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DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners.
In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St.
As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date.
On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome.
Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object.
After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history.
There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals.
Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus).
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig.
5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities. Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north.
They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ.
The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743.
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts. A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms.
Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot.
Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser.
Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome.
Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research.
In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors.
More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
48: a€?Whoever receives this child in my name receives me, and whoever receives me receives him who sent me. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words.
Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner.
Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents.
These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features.
Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M.
Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward.
Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.


A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury.
In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ.
The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated.
But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals.
Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims. Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. 689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol.
I had this wonderful sermon today on resurrection but I am changing it due to something in this morninga€™s paper.
The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. Our daughter who is also in the Army was in special training for 3 A? months and Oma and I took care of Alan at our home. At the local daycare, Alan met his friend Noah and they played together for the duration of this time.
Donations can be sent to any PNC bank location in Pennsylvania directed to the Noah Staley Trust Fund.
This cancer is so rare that only about 100 people in the US have ever been diagnosed with this. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious. I am asking all of my readers, please pray to our Lord for his healing, that his parents get the much needed monies, and that everyonea€™s faith shall increase as they see the Glory of God do a miracle. The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known.
But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself.
For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare.
He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist.
Help me boldly claim my full capacity for your use.a€? ------------- Donna Givlera€”quoting Katie Brazelton of Saddleback Church in her devotional book titled a€?Praying for Purpose, for Womena€?.
Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. Everyone who lives in me and believes in me will never die.a€?1 Corinthians Chapter 15, vs. 42: Our earthly bodies are planted in the ground when we die, but they will be raised to live forever. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits.
27: For you will not leave my soul among the dead or allow your Holy one to rot in the grave. 2: The leaders were very disturbed that Peter and John were teaching the people that through Jesus there was a resurrection of the dead.
11: I want to suffer with him, sharing in his death, so that one way or the other I will experience the resurrection from the dead. It proved that he was God and that He had power even over His own death and Satana€™s dominion.
The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs. The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer.
Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip. God can resurrect our lives, our dreams, and our visions if we ask him to or if it is His will for us.
They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture. If we have a dream or vision and we lose sight of it we can gain our sight back if we ask Him in prayer. It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. She continued her life style and left her son with babysitters while she partied and enjoyed life (she thought). One day, depressed of how her life was going, she drove past our church and stopped in on a whim. The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care. Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior. We sponsored her that Christmas and had much joy running around buying her son Jared presents.
Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood. Over the next two years we connected a couple more times and gave her encouragement when we seen her. Last year we gave her a gift card for a restaurant so that she and Jared could have a nice meal out together. They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too. The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said. The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments. She now has a good full time job with benefits, her son is doing fantastic in school, and she is looking exceptionally healthy and emotionally stable now. They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care. For she took the courage in her slow death of life and laid all her hope at the foot of the cross.
In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states.
The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals.
The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death. Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations. My wife and I thank God that he let us participate, even if it was very little, in her re-birth. The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents. They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments.
They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service. Shortly after the dream, we were visiting YWAM in Lebanon and they were showing us their prayer tent that they use in Lancaster and Cape Cod. It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA. Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence. This was with the hope that someone would step up to the plate and donate a space to erect it.
ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects. ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques. The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate. In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command.
A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE? However, recently the pastors of the Gathering Place (a project to help people with Aids) asked us to help bring CAP some clothes this winter. Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior. 159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions.
Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself.
Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques. Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution? Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results. These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations. Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. Just open your mouth and ask.a€?A a€?Even though your promise may be postdated, remember whose signature is on the checka€? Pastor Pop-Pop 11-8--09. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States).
What started out as something to just help pastor my children, has turned into something that may be helping lots of people.
According to Yahoo my host, I have an average of 50 hits a week on the Pastor Pop Pop site. Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage.
Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit. The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v. 135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service. Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v. 388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy.
This weekend at a prayer tent at a local flea market, I seen a leg grow that was shorter than the other one.
Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim.
Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B.
Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare.
He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects.
Every week from now on there will be two tabs to the right of the Home Page that will be new.
According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident. Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD.
December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out. We will address both today and you may click on the Tab in future weeks to experience the Altar Call again. So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. 669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland. A Christian artist once said that when she was in another country and away from her Church, she would sit and pray alone and have communion by herself to remind her of her faith.
2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program.
That inspired my wife and me to do it occasionally by ourselves and with some of our Amish friends. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. It can be about your body, mind, soul, family, friends, healing needed, finances, challenges, or anything that you wish. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats.
Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn.
In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin.


They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded. Turn away from your former self, study in the Word (the Bible) and find yourself a good Christian Church that will support you and help you grow in your faith. 28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs. The Son being Jesus Christ who died on the cross at Calvary and shed his blood for our sins. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make?
Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation. Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents. I believe that since I now accept Him as my Lord and Savior that I have been washed clean of my sins and guilt by his blood. I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance.
A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others. Jesus, I love you.a€? A If you prayed this simple prayer, you are saved and re-born in Him. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy. Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy.
Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser. You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him.
Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing.
This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed.
And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source. We are going to drown!a€? He replied, a€?You of little faith, why are you afraid?a€? Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S.
Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US. The eyes of the Lord are upon those who love him; he is their mighty shield and strong support, a shelter from the heat, a shade from the noonday sun, a guard against stumbling, a help against falling.
That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions. But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S.
While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view.
For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's.
Although I own and study from many various different Bible translations, I personally normally use the NAB version. Occasionally I like to read some of the a€?missing books of the Biblea€? sometimes called the Apocrypha. They include the books of the books of Baruch, Judith, both Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and the book of Wisdom. According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs. If youa€™re Amish (I do have some Amish readers), you may find these books in an earlier version of the King James printing.
Any way, I was reading the book of Sirach and through some of the verses it was put on my heart that I treated this person somewhat wrongly and it could have been done through ambition or pride of mine. I immediately broke down and confessed this sin to Jesus and asked for Goda€™s forgiveness.
Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim. However, I will declare that the Lord has closed a door but he will surely open a new and better one. I choose to believe this truth and not the news media and evil spirits who would much rather us to believe that this bad economy, unemployment, and world affairs will defeat us. So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday. So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday. The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible. He was led by the Spirit in the wilderness, where he was tempted by the devil for forty days. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions. Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition. The Scriptures say, a€?People do not live by bread alone.a€™a€? Then the devil took him up and revealed to him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat. A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group.
Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage. 12: For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places. When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together.
It is good for us to know the Scriptures and write some down to pray and declare a€?in Jesusa€™ namea€™ when we are being attacked. When you are in the battles of life, say a verse or two out loud and declare it over your life in Jesusa€™ name. Tell Satan to, a€?Get out of my life, body, mind, and soul and leave me alone in Jesusa€™ namea€? And use the arrows against him.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations.
This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him.
Have mercy on me and hear my prayer.Go away, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard my weeping.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs. The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs.
Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy.
He rescued me from my powerful enemies, from those who hated me and were too strong for me. Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR.
I will thank the Lord because he is just; I will sing praise to the name of the Lord Most High. My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you.
My enemies retreated; they staggered and died when you appeared.Turn and answer me, O Lord my God! Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage. Dona€™t let my enemies gloat, saying, a€?We have defeated him!a€? Dona€™t let them rejoice at my downfall.Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will not be afraid, for you are close beside me. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war.
We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals?
I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. Protect my life from my enemiesa€™ threats.But God himself will shoot them with his arrows, suddenly striking them down. Pray and think on this thing called freedom, which we take for granted but is being eroded away.
37-40: Then He said to him (a Pharisee), a€?Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians.
By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj. The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just.
21: The one who pursues righteousness and faithful love will find life righteousness, and faithful love. Many relatives were coming to our home to partake in the golden turkey and all the other foods and treats my wife prepared.
Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop. So I will not be spending Thanksgiving having dinner around a table with my family like you are going to.
If people like you would not patronize this store on holidays and make sure that you have all your stuff the day before, it would be unlikely that they would stay open. It also made me think about all the other stores that are open on these days and the countless others that have to work those days and cannot have an enjoyable time like some of the rest of us.
Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. And dona€™t forget to thank them for being there if you just cannot bear not to go to the store for that a€?emergencya€? item.
And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem. 37-38: On the last day, the climax of the festival, Jesus stood and shouted to the crowds, a€?Anyone who is thirsty may come to me! For the Scriptures declare, a€?Rivers of living water will flow from his hearta€™.a€?Matthew Chapter 11, vs. Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way. On one day before his memorial service when we were all there at his home, his daughter went out in the backyard by her self.
She was walking around in the back yard and my other brother and I decided to go out and comfort her. She said that she looked up in the sky (it was blue and full of clouds that day) and, a€?I saw a very large white hand that seemed to reach down to mea€?. She stated that she felt it was her daddya€™s hand and because of this she felt better knowing that he was still watching over her.
We may go through many troubles and trials in our lives but God will always be with us and never forsake us. 12-13: If a man has a hundred sheep and one of them goes astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine in the hills and go and search of the stray? And if he finds it, amen, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that did not stray. After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings and set off to a distant country where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation.
When he had freely spent everything, a severe famine struck that country, and he found himself in dire need.
So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens who sent him to his farm to tend the swine. Coming to his senses he thought, a€?How many of my fathera€™s hired workers have more than enough food to eat, but here am I, dying from hunger. I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him, a€?Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. While he was a long way off, his father caught sight of him and was filled with compassion. Loads of cars and cameras were set up by the Audubon society to just catch a glimpse of it. You may have had parents or grandparents that were religious and went to church and prayed. Perhaps you have done something you consider really bad and believe God just doesna€™t love you anymore. Through his Son, if you confess your sins and ask for his forgiveness, you will be washed clean again.
One that will help you feel better, enriches your soul, shower you with His Word, and nurture your faith so it grows in the path of Christ.
I wish to thank all my readers for visiting my web site this year and I hope that it helped in some way. She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel (which means a€?God is with usa€™).Micah Chapter 5, vs. 2: But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village among all the people of Judah . God sent him to buy freedom for us who were slaves to the law, so that he could adopt us as his very own children.John Chapter 20, vs. 30-31: The disciples saw Jesus do many other miraculous signs in addition to the ones recorded in this book.
But these are written so that you may continue to believe that Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing in him you will have life by the power of his name.Luke Chapter 2, vs. 9-12: Suddenly, an angel of the Lord appeared among them, and the radiance of the Lorda€™s glory surrounded them. The Savior a€“ yes, the Messiah, the Lord a€“ has been born today in Bethlehem, the city of David!
The names have been changed and the name of their Church deleted to help keep their identities secret. It was at this Church that we also got baptized together and rededicated our lives to Christ. I desire a man after your own heart and if that is not Mark then remove him.a€? I also said, a€?But Lord, divorce is not your desire, I believe in you. Mark has too much pride to come down to the altar, but I know if you can make a Donkey talk, you can call him out!a€? (Read Numbers Chapter 22, vs. God has something to say.a€? Now the Pastor did not know Mark and did not know what I had prayed before we came here, only God knew. I now read the Bible to them every day, monitor their TV, take them to Church, and lay hands on them and speak blessings into their lives.



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