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DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe. Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482.
In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter.
Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea.
Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China.
It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus.
However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage.
The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library. The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio.
Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II.
These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript. Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496. The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians.
Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana.
Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west.
Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia.
The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp. Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp.
Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries. The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487. First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. The curtain fell a final time for elephants performing at Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey Circus as the circus ended a practice that enthralled audiences for two centuries but became caught between animal rights activists' concerns and Americans' shifting views. Six Asian elephants danced, balanced on each others' backs and sat on their hind legs during their last show in Providence, Rhode Island on Sunday.
An elephant performs in its final show for the Ringling Bros and Barnum & Bailey Circus in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on Sunday. He called elephants beloved members of the circus family and thanked the animals for more than 100 years of service. After Sunday's performance, the animals will live at Ringling's 200-acre Center for Elephant Conservation in Florida, said Alana Feld, executive vice-president of Feld Entertainment, which owns the circus. The Humane Society says more than a dozen circuses in the United States continue to use elephants. Before Sunday's show, around half a dozen protesters stood outside, including one wearing a lion costume, to protest Ringling's use of animals. Just as in the Disney movie Dumbo, elephants in the past have been dressed up as people and trained to do a range of tricks: play baseball, ride bicycles, play musical instruments, wear wedding dresses or dress in mourning clothes, said Ronald B.
The change at Ringling signifies a shift in Americans' understanding of elephants, Tobias said. After tantalizing the northern Chilean desert with the promise of moisture, the mist evaporates in the sun, leaving the heat to bake the stark lunar landscape. But the South American country is researching how to use a technique called "fog harvesting" to collect this mist in large quantities and deliver it to communities that currently depend on water shipped in from the city in tanker trucks. Chilean researchers have patented a device resembling a large window screen to turn the mist into usable water.
These fog harvesters are set up facing the wind, which blows the mist into myriad tiny black threads that crisscross them. Instead of passing through, the mist condenses on the polypropylene threads, slowly gathering into drops that eventually seep down into an awaiting container. The technique is basic but efficient: each window-sized device can collect 14 liters of water a day, said Camilo Del Rio, a researcher at the geography institute of Catholic University in Santiago. The university runs a research center on fog harvesting in the northern city of Alto Patache. The technology has been exported to Spain, Nepal, Namibia and several other Latin American nations. The water tastes like rain, but must be treated for drinking because it contains minerals from the ocean and can harbor bacteria. The research center in Alto Patache comprises six white domes with a weather station, a kitchen, bedrooms and bathrooms - all of which run completely on harvested fog, which provides the facility with more than 200 liters of water a day on average.
The Atacama Desert's dawn mist is produced by the intense solar radiation that hits the nearby Pacific, evaporating large volumes of water that is then carried inland by the region's strong winds. When this moist air mass reaches the snowy peaks of the Andes mountains west of the desert, it cools and turns to a thick mist.
The indigenous people native to the region call the mist camanchaca, which means "The Darkness" in the Aymara language. Massive forest fires sweeping across the north Indian state of Uttarakhand have killed at least seven people in recent weeks, and were threatening two tiger reserves, officials said on Monday. After state firefighters were unable for months to put the fires out, the Indian government sent air force helicopters over the weekend to drop water on the blazes covering nearly 23 square kilometers of pine forests. Motorists had to negotiate fire and heavy smoke at Godkhyakhal near Pauri in Uttarakhand, India, on Sunday. There were dozens of fires burning on Monday, spreading unpredictably and threatening two major tiger reserves - Corbett National Park and Rajaji National Park - according to state forest officer Bhanu Prasad Gupta. Officials said the fires had been exacerbated by the year's dry weather, after two consecutive years of poor monsoon rains. Since February, the blazes have spread to 13 districts destroying vast swaths of forest land across Uttarakhand, Gupta said. Authorities have detained four men for questioning on suspicions they started some fires in a bid to clear land for real estate development, according to Indian Environment Minister Prakash Javdekar.
Wildlife conservation officials said the fire had caused severe damage to the ecosystem of the forests. Two years of weak monsoon rains had left very little moisture in the atmosphere, "so a small fire can spread very fast," Unnwal said. Experts expect the number of wildfires, as well as the intensity of those fires, to increase as climate change brings warmer temperatures that dry up forest areas and exacerbate the drought.
India is also struggling with the aftermath of the El Nino climate cycle, which has exacerbated drought conditions and could still weaken this year's monsoon, expected to begin in June. More than 25 years after the fall of the Soviet Union, these overcrowded dwellings are now admired as a unique - if disappearing - cultural phenomenon, featured on guided tours and discussed at academic conferences. The former imperial capital has even started up its own kommunalka festival run by a group of local artists.
She herself lives in one, a fairly small, three-room apartment which was among a few opened up to the public for this year's festival. Her "neighbor", 75-year-old Eduard Yemelyanov, has lived in the flat in the central Petrogradskaya district for 15 years. Communal flats became a mass phenomenon in Russia after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, when factory workers and peasants flocked to cities and were housed in spacious apartments of well-to-do families, who themselves were often relegated to a single room after the space was partitioned off to make room for others.
In Saint Petersburg, renamed Leningrad by the Soviets, these flats were still used up to the 1980s, when they accounted for almost 40 percent of the apartments in the historic center. In Moscow, where the city center was massively rebuilt in the Soviet era, there were far fewer communal flats and practically none are left.
After the end of the Soviet era, a new generation of wealthy Russians snapped up communal flats - often in an advanced state of disrepair - and paid to rehouse residents in small, individual flats in the suburbs.
In 2008, Saint-Petersburg authorities launched a program aimed at moving out all the inhabitants of communal flats - which can have up to 10 rooms - to bring an end to the Soviet tradition. In the following seven years, the number of such flats in the city of five million fell from 116,000 to 83,000, according to official figures. Today, many families who own rooms in communal apartment no longer live there themselves but rent them out to students, out-of-towners and migrant workers. Another kommunalka dweller, 39-year-old Anna Fyodorova, also opened her room with huge windows and a panoramic view of a central street to visitors for the festival.
But she has to share a kitchen, bathroom and toilet with the 10 people living in the flat's seven other rooms. The small bathroom and toilet with old, worn fittings are at the end of a long, dark corridor along with the large kitchen where at least one neighbor can be found at any given time. With their country gripped by an economic crisis, Venezuelans lost half an hour of sleep on Sunday as their clocks were set forward to save power on President Nicolas Maduro's orders. At 2:30 am local time, the oil-dependent South American nation shifted its time ahead by 30 minutes - to four hours behind Greenwich Mean Time. The move, announced in mid-April, is part of a package of measures the embattled socialist president is pursuing to cope with a crippling electricity shortage. Maduro's government has also instituted four-hour daily blackouts across most of the country, reduced the public-sector workweek to two days and ordered schools closed on Fridays - adding to the woes of a nation already stuck in a crushing recession.
The power cuts sparked riots and looting this week in Venezuela's second-largest city, Maracaibo. In announcing the time change, the government said 30 extra minutes of daylight at the end of the day would curb the use of lights and air conditioning, especially draining for the power grid. A video posted on Twitter showed the man charged with keeping the official time in Venezuela, Jesus Escalona, adjusting the atomic clock at the Cagigal Naval Observatory in Caracas. Maduro's late predecessor, Hugo Chi??i??vez, implemented the unusual half-hour time shift in December 2007, saying he didn't want children to have to walk to school in the dark. Maduro blames the power crunch on the El Nino weather phenomenon, which has unleashed the worst drought in 40 years, reducing the reservoirs at Venezuela's hydroelectric dams. But the opposition says mismanagement is to blame for the power crisis as well as the recession and shortages.
Speaking in a national broadcast on the eve of International Workers' Day, Maduro also decreed a 30-percent increase in the minimum wage. The death of Guilio Regeni quickly poisoned ties between Egypt and Italy, where suspicions were high that Egyptian police - who have long been accused of using torture and secret detentions - snatched the 28-year-old and killed him. The claim was immediately dismissed by Italian officials as not credible, with some Italian media calling it an outright cover-up. Now accounts from witnesses and family members interviewed by The Associated Press raise further questions about the official version of the March 24 shooting in a wealthy suburban enclave outside Cairo.
But witnesses say the men were unarmed and tried to flee as police fired on them, and that afterward police confiscated footage from security cameras near the scene.
The AP spoke to six witnesses in Tagammu al-Khamis as well as six relatives and lawyers of the slain men. Asked about their accounts, Interior Ministry spokesman Abu Bakr Abdel-Karim said he was not authorized to comment and referred questions to the prosecutor-general investigating the case. French and Turkish police fired tear gas at protesters as tensions erupted in both countries during May Day rallies on Sunday, while thousands marched across the globe for the annual celebration of worker's rights. From Moscow to Madrid, workers chanted demands for higher wages, better conditions and more job security as many countries battle economic uncertainty and high unemployment.
Police estimated some 17,000 protesters marched through the French capital for a rally riding a wave of anger against planned labor reforms set to come before parliament on Tuesday. The May Day rally was the second protest against the reforms in a week to descend into violence led by troublemakers known as "casseurs" (breakers) who actively seek confrontation with security forces. While the government says it hopes the reforms will reduce chronic unemployment of about 10 percent, critics believe they threaten hard-won workers' rights by making it easier to lay off people in lean times.
The government has already watered down the bill but this has failed to calm the anger among students and workers. In Istanbul, police clamped down on unauthorized protests at a time of particular tension after a succession of deadly attacks by suicide bombers this year in Turkey blamed on jihadists and Kurdish militants. Around 25,000 police were on duty, cordoning off the central Taksim Square and releasing volleys of teargas and water cannon on those trying to make their way to the protest hotspot, an AFP photographer said. In the flashpoint area of Okmeydani, masked radical leftists threw Molotov cocktails and firecrackers at police and created burning barricades out of junk.
The office of the Istanbul governor said that 207 people were detained around the city for trying to march on Taksim. Five Seattle police officers were injured and at least nine people arrested on Sunday night, after unruly demonstrators hurled projectiles and broke windows, authorities said.
Mayor Ed Murray blamed the "senseless violence" in Seattle on a "different crowd" from those who had attended an earlier peaceful May Day immigration march.
In posts on social media website Twitter, the Seattle police department said one officer had suffered a cut to the head as protesters hurled Molotov cocktails, another was hit by a rock, and a third officer was bitten, apparently by a protester. Scrambling to resuscitate a nearly dead truce in Syria, the Obama administration has again been forced to turn to Russia for help, with little hope for the desired US outcome. At stake are thousands of lives and the fate of a feeble peace process essential to the fight against the Islamic State group, US Secretary of State John Kerry has appealed once more to Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov for assistance in containing and reducing the violence, particularly around city of Aleppo. In Geneva, Kerry met with Judeh and was to meet UN envoy Staffan de Mistura and Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir on Monday before returning to Washington. But Lavrov was not expected to be in Geneva, complicating Kerry's efforts to make the case directly to the Russians for more pressure on their Syrian government allies to stop or at least limit attacks in Aleppo.
French Prime Minister Manuel Valls said on Monday he is committed to building all of a new Australian submarine fleet in Australia, apparently contradicting the French contractor who said last week the deal would create jobs in France. Four new photographs of Britain's Princess Charlotte playing at her family's country home were released by the royal family on Sunday to mark her first birthday.
With "Holy Fire" and solemn Masses, Orthodox Christians celebrated Easter on Sunday, commemorating the day followers believe Jesus was resurrected more than 2,000 years ago.
Britain's foreign secretary met Cuban officials on Thursday on the first such visit to the island since 1959, for talks on boosting trade and tourism ties with the island. Philip Hammond's trip comes a month after US President Barack Obama's historic visit to the Caribbean nation, which is opening up to warmer ties with its old Cold War rivals.
Hammond said in Havana that he was "the first UK foreign secretary to visit Cuba since the revolution" in 1959.
His visit also follows meetings in recent months between Cuba's President Raul Castro and other top officials and leaders from the European Union. Hammond met with his Cuban counterpart Bruno Rodriguez and signed several cooperation agreements with other government officials. Hammond said he wanted "enhanced bilateral cooperation underpinned by increased trade, increased investment and more tourists coming to Cuba" from Britain. Britain was the second-biggest source of foreign tourists to Cuba last year after Canada, with 160,000 Britons making the trip, he said. His ministry said earlier that he would sign a "bilateral agreement restructuring Cuba's debt to the UK," but Hammond did not comment about that during his news conference later in Havana. He also met with representatives from Cuban civil society and the British business community in Havana, the Foreign Office said.
In March, European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini became the highest-ranking EU official ever to visit Cuba when she traveled to Havana. She signed a deal to normalize relations with Cuba, including an agreement on human rights. Hammond's office said he, too, would broach the sensitive topics of human rights and social and economic reform in Cuba. Britain in 2010 launched a drive to strengthen its ties with Latin America and also backs the EU agreement with Cuba. Britain wants to "strengthen a bilateral dialogue where we're able to raise issues of concern to both sides in the spirit of free and open discussions", he added. British direct exports to Cuba - mostly dairy, pharmaceuticals and machinery - increased by nearly a third last year to the equivalent of about $36 million, Hammond said.
Indirect trade via companies based in third countries made the total even bigger, the British embassy in Havana added. The growth in trade coincided with the historic rapprochement between Cuba and the United States after 50 years of enmity stemming back to the Cold War. Analyzing the current mass bleaching event ravaging the Great Barrier Reef, researchers from the ARC Center of Excellence for Climate System Science found the effects of human-induced climate change had added one-degree Celsius of warming to the ocean temperatures. But should greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase, this extreme temperature will become the new normal within 20 years and cause similar mass bleaching events every two years, the as-yet unpublished findings show. That spells death for large swathes of the Great Barrier Reef as coral bleaching recovery rates are being overwhelmed by more frequent and severe mass bleaching events. Though the research is yet to be peer reviewed, the scientists took the unprecedented step of releasing their results early due to the grave nature facing the Great Barrier Reef from inaction. Coral reefs are one of the most important and productive marine ecosystems that the world depends on for tourism and fisheries sustainability. Coral bleaching occurs when stress such as heat caused the animal to expel the symbiotic algae, loosing vital nutrients and energy reserves, thus color, leading to the wide scale loss of productive habitats for fish. Recent research suggests corals with high levels of fat or other energy reserves can withstand annual bleaching events, which is critical to predicting the persistence of corals and their capacity to recover from more frequent events resulting from climate change.
South African President Jacob Zuma should face almost 800 corruption charges that were dropped in 2009, a judge said on Friday, piling further pressure on the embattled leader.
A sizzling heat wave has claimed more than 300 lives in India, and officials have forbidden daytime cooking in some areas to prevent fires that have killed nearly 80 others. Three people were killed and 25 wounded when rebel-fired mortars hit a mosque in Aleppo as people were leaving Friday prayers, the Syrian state news agency SANA said on Friday The mosque was in the government-held Bab al-Faraj area of Aleppo. A helicopter with 13 people on board crashed off western Norway on Friday, with rescue workers saying there was no sign of survivors but that the search was going on.
A 94-year-old former SS sergeant has told a German court he is "ashamed" that he served as a guard in the Nazis' Auschwitz death camp and that he knew what was going on there but did nothing to stop it. Albania's governing Socialist Party says it has sued former prime minister Sali Berisha for calling on citizens to arm themselves. It's a big day for nine-year-old Nepali schoolgirl Riddhima Shrestha and her three-year-old sister, Ishita, as they dress up in silk brocade and gold jewellery, preparing to wed a Hindu god. The two sisters are among dozens of girls taking part in the "ihi" or "bel bibaha" ceremony - a coming-of-age ritual practised by Kathmandu's indigenous Newar community, whose customs combine elements of Hinduism and Buddhism. The two-day ceremony, usually held several times a year in the capital's historic durbar (royal) square, sees pre-pubescent girls "marry" the Hindu deity, Vishnu, symbolized by the local "bel" fruit. The centuries-old custom is believed to protect girls from the stigma of widowhood by ensuring that a Newari woman's first husband - the god - will inevitably outlive her mortal spouse. During the ceremony, girls hold the bel fruit, also known as a wood apple, in one palm and touch a statue of the god with the other, symbolically giving Vishnu their hand in marriage. The girl's parents also secure their place in heaven by performing "kanyadaan" - the practice of giving away one's daughter in marriage - according to the priests who conduct the ceremony. After the rituals end, with gifts for the bride followed by a feast for family and friends, it's back to school for third-grader Riddhima, who is the first of her classmates to go through the ceremony. The Supreme Court of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea on Friday sentenced a Republic of Korea-born US citizen to 10 years of hard labor for alleged subversion and espionage activities. Kim Dong-chul, who was born in 1953 in Seoul and emigrated to the United States in 1972, was charged with plotting to subvert the DPRK system, slandering the supreme leadership of the country and gathering state and military secrets. Running a trade company in Rason, a special economic zone in the DPRK, Kim started espionage in 2013 after coming into contact with several people from the ROK who tasked him with collecting top party, state and military secrets of the DPRK, including its nuclear facilities, nuclear tests and photographs of warships at repairing factories, according to the prosecutor. The ROK citizens from whom Kim took orders included a correspondent of Donga Daily, an official with the ROK's Ministry of Unification and a professor at Seoul National University, said the prosecutor.


He was also accused of illegally buying a DPRK-made mobile phone in the capital city of Pyongyang via his local employee and providing the phone to the ROK. Kim received donations from a Canadian church, gave them to kindergartens in Rason and took pictures of the local children accepting the donations, according to the prosecution.
He was arrested on Oct 2, 2015 as he was receiving an SD card that contained photos of local markets in Rason and documents about the DPRK's nuclear programs from a local resident in Rason whom he had bought off, said the prosecutor. Evidence was presented to the court including his passport, the SD card, a Nikon camera, a mobile phone he used to contact with the ROK citizens, text messages showing him receiving orders from them, documents handed over to him when he was caught, and pictures he had taken of military vessels.
The DPRK government has convicted a number of foreigners for anti-DPRK crimes in recent years, often making them publicly confess their actions before trying them in court. In March 2016, US student Otto Frederick Warmbier was sentenced to 15 years of hard labor for taking down a political slogan from a hotel in Pyongyang. In December 2015, the Supreme Court sentenced ROK-born Canadian pastor Hyeon Soo Lim to lifetime labor. A young man poses as a sleazy, bejeweled politician in a white suit, sitting atop a white horse surrounded by hordes of bodyguards while promising jobs and prosperity to the voters. Luka Maksimovic and his friends started out to have fun, but the young pranksters have become a sensation - and have been elected to office - after finishing second in a local vote in a rundown industrial town in central Serbia. The success of the rookie citizens' group at last weekend's election in Mladenovac, outside Belgrade, seems to reflect widespread disillusionment with politicians in crisis-stricken Serbia and the desire for new, young faces still untouched by the corruption that has plagued all aspects of the Balkan country's political scene.
Maksimovic described his alter ego - Ljubisa Preletacevic Beli - as the worst possible version of a typical Serbian politician: He is loud and dishonest, owns a shady business and obeys no rules.
During campaigning, Preletacevic parodied Serbia's political reality: bare-chested, he saved children from imaginary danger, posed with small animals in his arms, handed out forged university diplomas and promised healthier sandwiches than his opponents. The group's election list, dubbed "Hit it Hard - Beli," won 20 percent of the votes, or 13 out of 50 or so seats in the municipal council - behind the ruling coalition of Prime Minister Aleskandar Vucic's populist Progressive Party but ahead of all the opposition parties in Mladenovac. The future council members from the list include Preletacevic and Sticker, but also independent activists determined to change the situation in their town and serve as a control mechanism for the work of the local authorities. Draza Petrovic, editor of the liberal Danas daily and a satirical columnist, said the happenings in Mladenovac show that citizens increasingly have been turning to irony and satire as a form of opposition to the dismal reality of their everyday lives. Amid Serbia's recent economic crisis, Mladenovac has turned from an industrial hub into a worn-out town, where many of the 20,000 residents have been left without jobs after factories closed one after another.
Out in the streets, Mladenovac citizens laugh and wave as a cheerful, blue-eyed Preletacevic walks the town in his white suit, his hair bundled on top of his head. Luka Maksimovic, who assumed the character of a bejeweled politician in a white suit during municipal elections, walks with his associates through the green market in the town of Mladenovac, outside Belgrade, Serbia, on Tuesday. Dozens of gawkers stood upwind of the carcass on Tuesday, examining it, marveling at it, and of course taking selfies with it. Its enormous tongue was so swollen that it bulged out of its mouth like a giant black balloon. Authorities said on Wednesday the rotting carcass of the 30-ton gray whale would be cut up and trucked to a landfill.
Beach Superintendent Rich Hardon said the work by an emergency contractor will begin on Thursday morning and take a couple of days at a cost of about $30,000.
Curiosity seekers have been visiting the beach, despite the stench, since the huge animal washed ashore on Sunday at Lower Trestles, a popular surfing spot. Burial on the beach isn't feasible because the stretch is mostly cobblestones, Haydon said. The United Nations mediator on Thursday called on the leaders of the United States and Russia to salvage the "barely alive" two-month-old cease-fire in Syria and revitalize the damaged peace process.
UN Special Envoy Staffan de Mistura voiced deep concern at the truce unraveling in Aleppo and at least three other hotspots, although he saw some narrowing of positions between the government and opposition visions of political transition. The US and Russia must convene a ministerial meeting of major and regional powers who compose the International Syria Support Group, he said. The main opposition High Negotiations Committee pulled out of the formal talks a week ago, in protest at intensified fighting and slow aid deliveries.
Bashar Ja'afari, who led the government delegation, said on Tuesday the round had been "useful and constructive". De Mistura said this round of talks had been "overshadowed by a substantial and indeed worrisome of cessation of hostilities".
A day after Maduro announced his latest drastic measures to tackle power shortages in the recession-hit country, the opposition was gathering signatures for an official petition to launch a referendum.
Citizens queued up to sign, voicing anger at Maduro over a crisis that has led to power outages for four hours a day in most of the country, exacerbating an already disastrous economic implosion. The International Monetary Fund issued a stark warning on the state of Venezuela's oil-dependent economy, hit hard by the collapse in global crude prices. After daily power-cuts were imposed on Monday, looting was reported in several places including the country's second-biggest city, Maracaibo. Maduro on Tuesday announced enforced leave for public sector employees three workdays a week for at least two weeks in a bid to slash electricity use. Vice-President Aristobulo Isturiz also said primary and high schools would be closed on Fridays. Electricity shortages have compounded an economic crisis that has left Venezuelans queuing for hours in shops to buy scarce goods. But the government has resisted using crude to generate electricity, calling it inefficient. April in Thailand is typically hot and sweaty, but this year's scorching weather has set a record for the longest heat wave in at least 65 years.
The average peak temperature each day this month has been above 40 C, with the mercury spiking one day to 44.3 Cjust short of the all-time record.
The heat wave has also fueled a new record for energy consumption and prompted health warnings on everything from foodborne illness to drowning, both of which rise every April when Thailand's hottest month coincides with school summer break. On this very day, April 27, in 1960, Thailand posted its hottest day ever recorded with 44.5 C in the northern province of Uttaradit. Countries across Southeast Asia are feeling the heat, which scientists said is triggered by El Nino, a warming of parts of the Pacific Ocean that changes weather worldwide and tends to push global temperatures up. Thailand's Department of Disease Control has warned people to beware of food poisoning and other food-related illnesses that typically increase during hot weather when bacteria can thrive on unrefrigerated food.
Oranges, watermelon, pineapple and other fruit get chopped up, mixed with fruit juice or water and is then frozen for the chimpanzees, orangutans and other primates. The return to Paris of the last known survivor of those believed to have carried out the Nov 13 attacks in the French capital may help investigators untangle some of the still-unresolved questions about the assault, which claimed 130 lives at restaurants, a noted music hall and a sports stadium outside the city. Attorney Frank Berton told reporters that his client "volunteered that he would explain himself at some later date". Abdeslam, a French citizen of Moroccan origin, spent four months on the run following the attacks and a month in Belgian custody after being tackled by heavily armed police outside his hideout in the Mollenbeek neighborhood of Brussels. Abdeslam was extradited from Belgium to France earlier on Wednesday in what Berton described as a "muscular operation" involving an early-morning transfer from his cell in Belgium and a cross-border helicopter ride.
The Paris attacks were carried out by three teams of assailants who blew themselves up or sprayed gunfire, and Abdeslam's testimony will likely prove significant to definitively linking the events that night - and in establishing how they fit in with the suicide bombings in Brussels that rocked the city on March 22.
Abdeslam faces preliminary charges of participating in a terrorist organization, terrorist murders and attempted murders, attempted terrorist murders of public officials, hostage-taking, and possessing weapons and explosives, French prosecutors said in a statement. French Justice Minister Jean-Jacques Urvoas had earlier said that Abdeslam would be placed in isolation, watched by guards specially trained to deal with "people reputed to be dangerous".
Georges Salines, whose daughter Lola died at the Bataclan music hall, said Abdeslam's arrival in Paris had enormous significance for victims of the attacks. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea fired what was believed to be a Musudan intermediate-range ballistic missile on Thursday, but it appeared to have failed, the Republic of Korea's defense ministry said. Russia on Thursday successfully launched the first rocket from its new space facility after a last-minute delay the day before. Turkish authorities detained 15 people on Thursday in connection with a suicide bomb attack in the northwestern city of Bursa which wounded 13 people, Interior Minister Efkan Ala said. A woman who unexpectedly gave birth on a Jetstar flight has named her son after the airline, in a bizarre tribute to the flight attendants who helped deliver the child. A British couple and their son were savagely attacked during a family vacation in the latest blow to Thailand's image as a welcoming tourist paradise. Japan is abandoning a quarter-of-a-billion-dollar satellite it sent to study black holes, disappointed space scientists said on Thursday, after spending a month trying to save it. After trekking nearly two hours through dense jungle, Brazilian government environmental special forces burst into a clearing where the trees had been sawed and a muddy crater dug: an illegal gold mine on indigenous land in the heart of the Amazon. The miners and gold were already gone, scattered by the whir of helicopter blades, but armed troopers in camouflage burned the tents and generators.
The five-day operation last week, coordinated by Brazil's environmental agency Ibama and Indian foundation Funai, found 15 air strips and destroyed 20 barges used to transport equipment and supplies by the estimated 5,000 illegal miners in the vast remote region. At more than 29.5 million hectares, the Yanomami people's territory is twice the size of Switzerland and home to around 27,000 indigenous people.
The land has legally belonged to the Yanomami since 1992, but miners continue to exploit the area, sawing down trees and poisoning rivers with mercury in their lust for gold.
A study published last month by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, a public biomedical research group, found that in some Yanomami villages, 92 percent of residents suffered from mercury poisoning.
High mercury exposure harms the nervous, digestive and immune systems, can lead to impaired vision and hearing, and can be fatal.
Last week's raid was considered a success but Ibama's operation leader Roberto Cabral said the miners will probably be back. From a base in the Tepequem mountains on the frontier with Venezuela, three helicopters flew the 35-person team for an hour and a half to the banks of the majestic Uraricoera River.
From there it was another hour or two on foot, cutting aside branches and wading through waist-high mud, to reach the mines.
For Fiona Watson, who works for the activist group Survival International and has campaigned for the Yanomami since 1990, any long-term solution must be based on having more people on the ground, graver punishments and a focus on those hiring the miners and supplying equipment.
An agent takes cover as an illegal gold dredge burns down on the banks of Uraricoera River during an operation against illegal gold mining in the heart of the Amazon rain forest on April 15. So powerful was the indoctrination during his 20-month captivity in Iraq and Syria that the boy told his mother he wanted to stay at the camp where the Islamic State had trained him to kill "infidels", including his own people. Now in the relative safety of Kurdish-controlled territory, Murad's mother said how she had struggled to persuade her son - like other Yazidi boys being prepared for battle - to escape earlier this month with her and his little brother. Yazidi boys appear to be part of broader efforts by the IS to create a new generation of fighters loyal to the group's ideology and inured to its extreme violence. The IS captured Murad, his mother and brother in August 2014 at their village near the Iraqi town of Sinjar. The United States launched airstrikes against the militants partly to save the survivors and last month said the attacks on Yazidis, whose faith combines elements of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam, and other groups amounted to genocide. More than one third of the 5,000 Yazidis captured in 2014 have escaped or been smuggled out, but activists said hundreds of boys are still held. Murad, wearing a jersey of the Spanish soccer club Real Madrid, sat with his mother on the floor of a Spartan trailer in Qadiya camp, twiddling his thumbs and resisting answering questions. The IS dressed the boys in the same long robes they wore, and trained them how to use guns and knives. Around 750 other children have escaped in recent months but a few thousand more remain missing. Close to 200 dogs, including Golden Retrievers, Siberian Huskies, Rottweilers, Japanese Tosas and Korean Jindo dogs, paced in circles inside the small wire cages, barking furiously at their rescuers. The dogs in Gong's farm, one of thousands across the country, were bred specifically for consumption and confined in their cages from birth until slaughtered for their meat. Gong's business is the fifth and the largest dog meat farm to be closed down by the US-based Humane Society International, and Gong said he was happy to get out.
A poll conducted by Gallup Korea last year showed that only 20 percent of men in their 20s consumed dog meat in the past year, compared to half of those in their 50s and 60s. Gong also noted that the increasing popularity of dogs as domestic pets had played a large part in reducing demand for their meat. The HSI rescued a total of 225 dogs last year, closing down four farms in what they call a "constructive and collaborative" approach to phase out an industry that has long been criticized by international animal welfare groups. In return for shuttering his business for good, a farmer receives up to $60,000 - depending on the number of dogs being bred - that can be used as seed money for a more "humane" farm, growing anything from blueberries to green peppers. Through its well-publicized rescues, HSI seeks to raise awareness about the cruelty of dog meat farms and "initiate a conversation with South Korean policymakers," the group's campaign manager Andrew Plumbly said. South Korea is preparing to host the 2018 Winter Olympics, and Plumbly said the global publicity surrounding the event provided an opportunity to push for change.
The South Korean authorities are sensitive to the negative publicity attached to the dog meat industry, and dog restaurants in Seoul were shut down ahead of the 1988 Summer Olympics.
Gong, who stumbled into the dog meat industry after many failed business attempts, admits he was "never proud" of his farm, which only ever earned him a modest living. In a normal year, he would sell around 200 animals, with an average price - depending on size - of about $200. Running a dog farm in South Korea requires no special license, although Gong said there were regular government checks to ensure neighbors weren't being disturbed and dog waste was being properly disposed of.
Gabriel Wildgen, right, and Abbey Herbert of the Humane Society International transfer a dog from a cage to a crate before transport during a publicized rescue event involving the closure of a dog farm in Wonju, southeast of Seoul, on Wednesday. Australia's hard line immigration policy was thrown into turmoil on Wednesday after Papua New Guinea ordered a processing camp to close, leaving the fate of hundreds of asylum-seekers hanging in the balance.
The move to shutter the Australian-funded Manus island facility follows a Supreme Court ruling on Tuesday that detaining people there was unconstitutional and illegal. Piling further pressure on Canberra, just weeks out from an expected election campaign, an Iranian refugee set himself on fire during a visit by UN officials to Nauru, the other Pacific nation where Australia sends boat people. Four others on the tiny outpost reportedly attempted suicide by drinking washing powder on Tuesday. Papua New Guinea's former opposition leader Belden Namah had challenged the Manus arrangement in court, claiming it violated the rights of asylum-seekers, leading to the center's closure. In a 34-page finding on Tuesday, the Supreme Court found that detaining them on the island was "contrary to their constitutional right of personal liberty". Despite this, Australian Immigration Minister Peter Dutton remained adamant that none of the 850 or so men held there would come to his country and that the government's policy designed to deter others wanting to make the risky journey would not change. Canberra currently has an arrangement with Cambodia, along with Papua New Guinea, to resettle those found to be refugees, although only a handful have taken up the option.
Australian media have reported that it is also trying to negotiate deals with Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. The court ruled that Australia and Papua New Guinea must "take all steps necessary to cease and prevent" the continued detention of asylum-seekers and transferees on Manus. Earlier this month, the gurdwara in Peshawar's crowded Old City opened its doors to worshippers for the first time in 73 years. On Friday, a Sikh leader and provincial lawmaker was shot and killed outside his home in a remote area in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province, some 140 kilometers from Peshawar.
It also added to human rights activists' despair over rising violence against religious minorities in Pakistan.
The Taliban claimed responsibility for the shooting of Sardar Suran Singh, but police disputed their claim, blaming the shooting on political rivalry and saying they had arrested the culprit. Peshawar is a deeply conservative city at the foot of the mountainous Khyber Pass - once a popular route for traders and tourists traveling to nearby Afghanistan, now the focus of an extremist insurgency. The newly-opened gurdwara has a 24-hour Sikh Security detail as well as police guards, but their Muslim neighbors believe an attack is inevitable. Gohar Iqbal, a bookseller who works at a busy stall opposite the temple was certain the building would be targeted by militants.
Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps.
No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries. The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast. He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia.
It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion. It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time. It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps. In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it.
The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850.
So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established. But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470. As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961. Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm). In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored. It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean. Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan].
The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way. This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts.
His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change.
He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. Elephants will no longer be part of the circus act, and will be sent to an elephant sanctuary in the US state of Florida to live out the rest of their lives. An elephant carried a performer holding an American flag then stood at attention as the song ended.
Its herd of 40 Asian elephants, the largest in North America, will continue a breeding program and be used in a pediatric cancer research project. Dozens of cities have banned the use of bullhooks - used to train elephants - and some states are considering such legislation. Other countries collect water with the same principle, but using trees to gather the condensed moisture. Indian military helicopters began spraying water over the burning forests in Uttarakhand on Sunday morning.
More than 530 hectares of the Rajaji and Corbett tiger reserve had been destroyed by the fire, adversely affecting animals and birds in the area. A leftover from the Soviet era, the communal flat or kommunalka with bathroom and kitchen shared by a dozen or so residents is very much alive in Russia's historic city of Saint Petersburg. Wearing an undershirt and baggy shorts - "just like every day" - he happily spoke with visitors. There is a corner fireplace - no longer functioning - and stunning, 3.5 meter-high ceilings.
Egyptian officials - as high up as the president, Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, in a national address - have denied any police role, but in the months since the slayings, the Italian government has hiked the pressure for answers.
Egyptian police announced they had killed a gang of five Egyptian men they said specialized in kidnapping and robbing foreigners and, while searching the gang leader's sister's home, came upon Regeni's passport.
Even the editor-in-chief of Egypt's top government newspaper, Al-Ahram, wrote that Egyptian authorities had to get serious about uncovering the truth and that such "naive stories" about Regeni's death were only hurting the country.
The Interior Ministry said security forces hunting for the gang stopped their minibus and the men opened fire on them, prompting a gunbattle in which all five were killed.
The men's relatives say they were house painters merely heading to a job in the suburb, Tagammu al-Khamis, when they were killed.
No video footage from the shooting has emerged, so their accounts could not be independently verified.
The Italian graduate student vanished after leaving his apartment on Jan 25, the anniversary of the 2011 uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak.
The charges, relating to a multi-billion dollar arms deal, were dropped by the chief state prosecutor in a move that cleared the way for Zuma to be elected president. The eastern state of Bihar banned cooking between 9 am and 6 pm after accidental fires exacerbated by dry, hot and windy weather swept through shantytowns and thatched-roof houses in villages and killed 79 people.
SANA also said there were more deaths and injuries from rebel mortar attacks which hit the Bab al-Faraj and al-Midan quarters of Aleppo on Friday. The chopper was transporting workers from a North Sea offshore oil field when it crashed around midday near the shoreline off the coast of Bergen, Norway's second biggest city.


So far we have not seen any sign of survivors," Sola rescue center spokesman Anders Bang Andersen told reporters. Reinhold Hanning told the Detmold state court on Friday that he had never talked about his service in Auschwitz from January 1942 to June 1944, even to family, but wanted to use his trial as an opportunity to apologize.
The request was handed to the prosecutor general's office on Friday, according to lawmaker Taulant Balla. He was charged with attempts to overthrow the DPRK government and undermine its social system under the guise of conducting religious exchanges over 18 years.
The English translation would be something like "Switchover" - suggesting that he switches political parties easily for personal gains. Seaweed still dangled from its mouth, and only a few patches of grey-black skin were left on the body, which was a light beige color from the fat underneath. California parks officials said it would be impractical to tow the whale out to sea or bury it at San Onofre State Beach in San Diego County.
It's something that even I find it difficult, can you imagine the Syrians?" de Mistura said, adding he aimed to resume talks in May, though he gave no date. But he gave no sign of ceding to the HNC's central demand for a political transition without President Bashar Assad. It warned the economy would shrink 8 percent this year and inflation would exceed 700 percent. There are areas that have been nearly 10 hours without electricity and that has made people even more annoyed," said Doris Falcon, a Maracaibo resident.
That followed the start of daily four-hour electricity blackouts in several states on Monday, which Maduro said would last 40 days.
Berton said the 26-year-old was being sent to Fleury-Merogis, a massive, high-security prison about 30 kilometers south of Paris, where he is due to be held in isolation in a special camera-equipped cell until his next hearing on May 20. The express transfer surprised even Berton, who had to rush from Lille to join his client at Paris' Palace of Justice, arriving in the early afternoon.
A ROK official said that the DPRK launched a projectile, estimated to have been a Musudan missile, at about 6:40 am local time from the Wonsan area in northeastern DPRK. The Soyuz 2.1a booster blasted off from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Russian Far East in the early hours Moscow time on Thursday. The female attacker blew herself up near an Ottoman-era mosque in Bursa's historic district on Wednesday. Jetstar, a subsidiary of Australia's national airline Qantas, allows pregnant women to fly up until the end of their 40th week of the pregnancy for flights shorter than four hours, but passengers were surprised when a woman went into labor midway through the flight.
The ultra-high-tech "Hitomi" - or "eye" - was launched in February to find X-rays emanating from black holes and galaxy clusters.
While miners once killed the Yanomami with guns or disease - nearly 20 percent of the population was wiped out in the 1980s - today the threat is the toxic liquid metal used to separate gold from grit. The results shocked experts, who believe mercury is entering the food chain through fish in polluted rivers.
We're not able to arrest them, there's no space in the helicopter," he said, sweat pouring down his face in the middle of the steamy jungle. Beyond the equipment, authorities have been hunting for clues on the illicit business interests behind the miners. With Brazil suffering through its worst recession in a century, Funai's budget for 2016 was cut by 24 percent, while Ibama had its spending reduced by 30 percent. During that offensive, the radical Sunni Muslim group massacred, enslaved and raped thousands of Yazidis, whom they consider to be devil-worshippers. The group also forced Murad to pray, study the Quran and sit through extremist religious lessons, according to his mother, who said she had been beaten as well as raped by at least 14 men. He kept a watchful eye on everyone who passed him on the narrow street, looking for a suspicious gesture, or a bulge beneath the clothes that hints at a hidden gun or a bomb. The reopening was celebrated by Pakistan's tiny Sikh minority, but security is a constant concern.
The murder of Sardar Suran Singh devastated the Sikh community and heightened their fears of militant attacks.
It is increasingly intolerant," said Zohra Yusuf, chairwoman of the independent Human Rights Commission of Pakistan. Militants have attacked Peshawar schools, killing children as they studied, bombed buses of government workers and attacked Christians in their churches.
The vast majority migrated to India in 1947, the year Pakistan was created as a homeland for Muslims of the subcontinent. They are easily identifiable because of their tightly wound and often colorful turbans, and because they share the surname Singh.
Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography.
His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west. A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon. Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well. He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km]. It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery. There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast. Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale. It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales. They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492. It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect.
It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world.
On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara. The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design. Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border.
According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?.
The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea. It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map.
A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China].
23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew.
PT Barnum added the African elephant he named "Jumbo" to "The Greatest Show on Earth" in 1882.
A few minutes later, six elephants entered the ring, each holding the tail of the one in front of her. Major forest fires raged across the region, where some 5,000 workers were engaged in extinguishing the blaze.
A number of other family members have been arrested, and their lawyers say they have not been allowed to see investigators' reports on the shooting.
A series of visits to the forensic agency, security headquarters in Cairo and the Tagammu al-Khamis police station were also unfruitful. Speaking at a parliamentary session last week, Berisha accused the government of having links to crime gangs and urged Albanians to get weapons to protect themselves. The official said the launch appeared to have failed as the projectile was believed to have crashed several seconds after liftoff. The Roscosmos space agency said in a statement that the three satellites the rocket was carrying orbited several hours later. A video of the attack, which was captured by overhead security cameras, has stirred shock and outrage over its brutality and the ages of the victims, a 65-year-old woman and 68-year-old man from Scotland and their 43-year-old son. But shortly after the expensive technology reached orbit, researchers admitted they had lost control of it and said it was no longer communicating. The Sikhs that lived in the area and attended the gurdwara left when it closed in the 1940s. The CIA Factbook estimates that 3.6 percent of Pakistan's 180 million people are non-Muslims, including Sikhs, Christians and Hindus.
The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents. The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept.
Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490.
The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic.
Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south. He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself.
This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty.
Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts.
The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map. This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz.
Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India. Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources.
He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book. Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy. Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252).
Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe. Parliament has suspended Berisha for 10 days, prompting his opposition Democratic Party to boycott Parliament.
Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others. The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side. At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic.
The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis. The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough.
If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean.
Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers.
This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies. The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map.
South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron. The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business. Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean. Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news.
Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century.
The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south. Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean.
At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise. Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue.
His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484).
It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas. To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature.
This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved.
Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489. The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south.
The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti. His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying. Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map.
According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it.
Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India.
Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone. When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend. The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise. Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall.
Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus.
The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516. Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506. Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489.



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