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Neurons can be cultured in one compartment of a microfluidic chamber (right side) and extend their axons through very small grooves into a separate compartment (left side). As the human body fine-tunes its neurological wiring, nerve cells often must fix a faulty connection by amputating an axona€”the "business end" of the neuron that sends electrical impulses to tissues or other neurons.
Researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have uncovered some surprising insights about the process of axon amputation, or "pruning," in a study published May 21 in the journal Nature Communications. The research team placed mouse neurons in special devices called microfluidic chambers that allowed the researchers to independently manipulate the environments surrounding the axon and cell body to induce axon pruning or apoptosis. They found that although the nerve cell uses the same poisona€”a group of molecules known as Caspasesa€”whether it intends to kill the whole cell or just the axon, it deploys the Caspases in a different way depending on the context. In addition, the team discovered that neurons employ other molecules as safety brakes to keep the "kill" signal contained to the axon alone. Deshmukh said the findings offer a glimpse into how nerve cells reconfigure themselves during development and beyond. A molecule responsible for the proper formation of a key portion of the nervous system finds its way to the proper place not because it is actively recruited, but instead because it can't go anywhere else. A study in The Journal of Cell Biology shows how a transcription factor called STAT3 remains in the axon of nerve cells to help prevent neurodegeneration.
Individual small RNAs are responsible for controlling the expression of gonadoliberin or GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone), a neurohormone that controls sexual maturation, the appearance of puberty, and fertility in adults. One of the fundamental questions in neuroscience is how neuronal circuits are wired to process information. For researchers in the fields of robotics and prosthetics, replicating the subtle combination of mechanisms underlying our movements is both an exciting and difficult challenge. When someone stands opposite us and purposefully raises their arm to make some kind of movement, our brain asks itself whether they intend to attack us or, perhaps, simply greet us. Notice: Our server is up to date to guarantee safety from recently discovered SSL vulnerabilities.
The sexy Agent Steel is sent to an apartment to steal top secret info for MI6A’s secret organization, Shield. It is a dance with death, however, because the molecular poison the neuron deploys to sever an axon could, if uncontained, kill the entire cell.
Axon pruning has mystified scientists curious to know how a neuron can unleash a self -destruct mechanism within its axon, but keep it from spreading to the rest of the cell. Another important process, apoptosisa€”the purposeful death of an entire cella€”is also crucial because it allows the body to cull broken or incorrectly placed neurons. In the case of axon pruning, Apaf-1 was simply not involved, despite the presence of Caspases. Enhancing our understanding of these basic processes could help illuminate what has gone wrong in the case of some neurological disorders. You can purchase as a guest, and your download codes will be emailed to you immediately once your purchase is approved! At a time when British boffins were frantically trying to develop Radar, Sonar, long-range weapons, defence systems and wireless communication, the government shunned him. Cusack and colleagues were able to separate and study the distinct pathways that mediate whole-cell degeneration versus axon-specific degeneration in neurons. The researchers' findings could offer clues about the processes underlying some neurological disorders. Internet Explorer 6 users will no longer be able to log into their accounts or make online purchases because IE6 does not support modern encryption. DO NOT surf away from the confirmation page until you are returned to the store site and the notice displays that your access codes have been emailed to you! Steel is attacked by a female Russian Spy, but it turns out that Agent Steel is secretly the Super agent known as Ultra Woman. He wouldn't have been nasty about it -- in the often contentious world of analytics blogging, he was respected by his colleagues for not being mean or vitriolic -- but he would have been frustrated by the attempt to smooth 28 years of raw human data into a readable history about a pioneering analytics blogger and beloved brother and son.
His death, from a heart attack, in 1941 was to rob the Allies of his amazing inventions that could have shortened the war. Windows XP users will not be able to access their accounts or make online purchases on our site beginning December due to required updates to our SSL certificate.
Can she overcome her Russian adversary though, or will her secret life result in a secret death and the disappearance of yet another Shield agent?

Purdy once told a friend that "the narrative rarely tells the story," and it was that core belief -- that facts are stubborn, that narrative is often a clumsy attempt to smooth the rough brambles -- that underscored his work.Yet 2013-14 was the most important year yet in the brief history of hockey analytics, and that's a narrative Purdy had a hand in creating. Using disclosed files marked 'secret' held at the National Archives in London, newly discovered documents and personal recollections from those who knew him, 'The Death Ray - The Secret life of Harry Grindell Matthews' is a gripping account of one of the greatest, visionary, inventors of the twentieth century. That season, many analytics proponents united behind a controversial prediction: The Toronto Maple Leafs, despite an early hot streak, had terrible puck possession metrics and were headed for certain collapse.
Tensions between the small but vocal analytics community, long ignored by much of the hockey world, and the traditionalists -- GMs, players, coaches, old-school reporters -- were forced into the open. They finished the 2013-14 season with a 2-12 streak that was widely read as a triumph of the nerds. What happened next became known as the "summer of fancy stats." Years after MLB and NBA teams began hiring analytics writers for front-office roles, NHL teams started scooping up some of the same bloggers and analysts who'd criticized their decision-making. Less than a year after Nonis' dismissive comments, the Leafs hired three statistical analysts. All of a sudden, the stat guys were being taken seriously.It should have been a moment for unequivocal celebration.
But just as the summer of fancy stats was getting underway, the community took a massive blow: Tore Purdy, one of the most important pioneers of hockey analytics, a guy who should have had his pick of NHL jobs, died at 28. For the analytics writers who considered Purdy a pioneer of the field, the news made their triumph bittersweet. Until the summer of fancy stats, many writers who had talked regularly for years didn't know anything about one another outside their work. JLikens first came onto the blogging scene in 2008, launching Objective NHL with an article that briefly and elegantly disproved the commonly cited correlation between NHL goalies' save percentages and shots against.
I'll say no more."From there, he quickly built a body of work that blazed a trail for the practitioners of advanced stats who came after him. If there's a Mount Rushmore of hockey analytics, he'd be on it for sure," Yost says.JLikens' grasp on mathematical modeling was strong, which enabled him to tackle the big questions -- questions that would seem merely rhetorical to the average right-brained reader, like "how often does the best team win?" He would pose a question that seemed unanswerable and then meticulously set about deriving a formula, running the numbers and coming up with the charts and tables he needed to prove it.
He came at it from a harder math angle, trying to prove some of the stuff."A single JLikens article could articulate a subject-level mastery many people would struggle to convey over the course of their lifetime, and his blog felt like essential reading to anyone interested in advanced metrics. His breakthroughs helped spearhead the idea of studying statistics in games when the score was close, because leading teams tend to play more passively.
He also advanced the idea of scorekeepers' home-rink bias and showed how significantly a team's stats can change depending on whether it's chasing or protecting a late lead."He basically verified everything we were doing in a rigorous statistical manner, in a way that made you comfortable with the results," says Benjamin Wendorf, a writer for The Hockey News. Concepts that hockey analysts now use regularly -- puck possession and how it's measured, shooting percentage regressions, shot quality -- "are only spoken about so confidently because a lot of his work has held up."Most of JLikens' commenters were enthusiastic about his work, but when someone was uncivil, he wouldn't take the bait. Instead, he'd patiently dismantle the other guy's argument, burying him under an avalanche of facts.
He'd never get distracted with what someone else was doing wrong." The passion in JLikens' work came through in its complexity, in the hours he'd clearly spent painstakingly running models and putting his posts together.
He'd say there were too many missing facts about what happened in his life that made him conclude he couldn't go on. He'd resist the idea that his story could be reduced to the tragedy of a young genius who could see so much possibility in the work he created, but not in his own life.Little is known about his death. His parents say they don't know why he took his life, and they don't want to speculate publicly about the private details of a personal matter.
20, 1985, in Edmonton, Alberta, a twin who from an early age proved to be a highly unusual little boy. As a child he became obsessed with time, asking his parents for an analog clock for Christmas and wearing an armful of wristwatches around the house.
At 3, his mother, Joyce, remembers that he would call out the makes and models of passing cars as she pointed them out.
Where first it was time, cars, and country capitals, as a young adult Purdy became obsessed with psychology, genealogy, genetics and Ukrainian history."When he did things with numbers, that was cute.
That remarkable ability to recall detail usually goes away in adults, but in Tore, something like it persisted into adulthood.
The father and son were Canadiens fans, and every year they'd attend Oilers-Canadiens games together.
Up until Purdy's death, Ray says, "he could tell you who scored all the goals in the games when he was 8 years old. It was just unbelievable."In school, he excelled in the subjects that interested him, but wasn't the type of student to get hung up on acing every test.

He studied history in college and took statistics and calculus because they were easy for him, but he ultimately decided to skip past graduation and go straight to law school.
I don't know too many people like that it."Purdy's unusual gifts didn't make him antisocial. He had light blue eyes and "this crooked mischievous smile," says one of his childhood friends, Matthew Whitman, like he knew a secret and was waiting for everyone else to catch on. He always looked much younger than he was, but he had a deep voice that belied both his age and his wry sense of humor -- he'd borrow a friend's credit card for lunch, then much later casually rattle off the number to him to let his buddy know he hadn't forgotten it. But he was also intensely loyal, the kind of friend who would pick you up for high school every day and come over after to apologize if one day he wasn't able to make it.He was crazy about playing sports, too, and would spend his summers organizing games among the neighborhood kids. There was a rink near the family home that a neighbor would flood in the winter, and in November Tore could frequently be seen going to check whether it was frozen yet. Sometimes his mother would take the dog out and see her son alone on the ice, with his goalie net and hockey jersey on, skating around in minus-25-degree weather. Our house was full of sticks, gloves and pads that were threadbare and well-worn in the service of Tore's relentless pursuit of the perfect pass, shot, play.
He practiced endlessly in the street, in the rink, in the basement."After he passed away, when Purdy's father went to clean out his car, he found a monument to his son's sports obsession. Joyce remembers one year, when the family was at its vacation home in Phoenix for Christmas, Purdy spent considerable time at the dining room table, plugging away on his laptop. Ordinarily, he was the first one ready whenever someone wanted to play tennis or go for a walk, but this year he was too busy to play. A few months later, Joyce read what he'd been writing on his blog and thought, "That is what he was doing at the dining room table?
He didn't talk about it very much.""He'd never brag about anything," his friend Mark Graham says. After graduating, Purdy joined the law firm where his father was a partner and quickly established himself as a research expert. Toward the end of his life, he was considering whether he might leave his legal career and pursue a job in statistics. Others grew tired of the nastiness that is an inevitable side effect of writing on the Internet.
A lucky few would get hired by NHL teams -- until last summer, teams generally didn't make announcements about hiring analysts.
We all have day jobs," Vollman thought.In May, roughly a dozen analytics enthusiasts gathered in a glass-and-brick start-up space in Edmonton for the inaugural Alberta Analytics Conference. The conference was intended to celebrate the writers' recent successes, but it was also a chance for like-minded people who knew each other only online to meet face-to-face. There were sessions on the application of analytics to fantasy sports and broadcast media, and presentations of original work of analysts tracking different teams. And then there was a terrible announcement from one attendee, the only person who had known JLikens offline.
A 28-year-old kid with all this brilliance -- gone."Vollman took to Twitter to break the news, and soon tributes to JLikens flooded in. Enough that I was genuinely excited when he once showed up to comment that he liked something I wrote. Just after his fellow writers found out who he had been offline, their posts about him let his family know just how influential he had been.
It was just kind of a gift at the end of May to read all that."It was "wild but not surprising," his dad says. Just because of the way he lived."And although they never got to meet him, the group that organized the May analytics conference was still determined to pay tribute to his impact.
When the conference met for a second time last fall, it was under a new name: Objective NHL Alberta.

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