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03.08.2014
It's entirely unclear what that means, but his friends gave him the option of getting a Barbie tattooed on his butt or his fast food purchase on his arm.
The tattoo parlor also offered to ink the receipt they gave Ytterdahl for the first tattoo on his left arm for free, and he's agreed, according to the Irish Mirror. Human billboard Billy Gibby is feeling a bit of buyer's remorse after selling out his face for some permanent advertisements. Stian Ytterdahl of Lorenskog, said that his friends wanted to punish him for being "too active with the ladies," according to Scallywag and Vagabond's translation of Romereskes Blad. Gibby, also known as Hostgator Dotcom (yes, he was paid to legally change his name) sold skin space for as much as $1,000 and as little as $75. Most people see nicotine as a vile, fiercely addictive substance that takes a large share of the blame for the multitude of deaths occurring around the world as a result of smoking.But there’s another side to the story.
Now, Gibby is trying to sell ad space on his body to raise the $4,000 needed to remove the ones on his face.
As well as having medicinal benefits, nicotine has untapped potential as a cognitive enhancer, boosting attention, working memory and more.
It doesn’t.The reason for opening with this is because it’s a persistent myth and it offers a hint as to why there’s so much misunderstanding about the risks of nicotine. The simple answer is that it hangs out with a bad crowd.It’s obviously undeniable that smoking tobacco is a significant cause of cancer and a cacophony of negative health effects. It’s one of many “alkaloids” found in tobacco, and adding these to nicotine enhances its addictive properties.
In the same way, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and acetaldehyde found in cigarette smoke have the same effect.
Nicotine is addictive, but – as strange as this may sound – it isn’t as addictive as smoking.The FDA agrees, and may be changing nicotine patch and gum labels as a result. In their words:“Although any nicotine-containing product is potentially addictive, decades of research and use have shown that [nicotine replacement therapy] products sold [over the counter] do not appear to have significant potential for abuse or dependence.”The Medicinal Uses of NicotineSo maybe nicotine isn’t going to give you cancer – and probably carries similarly minimal risks to caffeine when separated from smoke – but that doesn’t mean it’s actually good, does it? Well, there are actually many conditions that could be helped by nicotine, including ulcerative colitis, depression, schizophrenia, ADHD, pain, mild cognitive impairment, Tourette’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.The list of conditions possibly helped by nicotine may be surprising, but they’re ultimately a result of its effects in the brain.
The best example is the use of nicotine in Parkinson’s disease, which was the first time a potential medical benefit of nicotine was uncovered. Nicotine also increases dopamine, however, and as well as reducing symptoms in Parkinson’s patients and slowing the progression of the disease, it can even decrease one of the more serious side effects of levodopa itself.Schizophrenia is another key condition to consider, because about 90 percent of people with schizophrenia smoke.
There is debate about the reasons for this, but the idea that they are self-medicating with nicotine is a well-supported one.
Smoking reduces the negative symptoms of schizophrenia – such as apathy and lack of motivation, which may be related to deficits in the dopamine system – and could counteract some of the cognitive symptoms of the condition too.


These cognitive effects, while very valuable for schizophrenic smokers, may even extend to people not suffering from a condition.Can Nicotine Improve Cognition?For healthy adults, potentially the most promising use of nicotine is to improve mental functioning. The reasons behind this are closely tied to the reason nicotine appears to be useful for Alzheimer’s sufferers: the nicotinic system (specifically the acetylcholine receptors that nicotine acts on in the brain) is crucial for maintaining performance on a variety of tasks.
Alzheimer’s sufferers have fewer of these receptors, and treatment with nicotine can minimize the effect of this deficit.For healthy adults, however, the effect still exists. Warburton entitled “Nicotine as a Cognitive Enhancer” looks at the evidence on the effects of nicotine on attention and memory, suggesting that nicotine helps with various tasks requiring attention. The benefits to memory are often linked to improvements in attention (if you pay attention to something more effectively, then you’re more likely to remember it), but there are also some suggestions of improvements in memory unrelated to attention.One example study looking at the effects of nicotine on attention involved showing people the names of colors, but with text itself in a different color. So, for example, the word “yellow” would be shown but the text would be red, and the word “green” would be shown but the text would be blue.
The task is to name the color of the text rather than the color represented by the word itself, and – as you’ll be aware if you’ve ever tried it – this can be quite challenging. If you do the same task where the words aren’t related to color, people are much more efficient at answering with the color of the text itself.The difference between completion times when color words are used to the completion times when non-color terms are used is called the “Stroop effect” (named after the task’s creator), and measures the ability to pay selective attention to the important information (the color of the text) and ignore irrelevant information (the word itself).
When people were given either 1 mg or 2 mg of nicotine in the form of a tablet, the size of the Stroop effect reduced in both smokers deprived of a cigarette and non-smokers, suggesting improvements in selective attention.Another example study looked at the ability to sustain attention, by asking participants to watch the minute hand of a clock and detect brief periods where its movement paused. The usual response is accuracy at the beginning, but a slow decrease as the task continues and attention wanes. Being in nicotine withdrawal actually decreases the ability to pay attention and other cognitive ability, and smoking (or consuming nicotine) simply reverses these deficits. The authors of a more recent study correctly point out that to be able to say nicotine enhances these abilities, the same effects would have to be observed in non-smokers or smokers not deprived of nicotine.To test this, they submitted smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers to three cognitive tests, either with nicotine gum or while chewing a similar-tasting placebo gum.
On two out of three tests, nicotine didn’t help performance (and smokers were actually worse on working memory), but on a task measuring focused attention and the ability to visually scan information, it led to improvements in all groups of participants. The authors also point out that smokers don’t become “tolerant” to this improvement, since they benefited as much as the non-smokers did.Other studies have also added evidence that the benefits of nicotine still exist for non-smokers. The benefits are greater for smokers, though, with improvements in working memory added to those for paying attention and visually searching for information.Overall, the evidence suggests that nicotine does lead to some improvements in non-smokers, and although it’s clear that smokers (and groups with attention deficits, like schizophrenics) do benefit more from it, nicotine itself does have an effect on mental functioning, particularly when it comes to paying attention.How Vaping Could Unlock the Benefits of NicotineSo what does this all mean for smokers and vapers?
A recent report from Public Health England estimated that e-cigarettes are 95 percent safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes, and although this means there is still some risk (meaning they aren’t completely safe), the difference in risk is quite substantial. In short, if you’re a smoker, switching to vaping is definitely a good idea, but if you’re a non-smoker it isn’t.The key point is that in this considerably safer form, smokers can continue to use nicotine for its attention-boosting properties while not exposing themselves to huge health risks.
You could stick a patch on your arm and wait a few hours, or you can just vape while you work.The real dilemma comes in the form of non-smokers interested in enjoying the benefits of nicotine without the risks of smoking.
The answer is one only the individual can answer for her or himself, but the similarities between nicotine and caffeine would suggest that perhaps the knee-jerk “no way!” response is more like a hangover from our awkward habit of associating nicotine with smoking than a well-considered answer.On balance, becoming addicted to nicotine will also have some negative impacts on your mental functioning, so it’s still not advisable for the non-smoker, before you even consider the uncertainties surrounding the long-term risks of vaping.


It’s better than starting to smoke, but still likely not a good idea.For a smoker, though, if you can switch to vaping, the benefits of nicotine could easily outweigh the comparatively minor risks and the continued addiction. Switching your habit isn’t necessarily easy – after all, you get a quicker hit of nicotine and other addictive chemicals from smoking – but if you get a capable e-cigarette and explore the variety of e-liquid flavors available, making the transition can be easier than you think. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! Many e-liquids use artificial ingredients to produce sweet or fruity flavors, but for smokers, finding some authentic-tasting tobacco e-liquid can help to smooth the transition considerably.For Parkinson’s patients who smoke but want to quit – or other smokers with a condition helped by nicotine – the medicinal benefits of nicotine could make vaping the ideal solution. For schizophrenia sufferers in particular, vaping offers the core self-medication benefits of smoking, but drastically reduces the associated risks.
Since such a large number of schizophrenics smoke, vaping could be an absolute game-changer.Vaping is Nicotine’s Second ChanceWith vaping, nicotine has the chance to cast off its unfortunate association with the deadliest consumer product in history and step into the limelight. While you can’t slow down the hands of time, you can absolutely increase longevity and age better by adopting certain habits, especially ones that protect your heart. You probably already know about the roles that healthy diet and exercise play, but research […] Peptides Tag Brain Damage From Stroke In Real Time About 90 percent of all strokes are ischemic strokes. They occur when a blocked artery prevents blood from getting to the brain and usually result in long-term disability or death. Researchers are testing a new imaging technique that shows how strokes cause damage and perhaps how to treat them. We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience?
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?



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