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03.06.2015
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school.
The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842.
In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. January 8, 2013 by gCaptain Oasis of The Seas, the first ship in the Oasis-class, under construction at STX Finland in Turku. The Finnish Government has asked the European Commission to look into French state subsidies given to STX France that may have helped the yard win a billion dollar cruise ship order from Royal Caribbean, according to a report by the AFP.
Media reports have indicated that the STX Finland lost the deal, estimated to be about $1.33 billion, to its French rival after financial support from the Finnish government had fallen through.
While the Finnish government does not suspect any foul play from France, the inquiry with the European Commission is just to make sure all rules were followed. About gCaptaingCaptain is the top-visited maritime and offshore industry news site in the world.
We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. In the depths of winter, daylight on or above the Arctic Circle is a precious commodity to be savoured in all its muted glory.
Happily for the ambitious traveller – as well as the tourist industry in northern Scandinavia – reaching Lapland is now a piece of Christmas cake, so long as you choose the Finnish tranche of this mystical terrain.
Norway, Sweden and Russia also claim a swath of Lapland – the preserve of a culture, belonging to the Sami people, that defies national frontiers. A few flights even stray a degree or two closer to the North Pole, to the Arctic playground of Levi, reached via Kittila: if you want a Finnish family snow patrol, this is the place to book your trip. Many day-trippers are whisked from the plane to a strange-looking hill five minutes away where, evidently, some pretty powerful magic has been at work.
From late November to mid-January, the bunker is transformed into Santa Park, which children will interpret as Christmas Central thanks to the dazzle of entertainments, festive restaurants and even a classroom for would-be elves.
Visitors are funnelled in to Santa Park – and, if you continue far enough in the same direction, you find yourself back in the great outdoors, where suitably wintry activities are on offer, from snowmobile rides to sledges drawn by huskies or reindeer. Arcticians who want proof of their achievement in getting 66-plus degrees north should head for the nearby Santa Claus Village. Intellectual curiosity satisfied, the traveller's next requirement is to sustain the body as well as the soul. As you nibble on carpaccio of Rudolph, be aware that Finnish Lapland revolves around the centre of this modest metropolis. Rovaniemi has something of the feel of a frontier town, which is curious in a region where national borders are meaningless (except in the case of Russia, where the Iron Curtain lives on).
Beyond it lies a land of legends, of incredible human endurance and a sense of space unknown elsewhere in the EU.
There lives only 2,1 people per square kilometer in Lapland, so there are plenty of space for everyone to see and feel the magic of the Nature in Lapland.
For example midnight sun, northern lights, reindeers and hundreds of lakes are something that gives Lapland a unique nature. Some of best ways to experience the nature of Lapland are hiking, trekking, downhill skiing or snowboarding and cross-country skiing. In Lapland and Finland in general it’s possible to camp freely in the woods and in the mountains. Two well-known trademarks of Finland and especially Lapland are numerous lakes and reindeers.
Actually in Finland there are almost 200 000 lakes which are larger than 5 hectares and just over 300 lakes with an area more than 10 square kilometers. One of the best ways to see the nature of Lapland is no doubt an exciting reindeer or husky safari.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China.
Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. As a result, STX Finland is at risk of cutting hundreds of jobs from its 2,200-strong workforce, which would be a huge blow to Finland’s already fragile economy.


The sky lightens for a few hours in the middle of the day, acquiring a silvery tinge before dwindling to gunmetal grey and finally surrendering to the greedy polar night.
Every December, thousands of youngsters – often financed and accompanied by generous grandparents – depart from their local airport for a lightning trip. Rovaniemi may have cornered the Santa Claus market by dint of some fancy footwork by the marketing elves, but the show the town puts on never misses a step. Critics may describe it as little more than a Santastic strip mall beside the highway, but if you want your Christmas card stamped and sorted by Santa's little helpers, the post office here will oblige – and, look, there is a line that declares itself to be the Arctic Circle. Like practically every other settlement in northern Finland, it was devastated in the closing stages of the Second World War during the German retreat, but has come back to life as an engaging destination, largely because of the miraculous Arktikum Museum. Whisper it quietly, but some of the reindeer who are surplus to Santa's requirements find themselves on the menu of restaurants in Rovaniemi. And note that it has the greatest claim to fame in the North: this is the home of none other than Lordi, the heavy-metal band who monstered their way to victory in the last reliably judged Eurovision Song Contest.
Even in Rovaniemi, on the cusp of the Arctic Circle, you should remind yourself that for every 10,000 citizens of Europe south of here, only one is north. The low-season rate (until the end of November) is €53 for a double or triple; breakfast, taken at the Hotel Santa Claus, is an extra €11 per person. The author even offers 27 Sami terms for "reindeer", or at least reindeer-related activities. If you are coming from Asia, Africa, America, or some other place far away you will most likely change the plane at the capital city of Finland, Helsinki.
Ruska is a Finnish word and in English the best description for the phenomenon is probably Autumn leaf colors. Don’t leave any garbage behind and when you leave the camp site make sure it looks as good as (if not even better) when you arrived there.
Finland is often called the Land of the Thousand Lakes, and there is a good reason for that. Or you could always grab your backpack and experience the nature by trekking around Lapland. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. In Finnish Lapland, as the frozen sky melts into the horizon, you realise this is part of the appeal of midwinter at 66 degrees north.North. The only Scandinavian nation in the eurozone can also profess to have the polar bear's share of the Lapland market, with charter flights from airports across the UK non-stop to Rovaniemi, the capital of Finnish Lapland and de facto seat of Santa Claus. Because after a bitter 20th century in which the nation was ravaged by war – and Finnish Lapland was devastated by Nazi Germany's scorched-earth policy – national civil-defence law demands that towns and cities have a robust bomb shelter.
Half a hillside (those elves have been busy) has been taken apart to accommodate a spectacular sequence of galleries that tell the story of Lapland with eloquence and energy. The main square has been named after these friendly ogres, and at least one bar has capitalised on the only Scandinavian musicians to take Europe by storm since Abba.
Finland is also part of the Scandinavian countries, along with Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland.
One of the best ways to relax is of course in the nature and in Lapland it’s easily possible.
Everyman’s Rights allow you to freely pick up for example mushrooms, blueberries and lingonberries. Indeed there are thousands of beautiful lakes in Finland and you can see a lot of these lakes also in Lapland.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Of all the compass points, "N" is simultaneously the most forbidding and the most engrossing. But permit a Scrooge-like interjection: because of the onerous check-in requirements, combined with a flying time of at least three hours and a two-hour time difference, families often face a wickedly early start coupled with a late return.
Enjoy the nature of Lapland with Everyman’s rights but also respect the rules and the nature. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. Previous generations of children have regarded Lapland as territory that is simply off the map. Leaving home at 3am may not be too painful, given the rewards that await, but returning at midnight may see red eyes replacing happy memories of red-nosed reindeer as exhaustion erases enjoyment.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. Home to elves rather than dragons, the swath of tundra and taiga, lakes and marshes that stretches across Scandinavia from Norway's Lofoten Islands to Russia's Kola Peninsula seemed unimaginably distant, unattainable except in Yuletide dreams. If you can allow three or four days, the gain:pain ratio dramatically improves in your favour.


The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten.
Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.




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