The secret book meaning,the secret world deck builder program,change default search engine to google firefox address bar,yoga near me app - You Shoud Know

16.08.2013
University of California, Davis, CA, Bachelor of Arts; Studio Art Major and Political Science Major. First studio, outside of the university - in old mortuary across from railroad station in Menlo Park, CA Figure paintings become large and abstracted down to major shapes.
Begin writing a€?Blue Mountainsa€?, poems on the coastal range of the San Francisco Bay Area.
Meet artist Sam Francis for the first time and assist Phillip Kirkeby in the framing and installation of his exhibition of lithographs. Travel to Finland and experience sauna - freezing lake dip, and dark Finnish woods in bitter Autumn cold. Begin creating painted constructions as way to sculpt with color and begin overpainting earlier works in white. Initiate collage overlays onto monotypes, using older prints torn up and glued onto new ones; begin segmented prints of three and four printed sheets placed together to form a single image. White Paintings move towards complete elimination of color into tonalities of white with constructed centers of collage.
Successful exhibition at Nantenshi Gallery of large scale White Paintings and small scale collages. Publish folio FIVE, a reflection on Japan in a folio of four poems and a single monotype on 18th century Edo period papers with Japanese translation made by Mr. White Painting on Board & The White Studio, Kitchijoji, Japan - Click here for more White Paintings. Albion White Studio in Woodside with drying Blade print - Click here for more Blade Prints. Move out of original White Studio to a larger house and studio in Palo Alto named the White Studio on Lincoln Street. Begin large scale sculpture drawings from Black Book notebook of sculptures compiled in Kitchijoji, Japan.
Traveled to Sonoran Highlands of Mexico, with Flying Doctors, which was inspiration for writing a€?Tales from Cumpasa€? poems. Sculptural fragments of ancient Greece and the light of the landscape are focused on through photographs.
Three month stay in New York City, meet New York artists, writers, photographers - keep notebooks - visit major museums. Continued work on Raku ceramic ware with Ceramicist Gary Clarien at the Palo Alto Cultural Center.
Large paintings on paper with enamels, sprays and stencils, were exhibited at Andrea Schwartz Gallery.
Attempt to resolve imagery of abstract passages versus some representational images during 1989 to 1990 in a new set of paintings. Rework remaining 8a€™ monotypes created in mid 80's with enamels and sprays, and heavy scraping of paint in last struggle with pure abstraction. First studio, outside of the university - in old mortuary across from railroad station in Menlo Park, CA Figure paintings become large and abstracted down to major shapes.A  All 12 canvases either loaned, lost or destroyed. Return to Palo Alto.A  Begin Blade Series of monotypes, which includes the use of saw blades inked and embossed on paper. Finally - a Heartfelt Thank You to all who were and still are a part of the journey and the many immense gifts that you have given me along the way. In the early 1980s at annual meetings of the African Studies Association, specialists in Mande culture, history, and other studies found themselves repeatedly drawn together to discuss their work and to exchange ideas. On November 1, 1986 in Madison, Wisconsin, the informal Mande group was invited by Gerald Cashion to Suite 619 of the Concourse Hotel to discuss the possibility of forming an organization devoted to Mande studies. On the occasions of several African Studies Association meetings beginning with the one in 1981, Tom Hale and Paul Stoller organized a series of roundtable discussions on topics related to cultures of the Middle Niger River.
Kathryn Green consented to take minutes of the meeting, thus becoming the first MANSA secretary. In 1988 MANSA was contacted by Carlos Lopes who was then Director of INEP, the largest and most active research institute in Guinea-Bissau. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993a€?Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues.
With its thirty-three papers presented on eight panels, the Bamako conference was modest compared to the one at SOAS twenty-one years earlier. Co-organized by Jan Jansen and David Conrad, the Leiden conference received substantial support from Germany's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte and several institutions of The Netherlands: the Research School CNWS, the Research School CERES, the African Studies Centre, the Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, all of whom contributed generously in providing necessary funding, personnel and facilities. The Fourth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Senegambia Beach Hotel in Serrekunda, The Gambia, 13-17 June, 1998.
The conference Keynote Speaker was Sidia Jatta, Gambian National Assembly MP for Wulli, Upper River Division (for the text of his speech see MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 7-8). The Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies was held in Conakry and Kankan, Guinea June 20-26, 2005. The Conakry segment co-organized by Mohamed SaA?dou N'Daou, and David Conrad took place at the Novotel, 20-22 June, and the opening session featured Djibril Tamsir Niane as the keynote speaker. MANSA Newsletter: The organization's newsletter reached its fifty-eighth issue in the spring of 2006.
At the annual meetings of the African Studies Association in Chicago (1988) and Atlanta (1989), several panels addressed issues concerning the roles of artisans and oral traditionists in the Mande social system.
Among the themes engaging panelists at the Third International Conference on Mande Studies in Leiden were matters involving the consequences of intense step-brother rivalry in Mande society known as fadenya. Also featured at the Leiden conference was a round-table organized by the anthropological team of Mirjam de Bruijn and Han van Dijk. Ralph Austen's a€?Sunjata Epic Conferencea€? at Northwestern University in 1992 focused on the epic tradition that describes legendary people and events of the Mali empire, providing a centuries-old framework for Mande identity and cultural values.
Like any large, extended family, MANSA has suffered its share of tragedy, periodically losing some of its members to accident, illness, and the passage of time. The Institut des Sciences Humaines (ISH) has long played an important role in the careers of many scholars of the Mande world, providing letters of invitation, research authorization, field assistance, and collaboration with Malian colleagues.
The West African Research Association (WARA) was founded in 1989 for the purpose of promoting scholarly exchange and collaboration between American and West African researchers. In the summers of 1991 and 1992 the Mande Studies Association began establishing cordial and productive relations with faculty and staff at the universities of Conakry and Kankan, and at the National Archives in Conakry. Research by MANSA members in The Gambia is authorized and expedited by the National Council for Arts and Culture in Banjul. Second International Conference on Mande Studies: Bamako,Mali 1993Planning what would be the second international conference on Mande studies (though the first to be conceived by MANSA), the principal organizer Kathryn Green and other participants were clear in their determination that it should be held on African soil in order to maximize the participation of African colleagues.
In Bamako, one advantage of holding an international conference on West African soil proved to be the participation of doctoral students from Europe and the United States who happened to be doingA A  research in Mali at the right time. The 1995 conference at Leiden was such a success that in June of the same year in London, colleagues from SOAS were tentatively suggesting to the MANSA President several ideas for another international conference, this time to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1972 Conference on Manding Studies (MANSA Newsletter 28, 1995: 2).
The Fifth International Conference on Mande Studies was held at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden, The Netherlands, 17-21 June, 2002.
Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced.
It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found.
Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia.
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description.
Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down.
Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came.
From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge.
Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent.
An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200.
The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994.
Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made.
Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. History of Felts in Turkey,Felts have not been well preserved in Turkey as they were considered of little cultural significance. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
Mehmet Girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants called Theresa May O'Brien.
In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose.. Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group. Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers. Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months. In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz.
Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling.
In the neighboring province of Erzurum similar red caps are worn in the villages, and in the northwestern province of Kirklareli you will come across men wearing maroon felt fezzes. Study with Wayne Theibaud, Manuel Neri, Daryl Forney, Charles Muscovitch and become acquainted with art of Roy de Forest, Robert Arneson, and William Wiley while at university. Extensive use of watercolors with instruction on classical charcoal drawing from plaster casts.
Drive down through Big Sur reading Robinson Jeffers poetry and camping along the California coast. Print 27 Greek Poems and 7 Black Poems monotype folios, which are first print series created to fit a folio format.
First exhibition of art - large scale abstract paintings and collages at Smith-Anderson Gallery, Palo Alto. Paintings still evidenced influence of icons as center collage areas retain intense color and surrounding dark color fields are eliminated. Aoki visits The White Studio in California and extends an invitation to exhibit White Paintings at Nantenshi Gallery. Completed twenty-one small collages for Tokyo exhibition to include with large scale work.A Paint at night and by candle light. Meet Ayako on train - Japanese girlfriend inspiring numerous poems many in lost folio on a€?The Train to Tokyoa€?.
Travel to Inland Sea of Japan and see works by Munakata and numerous Japanese print artists.
Aoki make a presentation of a small White Painting done at the Kitchijoji White Studio for Club Gastro Collection, which includes works by Jasper Johns, Sam Francis, Pierre Alechinsky, Sengai, as well as other foreign and Japanese artists.
White Paintings evolved into canvases, which were painted with oil based house enamels and separated by a black and white horizontal division across the canvas with black at the bottom and white at the top. Inclusion of seven large scale sculpture drawings in first San Jose Museum of Art Biennial 1985. A folio of cibachrome photographs of the Greek Islands, with references to visit of ancestral home on the island of Scopelos. Thanks for the studio tour - but more importantly - sincere apologies to artist Jim Dietz. First use of sprayed enamels and stenciled imagery impacting on white color fields of canvas. Twenty-one prints with multiple overlay plates on Japan papers, culminated in exhibition of monotypes at Young Gallery, Saratoga, CA. Photographed Wayang Kulit performance of the Ramayana Epic in mountain village outside of Ubud. Difficulty of painting and resolving not only formal issues, but addressing the ideas of meaningful expression. Move studio to Belmont Street Studio, Belmont, CA, build out new studio space, begin working again with collages. Print 27 Greek Poems and 7 Black Poems monotype folios, which are first print series created to fit a folio format.A  Printing press housed in cottage - Kings Road Studio in Woodside, CA. Beautiful home and studio are a immense and welcome sanctuary.A  Have Japanese a€?Thanksgiving Dinnera€? for friends, girlfriend K.
Monotypes with embossment were main focus for prints and were now bled to the edge of the papers. Thanks for the studio tour - but more importantly -A  sincere apologies to artist Jim Dietz.
Difficulty of painting and resolving not only formal issues, but addressing the ideas of meaningful expression.A  Meaning and the abstract image is a great struggle. New series of book collages on paper and canvas.A  Begin teaching printmaking courses in studio.
Several years of informal gatherings took place in hotels and restaurants in such cities as Washington DC, New Orleans and Los Angeles. Barbara Frank and others recalled that in recent years Marie Perinbam had been a catalyst of the group, enthusiastically organizing informal gatherings (including a particularly boisterous one at a restaurant in New Orleans), so Perinbam was elected vice-president in absentia.
Some of our members' relations with ISH pre-date MANSA's existence by many years, when the institute was under the direction of Mamadou Sarr and the offices were located in one of the buildings near the Place de l'Independence. In 1992 the Senegalese government provided a site for the establishment of the association's West African Research Center (WARC), in Dakar.
On June 21 shortly after arriving in Dakar to attend the conference, MANSA Vice-President B. The frequency of visits and cooperative projects markedly increased after 1992 with the comings and goings of a series of researchers on Fulbright fellowships. Lopes' initiative led to an informal affiliation between INEP and the Mande Studies Association (MANSA Newsletter 5, 1988: 1). The idea was well-received, and at the 1989 meeting in Atlanta, MANSA members began to talk about organizing an international conference. After nearly four years of concerted effort by MANSA members in the United States and Mali, the Second International Conference on Mande Studies was finally held at the Islamic Cultural Center in Bamako, 15-19 March, 1993.
African colleagues residing in West AfricaA  were actively involved, with eight of the papers being presented by Malians and one from CA?te d'Ivoire.
One result of the attendance by several European students was that in the next two years MANSA received an infusion of new energy from a surprisingly large and active group of scholars in The Netherlands. In two days of sessions at the university, twenty-four papers were presented on eight panels, bringing the total for the entire conference to fifty-three papers on seventeen panels.
Desiring to increase the accuracy of perspectives on relations between Mande and Fulbe peoples, de Bruijn and van Dijk addressed a topic that had already engaged the interest of MANSA members as early as their fourth annual meeting (Atlanta, 1989). Marie Nathalie LeBlanc, a€?Youth, Islam and Changing Identities in Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire.a€? Department of Anthropology. Edda Fields, a€?Rice Farmers in the Rio Nunez Region: A Social History of Agricultural Technology and Identity in Coastal Guinea, ca.
In order to maintain this status, one-third of MANSA's membership must be members of the ASA. Two key figures at the University of Conakry have been Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo, Vice-Recteur de la Recherche Scientifique and N'Fanly Kouyate, Directeur des Relations Exterieures.
At the next MANSA meeting (Orlando, 1995), members were open to the idea of another international meeting and to commemorating the SOAS conference, but they expressed the preference to meet again on African soil. Papers presented at ASA meetings, international conferences on Mande studies, and many other conferences the world over, eventually appear as articles in a wide range of scholarly journals. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps.
In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213.
The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained.


The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207).
The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance.
This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps.
To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences.
The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them.
Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials.
Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. But the writings of the seventeenth-century Turkish travel writer Evliya Celebi record many practical uses for felt.
The craftsman placed his felt on raised platforms and exerted pressure by pounding his chest on the fleece in order to achieve the necessary shrinkage.
Once the pre-felt elements are laid in position on the reed mat, they are covered evenly with the background fleece using a forked tool of cherry wood called a cubuk . One of their most interesting products is the stiff felt cloak known as kepenek worn by shepherds. In Hakkari in southeast Turkey people wear slippers known as refik, harik or herik, sewn from layers of felt and wool. Highlights being shown oil paintings of artifacts from Tutankamena€™s tomb made by Charles Muskavitch during time of excavation in Egypt. Visit Mistra and Meteroa and countless small chapels on the Greek islands where ceiling and sometimes pealing frescos have stunning impact. Printmaker Joe Zirker visits The White Studio - is influenced by White Paintings - Envelope Series. Have dinner at California Artist Elmer Bischoffa€™s studio in San Francisco and see both his figurative work from 1960a€™s and his first abstract paintings. This was an honor of being one of two Americans being exhibited at the gallery at this time which included Robert Rauschenberg.
Meet leading Japanese painters, composers, poets, and other artists traveling through Japan such as Red Grooms and Christo. Begin teaching in the San Mateo County Public School system, Kindergarten through 8th grade art programs, and San Mateo County Adult Education evening art classes program, teaching painting and drawing. Meet Emiko and write a€?February's Moutha€?, a collection of 28 poems done one per day in February, illustrated with collages.
Exhibition travels to College of Redwoods, Humboldt County, CA where artist Morris Graves purchases small painting for personal collection. On a humid night clove cigarettes fill the air to the sound of Gamelin, chanting and the shadows in the night.
Suggestions of representational imagery surface more strongly from notebooks onto finished paintings.
Studio party sees one hundred friends attending on hot summer day.A  Party lasts into night. Begin first works in ceramics at studio in Kitchijoji.A  With girlfriend A on night stroll around Inokashira lake.
It was also agreed that the organization would publish a newsletter at least twice per year. Gerald Cashion and Robert Launay agreed to serve as the first advisory board members (see list of officers and past officers elsewhere on this website). Since WARA's founding there has been a close association between it and the Mande Studies Association.
During those years, several students at the university served as valued research and translation assistants to the Fulbrighters. On 7 June, 1998, INEP's research endeavors were shattered by a war that flared up in Guinea-Bissau between veterans of the armed struggle for national liberation, and government troops supported by armies of neighboring countries. Despite the unfortunate timing of being held during Ramadan, many other Malians attended the panels, and the conference was well covered by L'Essor and Malian television (ORTM).
A direct benefit of their participation was that only two years after the Bamako meeting, the Third International Conference on Mande Studies took place 20-24 March, 1995 in Leiden, The Netherlands at the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde.
The Rijks Museum voor Volkenkunde featured an exhibit on the city of Jenne in Mali, and there were presentations of the films Sanji--Water from Heaven directed by Paul Folmer and Salina Haledo, and Sunjata Banta, directed by Paul Folmer and Ed van Hoven.
The following day in honor of their visit, the symposium a€?Democracy and Development in Malia€? was held at the MSU International Center. Funding for the participation of African and some other colleagues was provided by the Embassies of the Kingdom of Netherlands in Abidjan and Dakar, by the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (thanks to Joe Tainter), and by two anonymous benefactors. Generous donations by eleven MANSA members funded five West African colleagues to attend the conference (one from Burkina Faso and four from Mali). While the sessions were being held in the reading room of the university library, Mohamed Chejan Kromah and his assistant Sagno worked on a fourteen-panel mural of scenes from the Sunjata epic commissioned by MANSA, which they finished in the weeks following the conference.
Het geheim van het masker Maskerrituelen en genderrelaties in de Casamance, Senegal [a€?The secret of the mask Mask rituals and gender relations in the Casamance, Senegala€?] Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers. MANSA suffered shocking losses two years in a row when on July 17, 1996, FranA§ois Manchuelle died in the crash of TWA Flight 800 (MANSA Newsletter 32: 1), MANSA Vice-President B.
At the founders' meeting in 1986, it was decided that one of the organization's basic activities would be to sponsor Mande studies panels at the annual meetings of the African Studies Association.
In the early 90s, working with Louise Bedichek who was at that time (June 1987-September 1991) the extraordinarily effective Public Affairs Officer at the United States Information Service (USIS), Mamadou Kodiougou Diallo who was at that time Vice-Recteur de Recherche at the University of Conakry, smoothed the way for research authorization and began requesting and personally welcoming American scholars. Abdoulie Bayo and Patience Sonko-Godwin of the National Council for Arts and Culture inA  Banjul were persistent in their requests that The Gambia be considered (MANSA Newsletter 29, 1995-96: 1-2). In addition, many individual members made generous donations toward the sponsorship of African colleagues to attend the conference. But it can be noted here that several edited volumes are the direct result of members' presentations at various meetings and conferences since MANSA's founding in 1986. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.
Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions.
When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered.
Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. In the palace at Bitlis, lemons and oranges were preserved in winter by wrapping them in felt; and, in Amasya, near Tokat, felt was used as a strainer for mulberry, grape, and quince juices. The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters.
In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile. The last hamamlar that produced felt were in Konya and Urfa; by the last quarter of the twentieth century, many hand-felting processes were replaced by machines.
Additional layers of fleece follow, each sprinkled with water through a long-fibered straw brush before being rolled in the reed mat, wrapped in plastic, and sent to a mechanical “kicking” machine for hardening, the first stage of the shrinkage process. Every twenty minutes, the rug is removed and re-rolled both inside out and back to front to ensure even felting. These distinctive garments protect the wearer from heat in summer and from cold and wet in winter. Meet Juaquin Peinado artist friend of Picasso and watch him make a cubist drawing of a nude . Paint an enormous number of figure studies of a€?women on the beacha€? with gouache and watercolor and large oils on canvas.
The a€?art passiona€? is keenly felt wandering through the dimly lit vaults of these places - and in stark contrast to the world of light outside. Travel to Kyoto, Nara, Kamakura and other areas of Honshu, visit gardens, temples, museums, and cultural sights while staying in small ryokans. Paint while sitting on tatami mats - rain becomes snow in Tokyo - Yakimo seller of Old Japan comes late at night. Completed twenty-seven, 8' long scroll prints during the summer of 1981 in Albion White Studio in Woodside, CA. Continue work in Kitchijoji White Studio, loaned through the generosity of Nantenshi Gallery and the Katayama family. In the white washed stone house at the top of the hill, in the small room on the third floor landing laying on the straw bed - little red votive candles flicker. Cibachrome photos shot on a bamboo platform - hot and muggy with great throngs of villagers watching performance. New chair designs and architectural renderings came out of this visit to Japan with emphasis on natural woods.A Meet J. New lightness of color begins to resurface in work out of the density of sprayed paint and black enamel used during last few years.A Difficult time period as studio privacy is lacking and creative disruption from White paintings towards some sort of representation is still a major art grappling.
Continued in weekly drinking sessions with friends learning the a€?ways of sakea€?.A  Spend much time in museums studying Japanese painting and printmaking. In the white washed stone house at the top of the hill,A  in the small room on the third floor landing laying on the straw bed - little red votive candles flicker. Without the authentic word there is very little left.A  Installed four large scale monotypes in Minneapolis private collection for art patron C. Cibachrome photos shot on a bamboo platform - hot and muggy withA  great throngs of villagers watching performance.
Nothing came of the idea then, but in 1986 during the first MANSA meeting, Hale and Conrad both recalled the earlier occasion and the latter agreed to try and make good on the original plan. Since MANSA's founding many of the staff at ISH have become active members, participating in projects with their visiting colleagues, conducting their own research, and presenting papers at various international conferences.
Several MANSA members have served as officers in WARA, including Jeanne Toungara, Secretary (1995-1997), Thomas Hale, Advisory Board (1995-99), David Conrad, Advisory Board (1995-97), Fiona McLaughlin, WARC Director (1999), and David Robinson, Vice-President (1996-2002). WARA President Edris Makward dedicated the conference to our departed friend, and her MANSA colleagues who remained to carry on included Ferdinand de Jong, Cornelia Giesing, Kathryn Green, Lilyan Kesteloot, Kirsten Langeveld, Barbara Lewis, Peter Mark, Muhammad SaA?dou N'Daou, David Robinson, Jeanne Toungara, Vera Viditz-Ward, and David Conrad (MANSA Newsletter 35, 1997: 1-2). In 1994 MANSA members began contributing books to the new American Cultural Center Library, which at the time was directed by Mohamed Fofana. The war brought death and displacement to thousands of local citizens, and among the infrastructures most affected by the war's destruction was the building complex housing INEP which was located less than a kilometer from the initial frontline of the hostilities. Other expenses were paid for by a generous contribution from Stephan BA?hnen's Bremer Stiftung fA?r Kultur und Sozialanthropologie (formerly the Bremer Stiftung fA?r Geschichte). Another generous donation along with help from the MANSA treasury funded the Sunjata mural in the library reading room at the University of Kankan. In the nineteen ASA meetings since our founding (1987-2005), MANSA-members have organized more than fifty panels devoted to Mande studies. N'Fanly Kouyate, also of the University of Conakry, was the main force in acquiring a government apartment as residence and maison de passage for Fulbrighters and other American researchers at Boulibinet on the tip of the penninsula. A total of eleven African colleagues (one from Gambia, five from Guinea, and five from Mali) were fully funded through the combined efforts of Dutch agencies and MANSA donors, with some extra help from the MANSA treasury. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy.
The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained.
Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt.
Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. In Erzerum, where winters were long and houses built of stone, felt and canvas treated with beeswax served as insulation under the roof. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. When an apprentice was ready to open his own shop, the masters were invited to a juried event, at which the apprentice demonstrated the making of a shepherd’s coat, prepared a meal for the judges, and gave a bar of olive oil soap to all in attendance. Today, in the wool bazaar of Konya, fleece is washed in vast pools of water, aided by a mechanized, rake-like fork that agitates the fibers, before they are rinsed and hung to dry.
Here it is turned and pounded for three hours, or “kicked” by the feltmakers, who rhythmically roll the felt forward with their right foot and backward with their left, hands on their knees for pressure.
This process continues for six hours, which causes shrinkage of forty percent and makes the felt impervious to moisture. Indoors, plain felt blankets made of white wool are spread over cushions for sitting on in winter, and felt mats are laid over both seats and beds. Participate in class lecture given by Wayne Thiebaud on a€?The Ear of Juan de Perojaa€? by Velasquez. Eventually discarded the arms as irrelevant to the vision - with the figures becoming more abstracted and toned down in color hues. There are treks across hills covered with wildflowers, sage and broken and ruined fragments from antiquity.
These paintings show collaged centers of paper and cardboard with large spatial areas of plain paper and canvas surrounding the centralized image.
Walk on the Namib desert - studying the stones and petrified sea shells of the desert - the heat is almost unbearable in the middle of the day - the light piercing - not unlike another planet walking the desert floor.
Walk streets with folio under arm - purchase small ink drawings of cranes - enjoy tea, viewing these old works - Tokyo busy outside. Dolores assists in the printing of these monotypes, with the generosity of the studio space.
Many Japanese friends visit the Lincoln Street House and studios, including Architect Yukio Hayashi, Nantenshi Gallery Staff member Chiaki Komuro and Journalist Mr.
Begin work on raku ceramic ware in Palo Alto with Gary Clarien at the Palo Alto Cultural Center. Participate in class lecture given by Wayne Thiebaud on a€?The Ear of Juan de Perojaa€? by Velasquez.A  Spend many afternoons laying down in wheat fields to pass the late day watching the great parade of the sky and coming night. Eventually discarded the arms as irrelevant to the vision - with the figures becoming more abstracted and toned down in color hues.A  Missing - T. There is something truly magnificent about seeing a work of art without a frame and out of the museum setting that it would most often be seen. Walk on the Namib desert - studying the stones and petrified sea shells of the desert - the heat is almost unbearable in the middle of the day - the light piercingA  - not unlike another planet walking the desert floor. There is a storm outside that has battered the island for the last week.A  This is a most peaceable place on the straw bed. Robert Launay suggested that the editor ought to have a respectable title to make it worth his while, and that is how Conrad became President of the fledgling organization. More recently, MANSA preparations for the Sixth International Conference on Mande Studies that will be partly held in Kankan have been greatly aided by the dynamic support of the Recteur of the University of Kankan, Seydouba Camara. Occupation of the INEP complex by foreign troops resulted in near total destruction of the facility, including its library, research equipment and archives containing fifeen years' of painstakingly compiled audio, visual, and printed research documentation (MANSA Newsletter 38, 1998: 1-6). Kaba suggested that another international conference on Mande studies would continue the trend of reclaiming African history for the continent (MANSA Newsletter 10, 1989: 3). Ambassador to Mali, David Rawson, who drew a warm response from the Malian delegation by including some remarks in Bamanankan. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.


He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on.
The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth.
In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes.
This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century.
The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period.
He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking. In Bursa, during the month of July, the snow sellers brought ice wrapped in felt to the cities on mules. The Surname (Book of Festivities) of Murad Ill, a manuscript of text and miniature paintings, commemorates the circumcision of Crown Prince Mehmet in Istanbul in 1582.
Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through.
While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets.
Colourfully embroidered felt saddle cloths are spread beneath horses saddles to soak up the sweat. Eliminate green from palette, as a mechanism against landscape as well as response to the influence of Byzantine Icons.
Immerse in Japanese culture, begin collecting and using oriental art brushes for paintings as well as amassing items for collage. Work in White Studio by candle light and moonlight as an attempt to translate the motions of paint & light or lack of light into the whiteness of the painting. The most difficult thing to do on any journey is to keep the vision Authentic and not lose it.
Early on, MANSA began receiving electronic bulletins from INEP Director Peter Mendy in Dakar via Cornelia Giesing who had taken refuge in Germany. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic.
Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer.
Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. They also transported ice in felt bags for the court kitchens, harem, and Grand Vizier in Istanbul. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic,mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. The imperial celebration lasted for fifty two days and nights and included a procession of the Istanbul guilds. Felt was once an indispensable part of daily life, also used to make saddle bags, shoes, headgear, mats, prayer rugs, and many other garments and household objects in various colors. Late evenings spent with the glow of raku kilns and a walk home in the dark with new raku vessels.
The bulletins periodically updated progress of the hostilities, cease-fires and negotiations.
Chaired by David Dalby, the official conference program lists 240 participants, ninety-four of which presented papers. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts.
Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. Evliya also describes the clothing of the men making canons in the arsenal, who wore felt clothing to save their bodies from the “blazes of hell.”hakan hacibekiroglu,Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers.
The manuscript states, ”The felt makers were dressed in bizarre and fearsome costumes with robes and turbans made (made both inside and out) of colored felt.
In the eastern province of Agri you can still see men wearing the traditional kullik, a conical brown or white felt cap made from lamb’s wool. Suffice it to say, too many works of the immense amount that were created were either destroyed sadly to say, many more repainted in need for new canvases and paper, lost, loaned out or simply went missing. That meeting included nearly every notable scholar in Mande studies at that time, along with many others who would later make significant contributions to the field. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks.
Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. Tour through a€?Gold Rusha€? country of Sierra Nevada in red Carmen Gia convertible with K.
Fortunately many remain and here are some visual records of those works that are gone, some shown here for the first time.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography.
The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities.
At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu.
Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul.
They also pulled behind them a figure of a lion fashioned of felt.”Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through.In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz.
It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul?
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Upon completion, the pre-felt patterns are firmly felted to the fleece of the background.Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling.
Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues.
While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets.“The last remaining felt makers are to be found in such Turkish provinces as Afyon, Sanliurfa, Konya, Balikesir, Izmir, Kars and Erzurum.
By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art. There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”. The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces .
Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.
In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free.
In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3. MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe. The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important.
Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu).
The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any).
Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



Life coach california certification
The secret of nimh part 1 xbox


Comments The secret book meaning

  1. 3apa
    Week trial involving fifty-4 adults with continual turns into.
  2. SamiR
    The ideal way to convene and engage each day.
  3. QARTAL_SAHIN
    Donations members provide at the training together as a gaggle and the individual's.
  4. midi
    Religious fellowship over ample meditation: The follow.