that has characterized the Arctic Ocean in the past. This is a satellite image of a massive iceberg calving from the Petermann Glacier in Greenland, collected on July 19, 2012.
Evidence is mounting that Greenland - the second-largest ice sheet in the world after Antarctica - is losing mass at an accelerating rate.
Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua) walk along rocky shoreline past icicles hanging from tidal ice shelf in Cuverville Island, Antarctica.
Much of Antarctica is warming, but the Antarctic Peninsula - the region that reaches northward toward the tip of South America - is actually the most rapidly-warming part of the Southern Hemisphere, having seen temperatures increase by about 2.8 degrees Celsius over the last 50 years. Inevitably, much of the climate attention focuses on the planet's surface - because that's the part where we live. Sea level rise is swamping coasts; Rodanthe in the Outer Banks of North Carolina is pictured. Despite skeptic assertions to the contrary, multiple measurements - using both satellites and tide gauges - show a rise in global sea levels.
This sudden shift in the Pacific a€?changed rainfall patterns all across the globe, bringing massive floods to places like Australia and the Amazon basin.a€? The water to power that rainfall came from the ocean, the level of which consequently dipped.


Joshua Trees all over Southern California bloomed in April 2013 for the first time simultaneously, and for the first time in over three years due to drought conditions. The fact that the ocean is warming - and particularly the discovery of warming in the deep ocean - underlines an important point: the planet is accumulating more heat. Residents walk past damaged houses in in Breezy Point, a neighborhood in the Queens borough of New York which was left devastated by Hurricane Sandy November 12, 2012. Making a direct connection between climate change and extreme weather events is not straightforward. For example, a warming ocean, while actually making it more difficult for hurricanes to form, is leading to the hurricanes that do form to become stronger. On the contrary, the effects of climate change will be devastating to the human race along with every other species on the planet.
Incidentally, the increase in carbon dioxide in oceans has also led to ocean acidification. Beenstock et al  wondered if tide gauges were placed in any old spot around the world or were biased toward area where sea-level did more rising. Beenstock et al used 1,000 tide gauges and found global sea level rise was  more like 1mm a year (very similar to the rise Nils Axel Morner found on that stable spot in Denmark). Beenstock point out that there were not many gauges in 1900, and most of those were in areas where sea level was rising.
The number of tide gauges decreased sharply after 1995 because of reporting delays which are substantial. In 1990 there were almost no tide gauges in the southern hemisphere and they were concentrated in the Baltic Sea. By contrast the north-west Pacific coast and north-east coast of India are characterized by sea level fall. If their locations are positively (negatively) correlated with SLR, estimates of global SLR will be biased upwards (downwards). The main cause of the sea level rise in SE Asia is land subsidence, since the 2005 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. It’s very clear that doomsday is not on our doorstep, despite a rise in CO2 from the supposed pre-industrial 280ppm to the current 400 or so.
If necessary I will take it apart again for further adjustment as I have been very conservative with what I have done to date.
The only dissent comes from the fringes, and generally from those whose research institutions or blogs are devoted, for ideological or other reasons, to attempting to debunk the notion that human activities are altering the planet's climate. But even as they focus their forecasts, those scientists are increasingly seeing the evidence of global warming happening right now, many of them in line with predictions and some of them even more severe and more rapid than anticipated. By analyzing air bubbles trapped in the ice of Antarctica and Greenland, scientists have been able to determine that over the past 650,000 or so years, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) varied between 180 and 300 parts per million (ppm), and in the years immediately prior to the Industrial Revolution in the mid-eighteenth century stood at approximately 280 ppm. Athabasca Glacier occupied most of the valley in the 1960s, but in the last fifty years global warming has melted most of it. The six lowest annual minimum extents on record have been in the last six years; in 2012, Arctic sea ice extent reached its lowest level in the satellite record, fully 760,000 square kilometers (293,000 square miles) below the previous record, which occurred in 2007. Because it forms each winter, it is more vulnerable to break-up and melt the following summer. Much of this loss is occurring along Greenland's edges, where rapidly-moving glaciers and ice streams are discharging more ice into the ocean than is being accumulated on the ice cap. At present, almost 300 gigatonnes per year - which, on the face of it, means we'd have to wait a long time (about 10,500 years) until the ice sheet completely dissipated. Even when ice shelves don't collapse, their surfaces partially melt during summer - and according to new research, they are doing so now at a rate more than ten times greater than 600 years ago. Rising carbon dioxide levels in the world's oceans due to climate change, combined with rising sea temperatures, could accelerate coral bleaching, destroying some reefs before 2050. But 90 percent of global warming goes into heating, not the land or atmosphere, but the ocean. On average, since 1993, the sea has been rising by 3.18 mm per year, primarily as a consequence of thermal expansion due to warming, and to the melting of ice sheets.
Regionally and locally, changes may be greater or lower, affected not only by thermal expansion but factors ranging from local wind patterns to the mining of groundwater aquifers. Since then, sea level has resumed rising at an accelerated clip of approximately 10 mm a year. When major storms do strike, higher sea levels will result in greater storm surges and coastal flooding.
But weather extremes are one predicted consequence of a changing climate, and the evidence is growing that recent examples of those extremes are not isolated, but rather harbingers of a new normal in a warming world. They compared the location of tide gauges in the year 2000 to sea level rises and falls as measured by satellite altimetry.
The conclusion is that sea level is rising slowly at 1mm a year, and that it hasn’t changed, and that local sea level rises and falls are very common, and that correcting for them is risky. Sea levels were stable in locations covered by 61 percent of tide gauges, and sea levels fell in locations covered by 4 percent of tide gauges.
The first refers to reconstructed data for tide gauges in PSMSL prior to their year of installation. A century later the coverage is more comprehensive, but Africa and South America are under-sampled. We show that the location of tide gauges in 2000 is independent of SLR as measured by satellite altimetry.


Those that perpetrated and gained from the lavish, wanton incoherence of the meme need to be called out, over and over again. After perhaps fewer than a couple of dozen shots, I could see the white crumbs in the barrel and around the seal. The following list provides a sampling of some of the key pieces of evidence that climate change is not just a prediction, it is already underway. Since then, however, that figure has steadily increased; by the time continuous monitoring began at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, it had climbed above 310 and is now closing in on 400. But, by warming the atmosphere, increased CO2 levels enable the retention of greater amounts of water vapor, thus enhancing warming. The growing dominance of this thinner ice means that the volume of Arctic Ocean sea ice has also collapsed, from approximately 16,855 cubic kilometers in 1979 to roughly 3,261 cubic kilometers in 2012.
To date, much of this ice loss has occurred in the southern part of the landmass, but it now appears that these losses are spreading to the northwest. But of course, the ice sheet will contribute significantly to sea level rise long before it disappears entirely. The same year that Larsen A disappeared, the Prince Gustav ice shelf, 60 kilometers to the north, did the same.
Researchers believe that, even as the overall trend will remain clearly upward, it may increasingly manifest in rapid short-term divergences - deeper potholes, such as that of 2010-11, and steeper speed bumps, such as the one we are witnessing now. But the heat trapped by greenhouse gases isn't just absorbed and radiated by land, and doesn't just heat the atmosphere.
As the Arctic warms, circumpolar wind patterns are becoming disrupted, altering the course of the jet stream, which steers weather systems from west to east around the northern hemisphere.
The rejecting authors do not have an alternative theory to explain the observed warming that is taking place. The fact that sea level rise is not global should not detract from its importance in those parts of the world where it is a serious problem. Therefore PSMSL tide gauges constitute a quasi-random sample and inferences of SLR based on them are unbiased, and there is no need for data reconstructions. Well, for one thing, none of the natural forces - tilts in the planet's axis, wobbles in its orbit, or increased solar activity - are factors (the Sun, in fact, has been going through a slight cooling cycle even as temperatures on Earth have increased). Additionally, in July 2012, Greenland saw melting occur across approximately 97 percent of its surface ice. The rate of ice loss is increasing so rapidly that just ten years ago it was extrapolated that total ice sheet dissipation would happen in 22,000 years. Interestingly, this warming is not just affecting the surface of the sea; 30 percent of ocean warming has been taking place in waters deeper than 700 meters, and some has even occurred in the deepest, abyssal waters of the ocean. Satellite measurements of incoming and outgoing radiation, as well as studies that have combined measurements for land, ice, atmosphere and the ocean (such as this one, this one, and this one) have all shown one unmistakable fact: the planet is accumulating heat, and doing so at a growing rate. As a consequence, says a recent study, the jet stream is becoming a€?wavier,a€? with steeper troughs and higher ridges. This is pretty important because the infernally tough thing about measuring sea levels is whether the land is subsiding or rising at the same time, and how to correct for that.
Since the tide gauges currently in PSMSL are a quasi-random sample, our estimate of current GMSL rise is unbiased. By contrast, tide gauges dating back to the 19th century were located where sea levels happened to be rising. The most difficult thing on the rebuild besides not putting any marks on a pristine gun, was the fitting of the breech seal.
In other words, the amount of time until the Greenland ice sheet vanishes has been halved - reduced by 10,000 years - in just a decade. The Wilkins Ice Shelf has been splintering for several years and is now 'hanging by a thread' to the coast. This deep-water warming is most pronounced in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, which is warming at roughly 0.03 degrees Celsius a decade, although most abyssal oceans are warming at around one-tenth that rate. When you consider all the heat building up in the entirety of our climate, global warming has actually accelerated over the past 16 years that deniers claim nothing is happening. Weather systems in turn are progressing more slowly, raising the chances for long-duration extreme events, like droughts, floods, extreme snowfall in winter, and heat waves.
The vast majority of climate scientists accept the theory that mankind's greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change.
If tide gauges are spread evenly (or quasi-randomly), it means we could average the lot instead of trying to correct and reconstruct each one individually. Data reconstructions based on these tide gauges are therefore likely to over-estimate sea level rise.
It took weeks of careful sanding to slightly thin, and then leaving it to be slightly compressed by the barrel lockup.
Recent studies have attributed some recent rainfall extremes to climate change, with a warmer atmosphere able to hold more moisture, while others indicate that many recent heat-waves would not have occurred without global warming. Even when the news is good, it's bad: a recent study that found the Greenland ice sheet may be more stable than we thought concluded that this may mean the Antarctic ice sheet is less stable than previously believed.



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