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18.02.2014
Ten thousand people pack into Madison Square Garden to hear William Jennings Bryan speak in 1906.
But perhaps the closest historical parallel is with the Populist movement of the 1890s, which, like Occupy Wall Street, was a broad, economics-driven revolt that targeted a predatory class of corporate capitalists — the robber barons of the Gilded Age. PROGRESSIVISM PROGRESSIVISM WAS A PERIOD OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN WHICH IMPROVING WORKING CONDITIONS, IMPROVING THE WAY OF LIFE, EXPOSING CORRUPTION, EXPANDING DEMOCRACY AND MAKING REFORMS WAS THE MAIN IDEA OF THIS PERIOD.
THE MAIN IDEA PROGRESSIVES FOCUSED ON THREE AREAS OF REFORM EASING THE SUFFERING OF THE URBAN POOR IMPROVING UNFAIR AND DANGEROUS WORKING CONDITIONS REFORMING GOVERNMENT AT THE NATIONAL, STATE, AND LOCAL LEVELS. IN 1901 MCKINLEY WAS ASSASSINATED AND VICE PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT, A NY REFORMER, ASSUMED THE PRESIDENCY. WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT (1857-1930) US PRESIDENT AND LATER SUPREME COURT CHIEF JUSTICE THE TAFT PRESIDENCY TR DID NOT RUN IN 1908; WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT WAS HIS HANDPICKED SUCCESSOR, WHO HANDILY DEFEATED WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN. THOMAS WOODROW WILSON (1856 1924) A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, WILSONWAS ONE OF THE MOST INTELLECTUAL MEN TOSERVE AS PRESIDENT IN US HISTORY.
GROWING CITIES COULDN’T PROVIDE PEOPLE NECESSARY SERVICES LIKE GARBAGE COLLECTION, SAFE HOUSING, AND POLICE AND FIRE PROTECTION. BY THE LATE 19TH CENTURY, LABOR UNIONS FOUGHT FOR ADULT MALE WORKERS BUT DIDN’T ADVOCATE ENOUGH FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. REFORMING GOVERNMENT CITY GOVERNMENT Reforming government meant winning control of it: – Tom Johnson of Cleveland was a successful reform mayor who set new rules for police, released debtors from prison, and supported a fairer tax system.
IN 1911, A GRUESOME DISASTER IN NEW YORK INSPIRED PROGRESSIVES TO FIGHT FOR SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE.
Election Reforms PROGRESSIVES WANTED FAIRER ELECTIONS AND TO MAKE POLITICIANS MORE ACCOUNTABLE TO VOTERS.
THE MAIN IDEA WOMEN DURING THE PROGRESSIVE ERA ACTIVELY CAMPAIGNED FOR REFORMS IN EDUCATION, CHILDREN’S WELFARE, TEMPERANCE, AND SUFFRAGE.
22 POLITICAL MACHINES POLITICAL MACHINES CONTROLLED VOTES BY OFFERING JOBS POLITICAL FAVORS SERVICES TO LOYAL SUPPORTERS.
25 CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES MACHINES HIRED MEN TO “VOTE EARLY AND OFTEN.” BOSSES TOOK BRIBES, PAYOFFS, AND KICKBACKS. Reformers and Progressives American History Unit II – Becoming a World Power Chapter 6 Section 1- Progressivism. They sought to dismantle the centralized power of corporations in the economy and return economic liberty to individuals and small business. They ran candidates who won office; they formed real-world banking and agricultural cooperatives to challenge the hegemony of corporate capitalism. But will their numbers increase, or will their resolve fizzle in the histrionics of street theater?


MANY OF THE CITIZENS GRANTED AND DEMANDED A CHANGE IN NUMEROUS AREAS SUCH AS BUSINESS, LABOR, ECONOMY, CONSUMERS AND AN INCREASE OF DEMOCRACY. HE WASALSO AN EXTREMELY ABLE LEGISLATIVE LEADER,GETTING CONGRESS TO PASS MUCH OF HIS PROGRAM. Rockefeller Appealed to middle class scared by large business power PROGRESSIVISM AND ITS CHAMPIONS Lincoln Steffens Shame of the Cities (1904) exposed corrupt city governments Frank Norris Exposed railroad monopolies in a 1901 novel INDUSTRIALIZATION HELPED MANY BUT ALSO CREATED DANGEROUS WORKING ENVIRONMENTS AND UNHEALTHY LIVING CONDITIONS FOR THE URBAN POOR.
REFORMERS, MANY OF WHOM WERE WOMEN LIKE ACTIVIST LILLIAN WALD, SAW THIS AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO EXPAND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES.
IN 1893, FLORENCE KELLEY HELPED PUSH THE ILLINOIS LEGISLATURE TO PROHIBIT CHILD LABOR AND TO LIMIT WOMEN’S WORKING HOURS.
Progressives promoted new government structures: – Texas set up a five-member committee to govern Galveston after a hurricane, and by 1918, 500 cities adopted this plan.
ABOUT 500 WOMEN WORKED FOR THE TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST COMPANY, A HIGH-RISE BUILDING SWEATSHOP THAT MADE WOMEN’S BLOUSES.
FOCUS WHAT OPPORTUNITIES DID WOMEN HAVE FOR EDUCATION AND WORK OUTSIDE THE HOME DURING THE LATE 1800S?
Progressivism and Its Champions ? ? Industrialization helped many but also created dangerous working environments and unhealthy living. The Main Idea During the late 1800s, new technology and inventions led to the growth of industry, the. 1890-1917 known as the progressive movement, large campaign for social, economic, and political reform. THE PROGRESSIVE PERIOD WAS MARKED WITH THE ARRIVAL OF THREE GREAT PRESIDENTS ROOSEVELT, TAFT, AND WILSON ALL THREE OF THESE PRESIDENTS FOUGHT FOR THE COMMON GOOD OF THE PEOPLE. TR REVITALIZED THE PRESIDENCY, TAKING A LEADING POSITION IN MANY REFORMS AND PURSUING AN ACTIVIST GOVERNMENT. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT (1914)ESTABLISHED FTC TO REGULATE AGAINST UNFAIRBUSINESS AND TRADE PRACTICES. PROGRESSIVISM, A WIDE-RANGING REFORM MOVEMENT TARGETING THESE PROBLEMS, BEGAN IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY. PROGRESSIVES SCORED AN EARLY VICTORY IN NEW YORK STATE WITH THE PASSAGE OF THE TENEMENT ACT OF 1901, WHICH FORCED LANDLORDS TO INSTALL LIGHTING IN PUBLIC HALLWAYS AND TO PROVIDE AT LEAST ONE TOILET FOR EVERY TWO FAMILIES, WHICH HELPED OUTHOUSES BECOME OBSOLETE IN NEW YORK SLUMS.
IN 1904, KELLEY HELPED ORGANIZE THE NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE, WHICH WANTED STATE LEGISLATURES TO BAN CHILD LABOR. GRIFFITH FILM BIRTH OF A NATION BECAUSE OF HOSTILE AFRICAN AMERICAN STEREOTYPES, WHICH LED TO THE FILM’S BANNING IN EIGHT STATES ADL ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE FORMED BY SIGMUND LIVINGSTON, A JEWISH MAN IN CHICAGO, IN 1913 FOUGHT ANTI-SEMITISM, OR PREJUDICE AGAINST JEWS, WHICH WAS COMMON IN AMERICA FOUGHT TO STOP NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES OF JEWS IN MEDIA THE PUBLISHER OF THE NEW YORK TIMES WAS A MEMBER AND HELPED STOP NEGATIVE REFERENCES TO JEWS PROGRESSIVES FOUGHT PREJUDICE IN SOCIETY BY FORMING VARIOUS REFORM GROUPS. JUST AS THEY WERE ENDING THEIR SIX-DAY WORKWEEK, A SMALL FIRE BROKE OUT, WHICH QUICKLY SPREAD TO THREE FLOORS.


CLAYTON ANTITRUST ACT (1914) WAS MUCHMORE SPECIFIC THAN OLDER SHERMAN ACT.MORE IN KEEPING WITH THE NEW FREEDOMIDEA, WILSON ADMINISTRATION FILED NEARLY100 ANTITRUST SUITS.
JOURNALISTS CALLED MUCKRAKERS AND URBAN PHOTOGRAPHERS EXPOSED PEOPLE TO THE PLIGHT OF THE UNFORTUNATE IN HOPES OF SPARKING REFORM. THESE SIMPLE STEPS HELPED IMPOVERISHED NEW YORKERS, AND WITHIN 15 YEARS THE DEATH RATE IN NEW YORK DROPPED DRAMATICALLY.
BY 1912, NEARLY 40 STATES PASSED CHILD-LABOR LAWS, BUT STATES DIDN’T STRICTLY ENFORCE THE LAWS AND MANY CHILDREN STILL WORKED. ESCAPE WAS NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE, AS DOORS WERE LOCKED TO PREVENT THEFT, THE FLIMSY FIRE ESCAPE BROKE UNDER PRESSURE, AND THE FIRE WAS TOO HIGH FOR FIRE TRUCK LADDERS TO REACH.
INSTEAD, HE SUMMONED BOTH SIDES TO THE WHITE HOUSE AND FORCED THEM TO ACCEPT AN ARBITRATION COMMISSION. Jacob Riis Danish immigrant who faced New York poverty Exposed the slums through magazines, photographs, and a best-selling book His fame helped spark city reforms. PROGRESSIVES, MOUNTING STATE CAMPAIGNS TO LIMIT WORKDAYS FOR WOMEN, WERE SUCCESSFUL IN STATES INCLUDING OREGON AND UTAH. MORE THAN 140 WOMEN AND MEN DIED IN THE FIRE, MARKING A TURNING POINT FOR LABOR AND REFORM MOVEMENTS.
BUT SINCE MOST WORKERS WERE STILL UNDERPAID AND LIVING IN POVERTY, AN ALLIANCE OF LABOR UNIONS AND PROGRESSIVES FOUGHT FOR A MINIMUM WAGE, WHICH CONGRESS DIDN’T ADOPT UNTIL 1938. Oregon The Court upheld a state law establishing a 10- hour workday for women in laundries and factories. WITH THE EFFORTS OF UNION ORGANIZER ROSE SCHNEIDERMAN AND OTHERS, NEW YORK STATE PASSED THE TOUGHEST FIRE-SAFETY LAWS IN THE NATION, AS WELL AS FACTORY INSPECTION AND SANITATION LAWS. BUSINESSES FOUGHT LABOR LAWS IN THE SUPREME COURT, WHICH RULED ON SEVERAL CASES IN THE EARLY 1900S CONCERNING WORKDAY LENGTH. OREGON Brandeis’ case, or the Brandeis brief, as his defense was called, became a model for similar cases. Oregon the state led the Court to uphold a law that extended the protection of a 10-hour workday to men working in mills and factories.



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