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DESCRIPTION: The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps.
Although copies of Agrippaa€™s map were taken to all of the great cities of the Roman Empire, not a single copy has survived. Shown here are three continents in more or less symmetrical arrangements with Asia in the east at the top of the map (hence the term orientation). Note that most scholars, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular. The only reported Roman world map before Agrippaa€™s was the one that Julius Caesar commissioned but never lived to see completed. We may speculate whether this map was flat and circular, even though such a shape might have been considered a€?unscientifica€™ and poorly adapted to the shape of the known world. Augustus had a practical interest in sponsoring the new map of the inhabited world entrusted to Agrippa.
In point of fact Augustus may have delegated the detailed checking to one of his freedmen, such as his librarian C. We may treat as secondary sources Orosius, Historiae adversum paganos, and the Irish geographical writer Dicuil (AD 825).
It is also claimed that Strabo (#115) obtained his figures for Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily from Agrippa. Although the term chorographia literally means a€?regional topographya€?, it seems to include fairly detailed cartography of the known world. For a more complete assessment of what Agrippa wrote or ordered to be put on his map, we may again turn to passages where Pliny quotes him specifically as reference. It is a pity that Pliny, who seems to be chiefly interested in measurements, gives us so little other information about Agrippaa€™s map.
It is the sea above all which shapes and defines the land, fashioning gulfs, oceans and straits, and likewise isthmuses, peninsulas and promontories. A serious point of disagreement among scholars has been whether the commentarii of Agrippa mentioned by Pliny were published at the time of construction of the portico.
Another element in this problem that demands some explanation is the origin of the two later works the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum which are both derived from Agrippa, probably through a common source.
Apart from the information supplied by Pliny, our chief evidence for the reconstruction of the map is provided by the two works already mentioned, the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum.
Dicuil, in his preface, promises to give the measurement of the provinces made by the envoys of the Emperor Theodosius, and at the end of chapter five he quotes twelve verses of these envoys in which they describe their procedure. According to Tierney, Detlefsen regarded these two works as derived from small-scale copies of Agrippaa€™s map. Tierney believes however, that the west to east movement supposed by Klotz is, in fact, correct, but not for his reasons. Our idea of the detail of the map of Agrippa must be based on a study of the references in Strabo, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio. There are twenty-four sections in the Divisio and thirty in the Demensuratio, the difference being mainly due to the absence from the Divisio of the sections on the islands of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. These sections are largely identical with passages in Plinya€™s geographical books (Books III to VI), and show that many passages in Pliny are taken from Agrippa beyond those where he is actually named. The consensus of the views of modern scholars on Agrippaa€™s map, is that it represents a conscientious attempt to give a credible version of the geography of the known world. But this consensus is not quite complete and therefore I now turn to consider the view of Agrippaa€™s map put forward by Professor Paul Schnabel in his article in Philologus of 1935. Schnabel does not himself take up the general question of the use of Agrippa by Marinus and Ptolemy. Schnabel here refers to the last chapter of the geographical books of Plinya€™s Natural History, that is, Book VI, cap. Schnabel continues with the negative argument that the Don parallel cannot belong to the school of Hipparchus.
We may speculate as to whether Plinya€™s phrase regarding the a€?careful later students,a€? does not refer to Nigidius himself. Schnabel next moves on to a more ambitious argument, making the assumption that Ptolemy has used some of Agrippaa€™s reckonings to establish points in his geography.
It is sad to think that this elegant piece of reasoning must be thrown overboard, but Tierney believes it must be rejected on at least three different counts.
In the second place Schnabela€™s statement that Agrippa reduced the itinerary figure of 745 miles to a straight line of 411 cannot be accepted. Thirdly, it may fairly be objected that the very method by which Schnabel obtains the figure of 411 miles is faulty. Tierney passes over Schnabela€™s reasons for thinking that Agrippa established lines of meridian in Spain and in the eastern Mediterranean, all of which Tierney finds quite unconvincing.
Schnabela€™s attempt to present us with a scientific Agrippa and indeed to reconstruct a scientific Roman geography may be regarded a complete failure, and the older view of Detlefsen and Klotz must be regarded as correct. From another well-known passage in Strabo (V, 3, 8, C, 235-236) that contains a panegyric [a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something] on the fine buildings of Augustan Rome, we know that he was well acquainted with the dedications of Marcus Agrippa that he specifically mentions.
Strabo shows the contemporary Roman view of the purely practical purposes of geography and of cartography by everywhere insisting on restricting to a minimum the astronomical and mathematical element in geographical study. This would mean then that Agrippaa€™s map was based on the general scheme of the Greek maps which had been current for upwards of 200 years, since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and that it presumably attempted to complete and rectify this scheme by using recent Roman route-books and the reports of soldiers, merchants and travelers. Towards the end of the fourth century two important events greatly enlarged the scope of geography. About a century later the famous astronomer Hipparchus subjected the geography of Eratosthenes to rather stringent criticisms.
The next geographer whose views are well known us is Strabo (#115), who was writing at the time of the construction of Agrippaa€™s map or some years later. If, then, progress was no longer being made or to be expected from Greek geographers using various astronomical instruments, was anything to be expected from the other tradition, the Roman roads and their itineraries? We must then approach the map of Agrippa on a purely factual basis realizing that it provides us merely a list of boundaries followed by a length and breadth, for the areas within the Empire and beyond it. Fundamentally, therefore, Agrippaa€™s figures allow us to construct a series of boxes or rectangle with which to deck out the shores of the Mediterranean and the eastern world and whose dimensions should be reduced by an uncertain amount.
Spain consists of three boxes, the square of Lusitania and the rectangle of the Hispania citerior [Roman province] east of it being placed over the rectangle of BA¦tica. In Gaul [France] a large rectangle lies over a small one, that is Gallia Comata over the province of Narbonensis. The islands of the Mediterranean are not forgotten, at least the major ones, just as Italy lies too far to the southeast, so do Corsica and Sardinia lie too far to the southwest.
The eastern Mediterranean is faced by Syria whose longitude Pliny (V, 671 states as 470 miles between Cilicia and Arabia, and whose latitude is 175 miles from Seleucia Pieria on the coast to Zeugma on the Euphrates. We have now either reached or gone beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the north, south and east, as it was in Agrippaa€™s day. The most important achievement of the map, to Agrippaa€™s mind, consisted in its measurements, and it is possible that he spent very considerable pains in getting these exactly, although we cannot take the account given by Honorius (ca. The exact correspondence between Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, in giving many of the boundaries of the sections, shows, according to Detlefsen, that these boundaries also were inscribed upon the map.
Klotz, in his final review of Agrippaa€™s methods of work, has made some illuminating points that supplement Detlefsen.
Within the Empire he chiefly used the itineraries without the overt use of an astronomical backing, although astronomical data, of course, already formed the basis of the Greek maps that were the real foundation of his. Klotz, A., a€?Die geographischen commentarii des Agrippa und ihre Uberrestea€?, Klio 25, 1931, 35ff, 386ff.
Note that most scholar, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular. According to Fisher seeing that this is a Roman world map sharing many similarities with the mappaemundi, it is logical to assume that SchA¶nera€™s southern landmass is a copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, the Roman world map upon which the mappaemundi were based. Within the context of the early 16th century, it seems apparent that SchA¶ner found himself caught up in the perfect cartographic storm.
All these parts were in place when an errant 1508 report of a strait at the tip of South America with a large southern continent lying beneath inspired SchA¶ner to unwittingly preserve the only copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum on the bottom of his 1515 world globe. When medieval Christians began creating the mappaemundi they borrowed heavily from Agrippaa€™s map as well as Greek designs.
This design adjustment may also explain the Expositio mappemundi (EMM), manuscripts which are a collection of the data items appearing on the mappaemundi. It was reverse engineered from the mappaemundi, but plays it relatively safe in its assumptions. The new found design also provides for the first time insights into the inspiration for key design aspects on the mappaemundi such as the tribute to Jesus at the top of the map, the transition from a separate commentary requiring locative terminology to commentary overlain onto the mappaemundi no longer requiring spatial references, and the distribution of images from a consolidated arced matrix lying above Africa on SchA¶nera€™s design to areas throughout the mappaemundi.
In conclusion, Fisher believes that he has presented a solid logical case for the historic discovery of a long lost 2,000-year-old Roman world map at the bottom of the world, SchA¶nera€™s world that is. If they did so, it will be available ontheir website’s webpage, which can be locatedusing a search engine.
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Our licensed investigators pride themselves on being able to find 100% accurate information, and if they are not able to find any information on your reverse phone number, there will be no charge for the service. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. The reconstructions shown here are based upon data in the medieval world maps that were, in turn, derived from Roman originals, plus textual descriptions by classical geographers such as Strabo, Pomponius Mela and Pliny.
The emphasis upon Rome is reflected in the stubby form of Italy, which made it possible to show the Italian provinces on an enlarged scale. We are told by late Roman and medieval sources that he employed four Greeks, who started work on the map in 44 B.C. That is the form of the Hereford world map (Book IIB, #226), which seriously distorts the relative positions and sizes of areas of the world in a way we should not imagine Julius Caesar and his technicians would have.
On the re-establishment of peace after the civil wars, he was determined on the one hand to found new colonies to provide land for discharged veterans, on the other hand to build up a new image of Rome as the benevolent head of a vast empire.
It was erected in Rome on the wall of a portico named after Agrippa, which extended along the east side of the Via Lata [modern Via del Corso]. Orosius seems to have read, and followed fairly closely both Agrippa and Pliny, as well as early writers from Eratosthenes onwards.
His source was clearly one commissioned by Romans, not Greeks, as his figures for those areas are in miles, not stades. The Agrippa map probably did not, in the absence of any mention, use any system of latitude and longitude. These include both land and sea measurements, though the most common are lengths and breadths of provinces or groups of provinces. But on the credit side, Agrippaa€™s map, sponsored by Augustus, was obviously an improvement on that of Julius Caesar on which it is likely to have been based.
The general history of ancient cartography and our knowledge of Roman buildings in the Augustan period would appear to be our surest guides. The German philologist and historian Detlev Detlefsen always clung steadfastly the view that there was no such publication and that the inscriptions on the map itself provided all the geographical information that was available to later times under the name of Agrippa.
Detlefsen had explained their origin by assuming the production of smaller hand-copies of Agrippaa€™s map, their smallness then making a written text desirable. Small discrepancies were to be explained by differences in the copies of the map used by each. Strabo used Agrippa only for Italy and the neighboring islands, so that our chief evidence comes from the other three sources. Detlefsen believed that the island sections were later added to the Demensuratio, but according to Tierney there can be little doubt that he is wrong in this and that Klotz is right in thinking that these sections have rather fallen out of the Divisio. It relies on the general scheme of the Greek maps that had been current since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and attempts to rectify them, particularly in Western Europe, with recent information derived from the Roman itineraries and route-books. We have to thank Professor Schnabel for providing in the same article a new critical text of both the Demensuratio and the Divisio. He sets out, at first, to prove that Agrippaa€™s map possessed a network of lines of longitude and latitude. 39, sections 211-219, where Pliny mentions evidently as a work of supererogation, a€?the subtle Greek inventiona€? of parallels of latitude, showing the areas of equal shadows and the relationship of day and night Pliny then gives seven parallels, running at intervals between Alexandria and the mouth of the Dnieper, with longest days running from fourteen to fifteen hours. Hipparchus had made the Don parallel the seventeen-hour parallel, corresponding to 54A° N latitude, whereas Pliny here puts it at sixteen hours or 48A° 30" N latitude, which is nearly correct. 39, section 211, refers obviously to all that follows as far as the end of Book VI and shows that the complete passage is taken from Greek sources. In the first place, Schnabel has apparently overlooked Ptolemya€™s method of establishing the longitude and latitude of particular geographical points.
Pliny gives this itinerary as running at the base of the Alps, from the Varus through Turin, Como, Brecia, Verona and other towns on to Trieste, Pola and the Arsia.
For the reduction, of longitude he uses, as I have said, the factor of forty-three sixtieths derived from Ptolemya€™s fifth map of Europe (Book VIII, cap. Tierney turns to his last main argument in which lie tries to prove Agrippa to be the author of a new value of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia, Pliny (V, 59) gives the distance of the island of Elephantine from Syene as sixteen miles and its distance from Alexandria as 585 miles. If we accepted it we might as well accept that everyone in antiquity who either sailed or traveled in a north-south direction in the eastern Mediterranean was also engaged in establishing a new degree value. On the general question of Roman proficiency in geographical studies some light is thrown by a passage of Strabo (Book III, C 166) who says: a€?The Roman writers imitate the Greeks but they do not go very far. The phrase which he uses of Agrippaa€™s aqueducts is exactly echoed in Plinya€™s phrase tanta diligentia. Before entering into the details of Agrippaa€™s map it will be useful to examine briefly these two traditions, the Greek and the Roman, in order to grasp more clearly the problem which confronted Agrippa or whoever else might wish to construct a world map in the age of Augustus. We are told that it was Democritus who first abandoned the older circular map and made a rectangular one whose east-west axis, the longitude, was half as long again as the north-south axis, the latitude. The campaigns of Alexander and the new Greek settlements pushed the Greek horizon far to the east while in the west the intrepid Pytheas of Massalia circumnavigated Britain and sailed along the European coast from Gibraltar at least as far as the Elbe, publishing his investigations in a work which included gnomonic observations at certain points, and remarks on the fauna and flora of these distant areas.
He made devastating attacks on the eastern sections of the map, as being seriously incorrect, both on mathematical and on astronomical grounds.
Sad to relate, the gradually accumulating mass of details concerning roads and areas did not add up to any great increase in geographical knowledge. Our three main authorities, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, have suffered a great deal in the transmission of these latter figures, the longitude and latitude, so-called.
Klotz has argued that Agrippa did not use the word longitudo in the technical sense of the east-west measurement, nor the word latitudo in the technical sense of the north-south measurement, but rather in the more general sense of length and breadth. To evaluate the map we must take a glance at each of these boxes in turn, and the most convenient order would appear to be that of the Greek geographers and of Agrippa himself, if we can trust the order of the Divisio that has Europa, Asia, Lybia, that is, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
The internal line of division ran south from the estuary at NA“ca between the Astures and the Cantabri, down to Oretania and on to New Carthage.
Off the coast of Gallia Comata lies an enormous Britain, 800 by 300 miles, and north of it an equally exaggerated Hibernia [Ireland].
Corsica, in fact forms the eastern boundary of Sardinia and this explains why the long axis of both islands is described as the longitude.
Tierney believes that it is possible to remove the difficulties felt about Agrippaa€™s Syria by both Detlefsen and Klotz. Only a few more boxes or rectangles are left to the east of the line, formed by Armenia, Syria and Egypt, but now they begin to grow portentously large.
Spain has three sections and Gaul two, while in the east of Europe Dacia and Sarmatia run off to the unknown northern ocean, and further east again the sections are quite enormous.
Natural features such as the mountains and rivers that divided provinces were shown also, but in what exact way is not clear.
He points out that just as Eratosthenes had divided the inhabited earth into his famous a€?sealsa€?, so also Agrippa divided the earth into groups of countries without reference to their political or geographical conditions.
Any attempt to draw the map of Agrippa from the figures that have survived without some astronomical backing is entirely hopeless. Wherever itineraries did not exist he made use of the estimated distances of the Greek geographers, and outside the Empire he had to rely on them altogether.
Proceeding in our evaluation with this in mind we can gain insights into how the mappaemundi arrived at their final design. Fisher believes that the central zones on Agrippaa€™s map had to be eliminated when the Christians decided to adopt and adapt from Greek maps the concept of cartographic centricity by distorting the map to position the holy city of Jerusalem at the mapa€™s center. Some believe that these manuscripts were instruction sets used to construct a mappa mundi based on the fact that the text is spatially specific. The reconstruction acknowledges that the waterway originated on Agrippaa€™s map as it is common to most mappaemundi, but it assumes that the Roman original was far less imposing, whereas SchA¶nera€™s design suggests that the mappaemundi are far more accurate in their depiction of the waterway spanning most of the continent. All three adjustments were based on their Roman counterparts, but reflect necessary adjustments as the makers of the mappaemundi opted for a Christocentric design. His evaluation, however, is based on the fact that copies of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum did indeed exist and were at one time distributed throughout Europe becoming the model for the medieval mappaemundi.
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This is a necessary part of communication because you have to trust that the other person is who they say they are. We pride ourselves on the high standards of our records research and can assure you with confidence that your research will be carried out in an honest and professional manner. This leads him on to the advantages of the northern half from the point of view of agriculture. The original was made at the command of Agrippaa€™s father-in-law, the Emperor Augustus (27 B.C.
These were no doubt freedmen, of whom there were large numbers in Rome, including many skilled artisans.
A late Roman geographical manual gives totals of geographical features in this lost map with recording names, but even the totals, on examination, turn out to be unreliable. Mapping enabled him to carry out these objectives and to perfect a task begun by Julius Caesar.
This portico, of which fragments have been found near Via del Tritone, was usually called Porticus Vipsania, but may have been the same as the one that Martial calls Porticus EuropA¦, probably from a painting of Europa on its walls.
Dicuil tells us that he followed Pliny except where he had reason to believe that Pliny was wrong.
It is through such features that continents, nations, favorable sites of cities, and other refinements have been conceived, features of which a regional [chorographic] map is full; one also finds a quantity of islands scattered over the seas and along the coasts. The fact that such an insignificant and distant place as Charax was named on the map shows the detail that it embodied.
His sister, Vipsania Polla, began the work, and we know from Dio Cassius that it was still unfinished in the year 7 B.C.
There can be no reasonable doubt that the map was a rectangular one with the east-west measurements running horizontally and the north-south measurements running vertically. Though Strabo does not mention Agrippaa€™s name here he is probably merely being tactful with regard to the Emperor who, presumably, took a large part in the completion of the portico with its map.
One must grant Detlefsen that in Plinya€™s main reference there is talk only of a map and the commentarii are merely the basis of the map. Partsch on the contrary, had assumed an original publication, contemporary with the original map, of a Tabellenwerk, that is, a series of tabulated lists. 1475, and, according to Paul Schnabel (Text und Karten des PtolemA?us, 1938) the thirteen manuscripts of the 15th and 16th centuries and a further manuscript of the 13th century all derive from the ninth-century codex in the library of Merton College, Oxford. What they show is rather that on the orders of Theodosius two members of his household composed a map of the world, one written and the other a painting.
The classical scholar Alfred Klotz, however, in his articles on the map has shown that a number of correspondences between the two works as against Pliny point rather to a common source from which both works are derived. Greek cartography, like Greek writing, ran from left to right and perhaps the former practice was promoted by the fact that the western boundary of Europe was well known, at least from the time of Pytheas (ca.
The numerals are much more corrupt than those in Pliny, and there is usually a presumption, therefore, that Plinya€™s figures preserve a better version of Agrippa. Schnabel, while expressing appreciation of the earlier work of Alfred Klotz, yet criticizes Klotz severely on two grounds. For the sixth of these parallels he gives a slight correction due to the Publius Nigidius Figulus (ca. Therefore, Schnabel argues, the incorrect latitude of Hipparchus was corrected by Agrippa who had experience of the Black Sea in his later years. His proximate source, moreover, he names in section 217, according to his usual custom, as Nigidius Figulus. The parallels of Meroe and Thule were both equally useless in astrological geography although they may well have been mentioned by Nigidius, as they are by Strabo simply by way of clearing the decks. H, 10, 1.) for the mouth of the river Varus (the frontier of Gaul and Italy), that is, 27A° 30a€™ E longitude and 43A° N latitude, and again his position for Nesakton (Geog. This method Ptolemy has described quite clearly and unambiguously in the fourth chapter of Book I of his Geography. It is difficult to see how Schnabel imagined that this line could be reduced to a straight line of 411 miles. What they have to say they translate from the Greeks but of themselves they provide very little impulse to learning, so that where the Greeks have left gaps the Romans provide little to fill the deficiency, especially since most of the well-known writers are Greek.a€? On a comparison of this passage with Straboa€™s usual sycophantic admiration of things Roman we can rate it as very severe criticism.
He was, therefore, well acquainted also with the map or Agrippa to which, or to whose content he refers no less than seven times in his Books II, V and VI.
In the fourth century the study of spherical geometry was pushed forward rapidly by Eudoxus in the Academy, and again by Callippus.
This new knowledge was then exploited geographically by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (#112) in the latter half of the third century. His delineation of the Near East, of Egypt, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean was reasonably correct, and this was also true of his sketch of the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Brettanic islands in which area he followed Pytheas.
Hipparchus further indicated the theoretic requirements for establishing the exact location of points on the eartha€™s surface.
Despite his criticism of earlier geographers such as Pytheas, Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, it has long been recognized that he does not advance their work except in providing some details in regard to the map of Europe, while his general map of Europe has more faults than that of Eratosthenes.
Without the stiffening of astronomical observation the Roman road systems were like a number of fingers probing blindly in the dark. The variation in the figures is aggravated by the fact that our later authorities do not entirely understand the Roman method of expressing large numbers as used by Agrippa and Pliny. This is, however, a serious error on the part of Klotz and to accept it would be a very retrograde step in our appreciation of the map. Therefore the word longitude could reasonably he used of its full length, and the measurements at right angles to this, that is, the latitudes, varied so much that Agrippa thought it necessary to give at least two, one in northern Italy and the second from Rome to the river Aternus.
Since the Pyrenees are supposed to run north and south the longitude of Hispania citerior is really the latitude, as was noted before.
Over the Rhine lies a small Germany, only half the size of Gaul, and southeast of it an Illyricum and Pannonia of about the same size as Germany.
Cross measurements of the Mediterranean are given at three points, from the Italian coast by way of Corsica and Sardinia to Africa, from southern Greece through Sicily to the same place, and from Cape Malea in Greece to Crete and Cyrenaica. Mesopotamia measures a fairly modest 800 by 320 miles, but further east Media measures 1,320 by 840, Arabia to the south is 2,170 by 1,296 and, finally, India represents the Far East with 3,300 by 1,300. He must have taken over the map of Eratosthenes as revised by people such as Polybius, Posidonius and Artemidorus, and made it the basis of his own.
Pliny understood these measurements as being the prime value of the map and that is why he copies them so exhaustively. Sometimes simple dividing lines were used, such as that used in central Spain, or wherever natural features of division were not present. Thus Agrippaa€™s India corresponds generally to the first a€?seala€? of Eratosthenes, and Agrippaa€™s Arabia, Ethiopia and Upper Egypt corresponds to the fourth a€?seala€?.
Even with an astronomical basis they only provide us with a set of rectangles mostly scattered at haphazard about the Mediterranean.
At the boundaries to the north, east and south he had to content himself with qua cognitum est. This water feature is significant not only in the fact that it is completely landlocked, unlike most waterways which empty into a surrounding sea, but also notably both waterways are 1) truncated at each end by circular lakes 2) are similarly arced away from the center of their C-shaped surrounding, and 3) span the portion of their C-shape lying opposite the Greek and Italian peninsulas, the portion of the map which coincides with Africa. First century Roman maps like Agripaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, which had existed throughout Europe, disappeared during the medieval period, but at least one copy was discovered in Germany just a few years prior to the arrival of Schonera€™s 1515 globe, the Peutinger Table (#120), and therefore it is not unreasonable to believe that SchA¶ner might have had access to an unfinished copy of Agrippaa€™s map. When Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum was originally created and put up for display on the wall of a portico, extensive commentary was likely consolidated within the center circular zone (2), but extending Jerusalem and Asia Minor into the mapa€™s center displaced much of the central text and necessitated the text's redistribution about the mappamundia€™s new design, relocating comments within the region to which each pertained, which is why we find the mappae mundi littered with commentary. But it may actually be that the EMM were based on the original text found on Agrippaa€™s map with the locative terms such as a€?above,a€? a€?opposite,a€? and a€?to the south ofa€? being necessary for a consolidated text set apart from the map, while the mappaemundia€™s placement of these data items directly onto the map logically allowed the removal of the spatial references. The mappaemundi maintained this orientation because medieval Christians held Eden, which they believed resided in the east, in high esteem. The reconstruction also omits completely the lateral mountain range above the waterway, which seems like a rather large oversight as both the Peutinger Table and Ptolemya€™s map, two ancient Roman maps, incorporated a trans-African range as does SchA¶nera€™s design.
It also maintains a more realistic belief that ancient maps did not maintain the accuracy of modern maps, but retained a basic design and set of elements common to nearly all ancient maps. When we find results, we make sure they are 100% verified accurate information for cell phone numbers. We have built these resources up over a period of 15 years and are always expanding our systems to provide the most accurate information available. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. The speakers compare Italy with Asia Minor, a country on similar latitudes where Greeks had experience of farming. India, Seres [China], and Scythia and Sarmatia [Russia] are reduced to small outlying regions on the periphery, thus taking on some features similar to the egocentric maps of the Chinese. He first became prominent as governor of Gaul, where he improved the road system and put down a rebellion in Aquitania.
Thus Agrippa is said to have written that the whole coast of the Caspian from the Casus River consists of very high cliffs, which prevent landing for 425 miles.
Such a word certainly ties up with Divisio I: a€?The world is divided up into three parts, named Europe, Asia, Libya or Africa. It is, as one might expect, more accurate in well-known than less-known parts, and more accurate for land than for sea areas. Moreover it seems to have been the first Latin map to be accompanied by notes or commentary.
In regard to the materials of construction I think we have to choose between the painted type of wall-map mentioned by Varro and the construction of marble slabs that is used in the forma urbis Romae of two centuries later, of which considerable parts are extant. Detlefsen, as against the view of Partsch, effectively quoted the passage of the younger Pliny, on the 160 volumes of his unclea€™s commentarii, which he describes as electoruma€¦ commentarios, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos, annotated excerpts, written on the back in a minute hand. It is, of course, possible to imagine that tabulated lists were put up as an adjunct to the map at the short ends, but the references to Spain and the Caspian seem somewhat out of place even here, and the balance of probability on this problem seems to lie, although rather precariously in favor of a contemporary, or nearly contemporary, publication of at least a selection of Agrippaa€™s material comprising something more than mere lists of names and figures.
Detlefsena€™s view that both works were the transformation of actual maps into a written record had the advantage that the differences in the order of the material in the two works was of little consequence, the map giving merely the visual impact, and the writer a€?being free to begin his description at whatever point on the map he preferreda€?. First come the boundaries of the province given in the constant order east, west, north, south.
Firstly, Klotz has not discussed the possible use of Agrippa in Ptolemya€™s Geography, and secondly, and much more fundamentally, he has not recognized the scientific importance of the world-map of Agrippa as a link between Eratosthenes and Hipparchus on the one hand and Marinus and Ptolemy on the other, but has merely repeated traditional views dating from the end of the 19th century. It follows further, says Schnabel, that Plinya€™s seventh parallel, that of fifteen hours, belongs equally to Agrippa. Detlefsen pointed this out in 1909, and Kroll (after Honigmann) throws further light on the subject in his article on Nigidius in R. Plinya€™s final phrase about these scholars adding half an hour to all parallels denotes rather the astronomer than the astrologer. III, 1, 7) on the river Arsia, that is, 36A° 15a€™ east longitude arid 44A° 55a€™ N latitude. It would be fairer to use the reduction factor from Ptolemy's third map of Europe, referring to Gaul (Book VIII, cap. Hipparchus however, reckoned the distance from Syene to Alexandria as seven and one-seventh degrees of latitude. The most important of these passages is the first (II, 5, 17, C 120) where he refers to the important role played by the sea and secondarily, and by rivers and mountains in the shaping of the earth. Yet we may be sure that maps still continued to be made as rectangles on a plane surface, although the relation of the spherical to the plane surface must have begun to appear as a problem. His calculation of the length of the eartha€™s circumference and of the degree length of 700 stadia was a notable event in the advance of geography.
For latitude he described the celestial phenomena for each individual degree of the ninety degrees running north front the Equator to the North Pole, giving for each the length of the longest day and the stars visible.

He tells us that the lack of gnomonic readings in the east, of which Hipparchus complained, was equally true of the west (IL 1, C 71). When one considers the variants within the MSS groups it follows that one may have a dozen or more variants for a single number.
The corresponding Greek words had, of course, originally meant length and breadth with no particular sense of direction.
In Spain again the Pyrenees were always regarded as running north and south, parallel to the Rhine, while the east coast as far as the straits and Cadiz was regarded as running more or lees in a straight line to the west. Detlefsen accepts that Agrippaa€™s figure is an error without being able to explain why, while for Klotz Syria is an obvious proof that Agrippa assigned no definite direction to his longitude. India alone, therefore, has a longitude as great as the whole Mediterranean, while its latitude is comparable to that of Europe and Africa combined.
His chief pride would seem to have been in his measurements, and indeed it is only for the exactness of these that Pliny praises him when he refers to BA¦tica in Book III, 17. Again the horizontal spine of Mount Taurus plays an important role in both as a line of division between the northern and southern areas, Agrippa, however, follows the Eratosthenic method of division only in a general way and not in detail. It is quite certain that the waterway made its way onto the mappaemundi via Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum as this landlocked waterway represents the Roman belief that the Nile River originated in the mountains of Mauritania and ran laterally across the continent dividing the African continent in two with Libya to the north and Ethiopia to the south. And finally, based on SchA¶nera€™s design Agrippaa€™s map was built around a concentric grid that resembled a polar projection which he as a globe maker would have readily recognized. Ancient Roman maps like the Peutinger Table, however, oriented the map with north to the top similar to the reconstruction based on SchA¶nera€™s design.
But should some doubts still linger, he offers one last review two earlier images comparing the landmass to other C-shaped maps, the Greek Hecataeus (#108) and medieval Hereford world maps, and ask that you consider the mathematical probability that SchA¶ner would incorporate the precise elements of these maps in their precise order and placement without an ancient world map as his template. Using a far infrared sauna can help strengthen the bodya€™s immune system by stimulating increased production of white blood cells by the bone marrow and killer T-cells by the thymus.A 2. Within this round frame the Roman cartographers placed the Orbis Terrarum, the circuit of the world. This shape was also one that suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. If Romans were planning this, they would place the northern section much further west, whereas the cartographers were Greeks, and they followed a tradition which originated in Rhodes or Alexandria.
He pacified the area near Cologne (later founded as a Roman colony) by settling the Ubii at their request on the west bank of the Rhine. Agrippa was an obvious choice as composer of such a map, being a naval man who had traveled widely and had an interest in the technical side. The date at which the building was started is not known, but it was still incomplete in 7 B.C. If the commentary had not been continuous, but had merely served as supplementary notes where required, there is a possibility that by Plinya€™s time, some eighty years later, it might have gone out of circulation. Augustus was the first to show it [the world] by chorography.a€? Evidently there is a slight difference of meaning between this and Ptolemya€™s definition, by which chorography refers to regional mapping. From the quotations given by Dilke, there would appear to be a general tendency by Agrippa to underestimate land distances in Gaul, Germany and in the Far East, and to overestimate sea distances.
Although the words used are longitudo and latitudo, they have no connection with longitudinal and latitudinal degree divisions.
Romans going to colonies, particularly outside Italy, could obtain information about the location or characteristics of a particular place. We know that the campus Agrippae was in the campus Markus on the east side of the Via Flaminia and that it was bordered towards the street on the west by the Porticus Vipsania. In view of the widespread use of marble facings that characterizes the age of Augustus, the marble slab method appears more probable.
Riese and Partsch had argued that certain references to Agrippa in Pliny, in particular the reference to the inaccessibility of part of the coast of the Caspian Sea and also that to the Punic origins of the coastal towns of Baetica refer more naturally to a published work than to the map in the Porticus Vipsania.
We do not know the size of this map that has perished, or whether its descent from the map of Agrippa was through a series of hand-copies as Detlefsen supposed. In actual fact Pliny and the Divisio both begin their description from the straits of Gibraltar, moving east, while the Demensuratio, on the contrary, begins with India moves west.
Following on this and connected there with come the longitude and latitude, in that order, expressed in Roman miles with Roman numerals. These views stated that Agrippaa€™s work was constructed on the basis of Roman itinerary measurements and took no note of the scientific results of the astronomical geography of the Greeks. Pliny then adds a€?from later studentsa€? five more parallels, three of them, those of the Don, of Britain, and of Thule, running north of the original seven, and two, those of Meroe and Syene, running south of them. What is new in Plinya€™s parallels may be referred to the Greek astronomers of the age of Hipparchus or the two or three generations after him.
By subtraction we get the difference in longitude between the two places as 8A° 45a€™ and the difference in latitude as 1A° 55a€™. This third class was to be manipulated as intelligently as possible so as to fit in with the basic evidence of the first two classes.
But in every case instead of a geometrical definition a simple and rough definition is enough.
He also established a fundamental parallel of latitude, following the example of DicA¦archus. The north, the far east, and Africa south of the Arabian gulf, were practically unknown, and even in the Mediterranean and the land-areas surrounding it, major defects were due to the great uncertainties of measurement, whether by land or by sea. Straboa€™s aversion to the mathematical and astronomical sick of geography has already been described and considered as typical of the age that he lived. Much toil has been expended by scholars such as Partsch, Detlefsen and Klotz in attempting to divine which, if any, of these figures belong to Agrippa. They became technical terms for longitude and latitude with a strict directional sense in the filth century B.C.
The north coast, however, was usually thought to run from Lisbon (Cabo da Roca) to the Pyrenees, the northwest capes, Nerium and Ortegal, being ignored. Detlefsen held that the map was not drawn to scale and that the measurements were merely inscribed upon it.
Unfortunately, in nearly all cases we know neither the beginning nor the end of the routes measured, nor do we know, with any exactness, the direction of the route.
Eratosthenes determined the sides of his a€?seals,a€? that were irregular quadrilaterals, by the points of the compass. It is clear that he gave the itinerary stages in Italy and Sicily in addition to the coastal sailing measurements. He believes such a notion is impossible and with the presentation of a sound argument for the circumstances contributing to SchA¶nera€™s error, there remains little reason to doubt that because of his grand error we are able to gaze upon Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum for the first time in many centuries. Far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, lower lactic acid, kill certain bacteria and parasites, and burn calories. As a visual aid to this discussion, the temple map will have been envisaged as particularly helpful. He must have had plans drawn, and may even have devised and used large-scale maps to help him with the conversion of Lake Avemus and the Lacus Lucrinus into naval ports.
Two late geographical writings, the Divisio orbis and the Dimensuratio provinciarum (commonly abbreviated to Divisio and Dimensuratio) may be thought to come from Agrippa, because they show similarities with Plinya€™s figures. If West Africa is any guide, in areas where distances were not well established, they were probably entered only very selectively.
Also the full extent of the Roman Empire could be seen at a glance.a€?Certain medieval maps, including the Hereford and Ebstorf world maps (see monographs #224 and #226 in Book IIB) are now believed to have been derived from the Orbis Terraum of Agrippa, and point to the existence of a series of maps, now lost, that carried the traditions of Roman cartography into Christian Europe.
Varro, in the following century, tells us of a map of Italy that was painted on the wall of the temple of Tellus.
Remains of the portico are stated to have been found opposite the Piazza Colonna on the Corso at about the position of the column of Marcus Aurelius and further north. The volumes of commentary referred to by the younger Pliny were not published, but were clearly digested to the point where little further work was needed to prepare them for publication, and the same situation may well be accepted for the commentarii of Agrippa. The text, however, had long previously been known from its reproduction in the first five chapters of the De Mensura Orbis Terrae, published by the Irish scholar Dicuil in A.D. But it did quite clearly derive from that map, whether in the map-form or in a written form, with its list of seas, mountains, rivers, harbors, gulfs and cities. On Klotza€™s view that both works derive from a common written source this major divergence becomes a problem to he explained, but Klotz can offer no explanation.
The boundaries are marked by the natural features, usually the mountains, rivers, deserts and oceans, only occasionally by towns or other features. Of these parallels Schnabel tries to establish that at least two are due to Agrippa, to wit, the first of the new parallels passing through the Don, and the seventh of the old parallels passing through the mouth of the Dnieper. Using Ptolemya€™s reduction factor at 43A° N latitude which is forty-three sixtieths we find that with Ptolemya€™s degree of 500 stadia the difference in longitude between the two places in question is 3,135 and five-twelfths stadia and the difference in latitude is 958 and one-third stadia.
It was this third kind of evidence which gave Ptolemy his positions for the Varus and the Arsia. He thinks the 411 miles represents the itinerary measurement from the Varus to Rimini through Dertona, and that the Arsia has got attached to it by a slight confusion in Pliny's mind in thinking of the boundaries between the mare superum and the mare inferum, with which, in fact, he equates the Varus-Arsia measurement. This factor of forty sixtieths or two-thirds gives a distance of approximately 384 miles from Varus to Arsia and the striking coincidence on which Schnabel has built this elaborate theory simply vanishes.
Therefore, argues Schnabel, Agrippa made a new reckoning of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia. Such features as these brought into existence the continents, the tribes, the fine natural sites of cities and the other decorative features of which our chorogaphic map is chock full.a€? The map of Agrippa displayed, therefore, all the natural features just mentioned and, in addition, the names of tribes and of famous cities. Only a combination of the practical measurements with astronomical observation could have affected a real progress and our evidence shows only too clearly that this happy union did not take place. Some light has been thrown on the subject by comparison with later Roman itineraries for the particular areas.
The result of this misconception was that the figures for longitude and latitude were simply interchanged.
Agrippa regarded the Syrian coast running northeast from the boundary of Egypt, as running much more in an easterly direction than it actually does. His map represents, says Detlefsen, a moment of historical development, a point in the process of crystallization of the lands of the Mediterranean into the Roman Empire. Agrippa defines the boundaries of his groups of countries in the same way, by the points of the compass, but as regards size he supplies only the length and breadth, thus agreeing with Strabo, already quoted. It is a question whether these itinerary measurements were given, in detail on the map for all the western provinces, not to mention the eastern ones.
Proponents of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, maintain that using far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps fight infections and even cancer. But whether it was only intended to be imagined by readers or was actually illustrated in the book is not clear. The map was presumably developed from the Roman road itineraries, and may have been circular in shape, thus differing from the Roman Peutinger Table (#120). The theory that it was circular is in conflict with a shape that would suit a colonnade wall.
What purpose was served by giving a width for the long strip from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea is not clear.
Dilke provides a detailed discussion of Agrippaa€™s measurements using quotes from the elder Plinya€™s Natural History. We do not know the occasion of this dedication, but since it was meant to celebrate a victory it may been intended for the geographical instruction of the Roman public. They are said to allow the conclusion that it had the same dimensions and construction as the adjacent porticus saeptorum, whose dimensions were 1,500 ft. The twelve lines were inscribed on this map and also on an obviously contemporary written version thereof, and it is this written version that has been preserved for us both by Dicuil and in the various manuscripts of the Divisio orbis terrarum, whereas the map has perished. Klotz, however, believed that be could determine the original succession of countries and groups of countries as treated in the published work of Agrippa by criteria. The Demensuratio on one occasion gives the fauna and flora of Eastern India, which it calls the land of pepper, elephants, snakes, sphinxes and parrots.
He argues that the Dnieper was used as a line of demarcation between Sarmatia to the east and Dacia to the west only on the map of Agrippa, and neither earlier nor later, and that therefore the parallel from the Don through the Dnieper must derive from that map. Plinya€™s seven klimata are a piece of astrological geography and derive through Nigidius from Serapion of Antioch, who was probably a pupil of Hipparchus, or if not was a student of his work. But there is no vestige of probability or proof that Agrippa made new gnomonic readings to correct Hipparchus. Schnabel now treats the spherical triangle involved as a plane right-angled triangle, and using the theorem of Pythagoras, he finds that the hypotenuse, that is, the distance between the Varus and the Arsia is 3,291 stadia or 411 Roman miles.
Gnomonic readings were often inaccurate, measurement of time was still very vague, and a degree length one-sixth too large did not help.
He used the circle of 360 degrees, giving up the hexecontads [a 60-sided polygon] of Eratosthenes. But since we normally do not know by what route Agrippaa€™s measurements were taken, this light may prove to be a will-o-the wisp.
Aristotle, Strabo and Pliny all insist on the technical directional sense, as there was the possibility of ignorant people misunderstanding them.
The same thing occurred in the British islands that were regarded as running from northeast to southwest. 1,200, 720 and 410 miles, respectively, running from the unknown north down to the Aegean, but all having approximately the same latitude of just under 400 miles.
Therefore the longitude was to him the east-west direction, and the latitude from Seleucia Pieria to Zeugma was the north-south direction. Partial distances were given from station to station along the Italian coast, but Detlefsen thinks that the summation of the coastal measurements appeared elsewhere on the map. Where this process is complete we have ready-made provinces, where it is still in progress we find the raw materials of provinces-to-be, which are still parts of large and scarcely known areas, and finally, where Roman armies have never set foot we find enormous, amorphous masses lumped together as geographical units.
It is notable, as Detlefsen points out, that Strabo must have recognized this lack of scientific value. It appears from passages in Pliny that Varro had already used the Roman itineraries in his geographical books and Agrippa was only following his example. Their argument is supported by the human body itself, which radiates infrared energy for the benefits of warmth and tissue repair.A 3. The same applies to possible cartographic illustration of Varroa€™s Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum, of which Books VII-XIII dealt with Italy. The map of Agrippa, however, was set up, not in a sacred place, but in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsania.
Dicuil worked and wrote probably at the Frankish palace at Aix-la-Chapelle in the time of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The date of the making of the map was probably the fifteenth consulate of Theodosius II, that is, A.D.
One of these was the direction shown in the order of naming several particular countries where several are included in the same section, or the direction shown in the list of the boundaries of the section.
This argument, however, is unsound for a number of reasons, of which the most obvious in this context is that whereas the Dnieper is given by our sources as the west boundary of Sarmatia, it is never given as the east boundary of Dacia.
Nigidius was a notorious student of the occult and his astrological geography was contained in a work apparently entitled de terris. At right angles to this he established a meridian running from Meroe northwards to the mouth of the Dnieper, and passing through Alexandria, Rhodes and Byzantium. Yet he did not try to get a more exact value for the degree, although this was the point where theory could most easily have affected practice. Moreover, although the Roman roads may often have rationalized the native roads by new road-construction or by bridging, yet in general they continued to be town-to-town roads, and if the itineraries ever correctly represented the longitude and latitude of a province it would be by pure chance. But, you may object, this technical sense is only suitable for describing rectangles and not all countries fall into that convenient form.
Here again longitudo is the long axis and latitudo the short axis, not because of a misuse of these technical terms, but simply because their general position was misconceived.
Further east again Sarmatia [Russia], including the Black Sea to the south, measures 980 by 715 miles, Asia Minor 1,155 by 325, Armenia and the Caspian 480 by 280. Any doubt on this matter is removed when we look at Pliny (VI, 126), where he gives the latitude from the same point, Seleucia Pieria, to the mouth of the Tigris.
It is probable that Italy and the neighboring islands were given in greater detail than other areas. Of the first class, the ordered provinces, we have eight in Europe, three in Africa, and three in Asia.
He gives us from Agrippa, a few lines along the coasts of Italy and Sicily but not a single one of his reckonings for the provinces.
Since so little of the materials of the ancient geographers bas been preserved it is mostly a matter of chance whether we know or do not know whether Agrippa agreed or not with the measurements of a particular earlier geographer. But at least we know that he was keen on illustration, since his Hebdomades vel de imaginibus, a biographical work in fifteen books, was illustrated with as many as seven hundred portraits. Plinya€™s most specific reference to the map is where he records that the length of BA¦tica, the southern Spanish province, given as 475 Roman miles and its width as 258 Roman miles, whereas the width could still be correct, depending on how it was calculated. It was not a map of a part of the Empire, not even a map of the Empire as a whole, but rather a map of the whole known world, of which the Roman Empire was merely one part. The Porticus Vipsania was, therefore, an enormous colonnade and it follows that the map with which we are concerned was only one decorative item among the many that adorned it. Thus he says that the order Cevennes-Jura for the northern boundary of Narbonese Gaul shows motion from west to east, and again the list Macedonia, Hellespont, left side it the Black Sea shows the same movement.
This work seems to have included his commentary on the sphaera Graecanica describing the Greek constellations and his sphaera barbarica on the non-Greek constellations. From the coincidence of the figures Schnabel strongly argues that Ptolemy must have taken over the figure of 411 miles from Agrippa. The establishment of these two lines provided the theoretical basis for a grid of lines of parallels and meridians respectively, points being fixed by longitude and latitude as by the coordinates in a graph. The measurements of Agrippa should, therefore, be reduced but it is not easy to say by what factor.
This is true indeed, and here we have to consider a few ancient misconceptions about the shapes and positions of particular countries.
The distance is 175 miles from Seleucia to Zeugma, 724 miles from Zeugma to Seleucia and Tigrim and 320 miles to the mouth of the Tigris, that is, 1,219 in all.
Of the second class, where the Romans had recent military campaign we have three in Europe, that is, Germany, Dacia and Sarmatia, one in Africa, Mauretania, and one in Asia, Armenia. Klotz has shown that he used Eratosthenes very often, but that on occasion he disagreed with him, and that Artemidorus apparently he did not use at all. This is the heat you feel penetrate your skin when you stand in the sun and miss when you walk into the shade. Since we are told that this work was widely circulated, some scholars have wondered whether Varro used some mechanical means of duplicating his miniatures; but educated slaves were plentiful, and we should almost certainly have heard about any such device if it had existed.
Pliny continues: a€?Who would believe that Agrippa, a very careful man who took great pains over his work, should, when he was going to set up the map to be looked at by the people of Rome, have made this mistake, and how could Augustus have accepted it?
The second criterion is that the use (the alleged use) of the term longitudo for a north-south direction or for any direction other than the canonical one of east-west, shows us the direction of Agrippaa€™s order in treating of the geography.
Nigidiusa€™ a€?barbaric spherea€? was derived from the like-named work of Asclepiades of Myrlea.
The two main passages from Straboa€™s second book may reasonably be regarded as a transcript of contemporary geographical practice and since between them they give an exact description of the methods followed in the ancient remains of the map of Agrippa, Tierney thinks that they may rightly be regarded as a strong proof that the views held on this map by Detlefsen and Klotz are generally correct.
In somewhat similar circumstances Ptolemy reduced the figures of Marinus in Asia and Africa by about one-half.
This distance, he adds, is the latitude of the earth between the two seas, that is, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.
For it was Augustus who, when Agrippaa€™s sister had begun building the portico, carried through the scheme from the intention and notes [commentarii] of M.
Tierney does not believe that either of these criteria can show us the order of treatment in the original publication, presuming, that is, that there was an original publication. The detailed extension of the Greek parallels into the Roman west is apparently due to Nigidius. Agrippa, he thinks, took the itinerary figure for the distance from the Varus to the Arsia, which is given as 745 miles by Pliny (III, 132) and reduced it to a straight line of 411 miles by astronomical and mathematical measurement. When people do not receive adequate amounts of far infrared heat, they often can become ill or depressed.A 4. We are prone to forget that all ancient geographers were necessarily map-minded, and even when the map was not before their physical eye, it was before their mental eye. This proves, therefore, that Agrippaa€™s map was not a purely itinerary map, but that Agrippa reduced the itinerary measurements in the way described. Augustus, as he was ill, handed his signet-ring to Agrippa, thus indicating him as acting emperor. The order of countries within a section would, I think, very much depend on the momentary motions or aberrations of that mental eye. It is unfortunate, however, that nearly all Agrippaa€™s figures come down to us in a non-reduced form that makes it impossible to reproduce his map. Far infrared saunas are recognized by health practitioners worldwide as perhaps the most effective method of removing both chemical and heavy metal toxins from the body. The same year Agrippa was given charge of all the eastern parts of the Empire, with headquarters at Mitylene.
Far infrared saunas are thought to be 7 times more effective at detoxifying heavy metals such as mercury, aluminium, and other environmental toxins than conventional heat or steam saunas. For many chronically ill patients as well as people who are well and wish to stay that way by reducing their toxic burden, the far infrared sauna is the detox method of choice.A 6. Bathing in a far infrared sauna in the early stages of a cold or flu has been known to stop the disease before symptoms occur.A 7.
Far infrared heat can penetrate into the skin about an inch and a half to two inches deep and can have therapeutic benefits, such as helping to dissolve fat deposits under the skin. Since toxins may be stored in the fat, the deep penetrating heat of a far infrared sauna can help eliminate them, especially toxins such as heavy metals and acidic compounds.A 8. The radiant heat of a far infrared sauna is efficient because it warms the sauna bather directly.
The body absorbs as much as 93 percent of the heat, causing perspiration and producing a vast array of health benefits.A 9.
Far infrared saunas can help clear cellulite, the gel-like lumps of fat, water and debris trapped in pockets beneath the skin. European beauty specialists routinely incorporate daily far infrared sauna baths in programs to reduce cellulite.A 10.
Generally speaking, far infrared saunas are less expensive, easier to install, and require less maintenance than traditional saunas. They come in many sizes and are often quite portable, making them a great choice when limited space is available.A 11. Far infrared radiant heat provides all the healthy benefits of natural sunlight without any of the dangerous effects of solar radiation.A 12. Far infrared saunas are more cleansing than conventional saunas because they are designed to generate more than two to three times the amount of perspiration. Unlike in traditional saunas where temperatures range from 140 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (60 to 105 degrees Celsius), the temperatures of far infrared saunas typically range from 100 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 60 degrees Celsius).A 14.
This allows a person to perspire faster and to tolerate a longer period of time inside the sauna. Typical sessions in a far infrared sauna last 20 to 30 minutes and can be repeated to maximize the benefits.A 15. The lower heat range of far infrared saunas is safer for people with cardiovascular risk factors or fragile health because lower temperatures dona€™t dramatically elevate heart rate and blood pressure.A 16. Far infrared saunas have been used to treat sprains, bursitis, rheumatism, muscle spasms, neuralgia and hemorrhoids. The effects of toxin, chemical and pesticide poisoning can be greatly reduced by the far infrared saunaa€™s detoxification action. People who work with chemicals, as well as home gardeners who frequently use fertilizers and pesticides, are advised to use far infrared saunas on a regular basis.A 18. Far infrared radiant heat is a form of naturally occurring energy that heats objects by direct light conversion. Direct light conversion warms only the object and does not raise the temperature of the surrounding free air.A 19. Far infrared sauna use can help promote rebuilding of injured tissue by having a positive effect on the fibroblasts, the connective tissue cells necessary for the repair of injury.
It also can help increase growth of cells, DNA syntheses, and protein synthesis, all of which is necessary during tissue repair and regeneration.A 21.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, far infrared wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns.
Wavelengths of between 6 and 14 microns are believed to be the most beneficial to humans and other living things on Earth.A  The human palm emits far infrared wavelengths of between 8 and 12 microns. The energy output from far infrared saunas so closely match the human bodya€™s radiant energy that nearly 93 percent of the saunaa€™s far infrared waves reach the skin.A 22. Far infrared sauna therapy has helped people with cardiovascular conditions such as congestive heart failure and angina.
It enhances endothelial nitric oxide, lowering blood pressure and improving cardiovascular function.A 23. The radiant heat of far infrared saunas has been shown to be especially beneficial to people with sports injuries, fibromyalgia, arthritis, and other chronic pain conditions.A 24. There are some definite advantages to using far infrared sauna thermal heaters, such as no high heat claustrophobic reaction and better air circulation. Far infrared heaters heat the body, not the air, so a bather is more comfortable and cooler. Far infrared saunas require 90 percent less electrical energy than conventional saunas, and no plumbing is required for a far infrared sauna.A 26. A 20 to 30-minute session in a far infrared sauna has been touted to burn as many calories as a six-mile run.A 27.
Far infrared saunas are now used in health facilities for a range of health problems such as menopause, ulcers, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, ear infections, and allergies.A 28.
You dona€™t have to worry about setting the sauna up on a waterproof floor or near plumbing, and you dona€™t have to worry about mildew.A 29. Unlike a traditional sauna, which requires a closed atmosphere to maintain heat levels required for therapeutic results, a far infrared sauna can be used with its door or window completely open if far infrared penetration is the only objective.A 30. Far infrared saunas benefit all your organs of elimination, from your lungs to your liver to your kidneys to your skin.A 31. Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. Near infrared light is closest in wavelength to visible light, and far infrared light is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. A far infrared sauna is usually warm within 10 or 15 minutes, whereas a conventional sauna can take more than an hour to reach optimal temperatures.A 33. Another option, although quite costly, is to use far infrared bulbs, which can provide warming and stimulating color therapy.A 34.
In addition to hemlock, wood choices for far infrared sauna construction include basswood, birch, oak, poplar, spruce and western red cedar. When a wood type is stated to be hypoallergenic, it means that the wood contains minimal allergens and is therefore less likely to cause an allergic reaction. When far infrared heat penetrates a bathera€™s body, he or she can experience a refreshed mind, relaxed mood, reduction of aches and pains, improved metabolism, and systemic regularity leading to an overall feeling of wellness.A 37.
Hemlock is a very strong wood that is quite able to withstand the heat of a far infrared sauna. It is also abundantly available, which means the end cost to the consumer is less than it might be for another wood type.A 38. Far infrared radiation is believed to be the only antidote to excessive ultraviolet radiation.A 39. Certain alternative healing practices such as palm healing, a practice with some 3,000 years of tradition behind it in China, rely on the human bodya€™s ability to emit far infrared radiant energy.A 40. And weight gain, muscle loss, decreased libido, wrinkles in our skin, and a growing number of aches and pains are probably other distressing concerns.A Some people try to defy nature by undergoing cosmetic surgery, utilizing every a€?anti-aginga€? skin care product available, taking stress management or meditation courses, or relocating to less polluted areas.
These actions may have merits worthy of consideration, but the fact remains that no one, no matter how determined he or she may be, can slow down the passage of time.
We start aging even before we are born, and the process does not stop until the day we die.A While our efforts may not influence time itself, they can, however, affect how our bodies respond to and endure it. Qualified health professionals agree, for example, that regular exercise and good nutrition can have a long-term positive impact on a persona€™s quality of life. As well, avoiding the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun is universally regarded as an effective way to help maintain healthy, youthful skin. And leta€™s not forget how quitting smoking has been shown to improve respiratory health and reduce the risk of cancer in many vital bodily organs. A One activity that has been proven to be of great benefit to the lungs, heart, skin and other organs is far infrared sauna bathing.
The rays from a far infrared sauna can help improve cardiovascular functioning, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, reduce fat and cellulite, revitalize skin cells, improve muscle tone and strength, improve nutrition and production of brain chemicals, and much more.A Far infrared sauna bathing also helps to flush toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents from our bodies.
Exposure to this highly toxic substance can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, and memory or concentration difficulties.
Researchers have also linked lead exposure to Alzheimera€™s disease, a debilitating condition akin to dementia that most people associate with aging.A Various sources likewise suggest a connection between Alzheimera€™s disease and mercury, the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth. By definition, red is the color with the longest wavelengths of visible light, and violet is the color with the shortest wavelengths of visible light.
Among the types of invisible light or electromagnetic radiation that reside outside of the optical spectrum are infrared radiation (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Translated from Latin, a€?infraa€? and a€?ultraa€? mean a€?belowa€? and a€?beyond,a€? respectively, so infrared radiation, or infrared light, is literally a€?below red,a€? and ultraviolet light is a€?beyond violet.a€?The German-born astronomer William Herschel discovered infrared light while living in England in 1800, about 20 years after his historic first sighting of the planet Uranus. Measuring the heat from the optical spectrum, Herschel observed that the temperature in the colors increased as he went from violet to red. He also noticed that the temperature continued to increase beyond the color red, into a region of invisible light that Herschel named a€?infrared.a€?Infrared light is divided into three distinct segments with precise ranges of wavelength measured by microns.
Far infrared light is sometimes called thermal radiation or thermal light, and its wavelengths measure between 5.6 and 1,000 microns.

The light or energy from sunlight and fire that we perceive as heat is far infrared.The far infrared radiation (FIR) emitted by the sun should not be confused with its deleterious ultraviolet radiation. Chief among the consumer products utilizing the technology is the far infrared sauna or heat therapy room. A key attribute of far infrared light is its ability to heat an object directly without elevating the temperature of the air surrounding the object. This is called direct light conversion.A Direct light conversion is perhaps best demonstrated when youa€™re outside on a summer day and a big cloud moves in front of the sun. In the shade, you dona€™t feel as warm as when you were basking in the direct path of the suna€™s energy. Yet, by positioning itself between you and the sun, the cloud has blocked the suna€™s far infrared rays from reaching you.
Thata€™s the reason you feel cooler even though the temperature of the air around you has not changed.A The value of far infrared light to human health and wellness must not be underestimated. Penetrating as deeply as three inches into our bodies, far infrared rays improve blood circulation, stimulate endorphins, destroy certain bacteria and parasites, lower lactic acid, and burn calories.Advocates of hyperthermia, also known as fever therapy, contend that employing such deep-penetrating far infrared energy to therapeutically induce higher body temperatures helps combat infections and even cancer. Their assertion is supported by the human body itself, which emits infrared energy for purposes of warmth and tissue repair.A Saunas have long been a tried, tested and true source of health benefits. For centuries, traditional saunas have helped to improve cardiovascular function, promote body detoxification, maintain general health, and foster greater relaxation in sauna bathers around the world. For many sauna enthusiasts, the traditional hot sauna a€“ the Finnish sauna a€“ remains the preferred route to renewed health and a rejuvenated spirit.A Sometimes called radiant heat saunas, soft heat saunas or heat therapy rooms, far infrared saunas offer most of the same benefits that traditional Finnish saunas do, but they do so at lower, more tolerable temperatures. While the air temperature in a typical Finnish sauna bath ranges from 170 to 200 degrees Fahrenheit (77 to 93 degrees Celsius), such temperatures arena€™t required in a far infrared sauna to induce optimal bather perspiration.A By penetrating the bathera€™s body and effecting a deep, satisfying heat of just 100 to 130 degrees Fahrenheit (38 to 55 degrees Celsius), the far infrared rays can create an enjoyably cleansing, detoxifying and revitalizing experience for the bather. In fact, many sources claim that the volume of sweat produced during a far infrared sauna bath can be as much as three times greater than in a Finnish sauna bath.
The higher volume of sweat means a faster, more thorough, and thus more beneficial flushing of toxic chemicals and harmful heavy metals from the body.A Far infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth.
And now, with far infrared heat therapy rooms and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are wisely taking action to benefit from those rays and improve the quality of our own lives.A Benefits of Far Infrared Sauna UseThere are many benefits to be derived from proper and regular use of a far infrared sauna. Far infrared sauna bathing can improve autonomic functions of the nervous system.Further Applications of Far Infrared EnergyFar infrared saunas are just one example of the application of infrared energy in contemporary society.
Other uses of infrared energy have resulted in infrared hair dryers, infrared foot massagers, infrared pillows, infrared underwear, and even infrared leg wraps for horses. There are far infrared ray-emitting paints and wallpaper that combat mold as well as fast-cooking far infrared ovens that reportedly kill E. Far infrared rays are being utilized to purify polluted air, promote growth in plants, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, treat injured athletes, and even encourage new hair growth.Far Infrared Is Essential to LifeFar infrared rays are a fundamental, indispensable part of life on Earth. And now, with far infrared saunas and other infrared applications becoming increasingly common, we humans are astutely taking steps to benefit from those remarkable rays and improve the quality of our own lives.
Similarly, you may not pay much attention to far infrared saunas, but these fantastic devices offer health benefits that you may not be able to afford to ignore any longer.A As time progresses, it seems that the world is becoming an increasingly dangerous place. We live in an age of terrorist activities, nuclear weapons, dictatorships and religious fanaticism. Costly international conflicts show no sign of abating, and just about everyone feels more insecure and vulnerable than they did a decade ago. Even in our local neighborhoods, many of us worry about rising crime rates and growing threats to our personal safety.A And, as if those problems were not enough for us to worry about, many of us have major health issues with which we have no choice but to contend. Not helping matters are all the poisons and contaminants that have found their way into our environment and into our bodies. Fortunately, though, we are not powerless against these mighty and malicious microscopic menaces. In fact, we can start doing something about them right now - we can start fighting back with far infrared sauna detoxification therapy.A Far infrared saunas are revered by scientists and health professionals around the world for their ability to help flush out many of the toxic chemicals, heavy metals and other destructive agents that have accumulated deep within the bloodstream, skin and other vital organs of people from all walks of life. For individuals affected by mercury toxicity, lead poisoning, and other life-threatening exposures, the far infrared sauna is often viewed as an essential component of detoxification therapy.A If you think that only people in high-risk occupations qualify for far infrared sauna detoxification therapy, youa€™re wrong.
Exogenous toxins, which can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract, are those not produced by the body itself, and examples include mercury, lead, zinc and cadmium.
Sylver writes that a€?this category consists of waste produced by the body in the course of normal metabolic functioning and also pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites) and the waste they excrete.
Also known as chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), CFS was once commonly referred to as the a€?yuppie flua€? after about 200 people, most of whom were white, wealthy, young females, come down with a strange illness in 1984.
National Institutes of Health claim that, for some people, chronic fatigue syndrome can first appear after a cold, bronchitis, hepatitis or an intestinal bug; for others, it can follow a bout of glandular fever.
CDC and CFIDS Association of America announced in 2001 that stress may exacerbate but most likely does not cause the disorder.A On the polemical subject of CFS prevalence, Dr.
Buist asserts that toxins can impede muscle metabolism, causing the pain and fatigability of muscles felt by many fatigued people.A Addressing the Well Mind Association in Seattle, WA, Dr.
The affected persona€™s detoxification system is clogged up or destroyed, they get a backlog of chemicals, and their immune system goes down.a€?A Dr. Edelson and Deborah Mitchell, authors of What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Autoimmune Disorders, put it like this: a€?The hallmark of CFIDS is overwhelming, persistent, incapacitating fatigue that leaves those afflicted unable to carry on their normal physical functions. Schmidt writes, a€?Researchers at Uppsala University Medical School in Sweden reported that patients with chronic fatigue contain abnormal levels of mercury within their cells. Of patients with chronic fatigue, 45 percent showed mercury hypersensitivity and 49 percent showed lead hypersensitivity. When the metal burden was removed from the body (in many cases, by removing mercury-containing silver dental fillings), 77 percent of patients reported improved health.a€?A If these conclusions are correct, how can sufferers retaliate after the damage of toxic build-up has manifested itself as chronic fatigue syndrome?
Lyon recommend far infrared sauna therapy.A a€?For the chronic fatigue patient, a consistent program of infrared sauna therapy will assist the problem of autonomic dysregulation, which is common to the condition,a€? states Dr. These symptoms are reduced, as regular sauna therapy induces normal autonomic functioning.A a€?Through extensive research, it has been shown that saunas greatly assist in the elimination of accumulated toxins,a€? Lyon adds.
It has become well known that people who take regular saunas (2-3 per week) reduce their incidence of colds and influenza by over 65% (a study by the British Medical Association).
While many people use saunas primarily for relaxation and stress reduction, the other health benefits are increasing the popularity of saunas.
An often agonizing muscle disorder in which the thin film or tissue holding muscle together becomes thickened or tightened, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pains and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, mild to incapacitating fatigue, and disturbed sleep.A The pain of fibromyalgia is typically felt in the neck, back, shoulders and hands, but it is not exclusive to those areas. Based on criteria set in 1990 by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), a diagnosis of fibromyalgia requires a patient to have experienced widespread pain for a minimum of three months in 11 of 18 tender muscle sites. Among those 18 sites are the hips, knees and rib cage.A Other symptoms of fibromyalgia include allergies, anxiety, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, dizziness, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, numbness, and tender skin. Most sufferers of fibromyalgia are women of childbearing age, but it has also been known to strike men, children and the elderly.As for what causes fibromyalgia, many theories exist. The Alternative Medicine Guide to Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia and Environmental Illness states that a€?post-traumatic fibromyalgia is believed to develop after a fall, whiplash or back strain, whereas primary fibromyalgia has an uncertain origin.a€? However, in her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Nenah Sylver extols the sauna for its ability to increase cardiovascular activity and white blood cell, enzyme, and norepinephrine, beta-endorphin and possibly thyroxin production.
As they, in turn, help to enhance circulation, increase waste removal and nutrient absorption, raise metabolism, and promote the elimination of toxins, foreign proteins and microbes, Dr.
Sylver deems the aforementioned benefits of proper sauna use crucial in helping people with fibromyalgia. She notes a€?there are actually very few health problems that cannot be helped (or would become worse) with sauna therapya€? but advises patients nevertheless to consult with their health providers before beginning sauna therapy.A Dr.
Rogers and other health professionals insist that the far infrared sauna, radiant heat sauna or heat therapy room is of greater benefit to fibromyalgia sufferers than the traditional hot Finnish sauna because of a fundamental difference between the two styles of sauna. Rogers calls the far infrared sauna a€?infinitely more tolerable,a€? particularly for people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or multiple sclerosis, because it can function effectively at a much lower temperature than a conventional Finnish sauna.A a€?Ia€™m convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? declares Dr. That such an effective detoxification tool exists should be welcome news to anyone suffering the ill effects of excessive lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic or aluminium in his or her body. A Not everyone may believe they have sufficient reason to worry about heavy metal and chemical toxicity, but many experts are urging the skeptics to think again.
Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which can produce a wide range of adverse health effects. In adults, lead can reportedly increase blood pressure and cause fertility problems, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, irritability, and memory or concentration problems. A Because their brains and central nervous systems are still being formed, young children under the age of six are especially vulnerable to leada€™s harmful health effects. National Safety Council (NSC), a€?Even very low levels of exposure can result in reduced IQ, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, behavioral problems, stunted growth, impaired hearing, and kidney damage. Lead can also be found in automobile exhaust, pesticides, hair dye, ink, and some glazed dishware.Mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that can be found in tuna and swordfish, latex paint, dental amalgams, vaccines, cosmetics, contact lens solution, fabric softener and tap water, has also been classified by researchers as posing a grave threat to human health. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that no level of mercury can be considered to be safe, as it is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth.A In their book What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, Dr. Like so many other heavy metals, cadmium can be found in air, water, soil and food.A Noting that the highest contributor to cadmium toxicity is cigarette smoke, the Center for Environmental and Integrative Medicine (CEIM) in Knoxville, TN, states that a€?cadmium can weaken the immune system and allow bacteria, viruses, yeast and parasites to proliferate.
Cadmium may also promote skeletal demineralization and increase bone fragility and fracture risk.
Department of Health and Human Servicesa€™ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).
Eating food or drinking water with very high cadmium levels severely irritates the stomach, leading to vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes death. Breathing air with lower levels of cadmium, or eating lower levels of cadmium, over long periods of time can result in a build-up of cadmium in the kidneys. This has been seen mostly in workers exposed to arsenic at smelters, mines, and chemical factories, but also in residents living near smelters and arsenical chemical factories.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have all classified inorganic arsenic as a known human carcinogen.A Since arsenic is found naturally in the environment, humans risk exposure to it when they eat food, drink water, breathe air, or come in contact with contaminated soil or water. The same can be said for aluminium compounds.A People may also be exposing themselves to aluminium compounds when they ingest medicinal products like certain antacids, laxatives and buffered aspirin or have skin contact with aluminium metal, antiperspirants, or other substances that contain aluminium or aluminium compounds. Mercola asserts that aluminium has been linked to serious illnesses such as osteoporosis, extreme nervousness, anemia, headache, decreased liver and kidney function, speech disturbances, and memory loss. He also contends that people who have died from Alzheimera€™s disease have been found to have up to four times the average amount of aluminium accumulated in the braina€™s nerve cells.A Offering its view on the subject, the ATSDR states that exposure to aluminium is usually not harmful but notes that some people who have kidney disease store a lot of aluminium in their bodies. In these children, the bone damage is caused by aluminium in the stomach preventing the absorption of phosphate, (which is) required for healthy bones.a€?Lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium are just five of an intimidating number of toxins capable of severely compromising your health.
Among the other heavy metals most often found at unacceptable levels in the body, according to Edelson and Mitchell, are nickel and tin. Sherry Rogers writes, a€?The lungs, urine, stool and sweat are the main vehicles the body has for getting rid of nasty chemicals, but by far sweat is the most efficacious. And Mayo Clinic studies show that (utilizing) far infrared energy is the safest way to induce healing sweata€¦ Far infrared sauna technology is the only proven, most efficacious way of getting rid of stored environmental chemicals.a€?A A far infrared sauna has been cited as the best place to sweat because, whereas bathing in a conventional hot air sauna produces perspiration that is composed of approximately 97 percent water and three percent toxins, soaking in a far infrared sauna has been shown to produce sweat composed of about 80 percent water and 20 percent toxins.
As well, far infrared saunas can produce up to three times the sweat volume of a conventional hot air sauna while operating at a considerably cooler air temperature range of 110 to 130 degrees versus 180 to 235 degrees for hot air saunas. Ita€™s worthwhile to also note that, according to author and sauna historian Mikkel Aaland, a 15-minute far infrared sauna session can execute the same heavy metal excretion that would take the kidneys 24 working hours. In other words, sweating in a far infrared sauna can be a very efficient method of detoxification.A Even though sweating is a natural function of the human body, many people do not perspire properly because their skin has been damaged or deactivated by, among other culprits, chemicals in bath water, lotions, soaps and deodorants.
Fortunately for these people, far infrared sauna therapy can greatly help to restore the skina€™s eliminative powers. Ita€™s just one more way far infrared saunas work to heal bodies compromised by harmful chemicals.A If you are concerned about how harmful chemicals and heavy metals can affect your health, consider the many benefits of owning a far infrared sauna. Most people have a casual understanding of each of those three, but it is the mercury included in the periodic table of elements that demands greater public contemplation. For if contemporary society placed more of an emphasis on the pernicious effects of mercury exposure, perhaps fewer people would be victimized by related illnesses and diseases.A Mercury is the most toxic non-radioactive element on Earth, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has proclaimed that no level of mercury can be regarded as being safe. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced in a 2001 study that one in every 10 American women of childbearing age is at risk for having a baby born with neurological problems due to mercury exposure.A There are three principal types of mercury, and each type presents a serious health hazard to humans. The first type, elemental mercury, is a liquid that gives off mercury vapor at room temperature. Elemental mercury can also enter the bloodstream by permeating the skin.A Inorganic mercury compounds, the second type, can also be inhaled as well as pass through the skin. Unlike elemental mercury, though, inorganic mercury compounds can also be absorbed through the stomach if swallowed.
Elemental mercury, if swallowed, is not absorbed and usually exits the body without causing any harm.
Many inorganic mercury compounds are irritating or corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucus membranes.A The third type of mercury, organic mercury compounds, can enter the body by way of all three routes a€“ lungs, skin and stomach. Exposure to any form of mercury on a repeated basis, or even a very high single dose, can lead to chronic mercury poisoning. According to the New Jersey State Department of Health, chronic mercury poisoning is characterized by three major symptoms:Gum problems. People with chronic mercury poisoning frequently experience wide mood swings, becoming irritable, frightened, excited or depressed very quickly for no apparent reason. Some people may become extremely upset at any criticism, lose all self-confidence, and become apathetic. Memory loss, hallucinations, and inability to concentrate can also occur.Nervous system impairment. The earliest and most frequent symptom of chronic mercury poisoning is a fine tremor of the hand. A person with chronic mercury poisoning may also experience difficulty balancing and walking.A In What Your Doctor May Not Be Telling You About Autoimmune Disorders, authors Dr. Research has demonstrated that the bodya€™s tissues, especially in the brain, kidneys, jaw, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, absorb and store mercury.a€?A With such research findings having caught the publica€™s attention, some people have begun insisting that their dentists use composite fillings, also known as a€?white fillings,a€? as a non-toxic alternative to amalgam fillings. As well, some dental patients are demanding that their existing amalgam fillings be removed and replaced with composite fillings.A In her book Detoxify or Die, Dr. Rogers writes, a€?Autoimmune disease, heart disease, high cholesterol and triglycerides, chemical sensitivity, allergies, antibiotic-resistant infections, depression, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, leukemia and just about any symptom you can think of have improved once sufficient accumulated mercury was removed from the teeth and body.a€?Going a step further, Dr. Daniel Royal, member of the Nevada State Board of Homeopathic Medical Examiners, states, a€?While removal of amalgam fillings stops further poisoning from mercury fillings, you still need to detoxify the body to eliminate the residual effect from mercury that remains behind in the body. Royal calls the sauna a useful adjunct to safe mercury removal because it induces profuse sweating.
One reason is that far infrared saunas, also known as radiant heat saunas or soft heat saunas, can effectively function at temperatures lower than those characteristic of traditional hot Finnish saunas. The findings of this study make a strong case that far infrared saunas are simply better detoxification devices than conventional hot saunas.A Before you begin a sauna detoxification program, or if you suspect that you suffer from mercury poisoning, you should discuss your plans or share your suspicions with a qualified health professional. And if you decide to purchase a far infrared sauna for any of its many therapeutic properties, be sure to research your choices thoroughly, as satisfied sauna buyers are typically well-informed sauna buyers.A Opening the Sauna Door to Better Healthby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa You may think of a home sauna as being little more than a luxury, an object that offers pleasure and comfort but is ultimately inessential to your well-being.
However, the results of decades of research may just convince you of what sauna enthusiasts have believed for centuries a€“ that regular sauna bathing offers significant, perhaps even life-saving, health benefits.A A chief objective of any sauna bath is to make you perspire, and perspiration is a natural, necessary function of the human body.
Ita€™s a means by which the body can rid itself of extra heat and water and eliminate harmful toxins that have, over time, built up inside it. Included among these toxins are mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminium.A The health benefits of sauna bathing, however, go beyond aiding detoxification. As your body increases sweat production to cool itself during a hot sauna bath, your heart increases blood circulation. Heart rate, cardiac output and metabolic rate all increase, while diastolic blood pressure decreases, helping to improve overall cardiovascular fitness.A Sauna bathing may also contribute to healthy weight loss. A letter in a 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association asserted that a€?a moderately conditioned person can easily a€?sweat offa€™ 500 grams in a sauna, consuming nearly 300 calories, the equivalent of running two to three miles. A heat-conditioned person can easily sweat off 600 to 800 calories with no adverse effects.
While the weight of the water lost can be regained by rehydration with water, the calories consumed will not be.a€?A Most irrefutable are the claims that regular sauna bathing helps to relieve stress and promote relaxation.
It has been demonstrated time and time again that spending just a few minutes in a hot sauna bath can reduce anxiety levels, sooth nerves and warm tight muscles.
Not only has sauna bathing been shown to encourage deeper, more restful sleep, far infrared sauna therapy has proved effective in alleviating pain associated with arthritis, backache, bursitis, fibromyalgia, headache, sprains, strains and other muscular and skeletal ailments.A a€?I am convinced that the far infrared sauna is something that everyone should do to restore health,a€? contends Dr. And while the condition known as Raynauda€™s disease has perhaps not received as much attention as those previously mentioned, credible sources suggest that sauna bathing can benefit its sufferers as well.A Raynauda€™s disease is a condition that causes some areas of your body, such as your fingers, toes, ears, cheeks, tongue, and the tip of your nose, to feel numb and cool in response to cold temperatures or stress. Named after Maurice Raynaud, the French physician who first described it in 1862, it is a disorder of the blood vessels that supply blood to your skin.
During a Raynauda€™s attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas.A Accurately discussing Raynauda€™s can be challenging for some people, as two types of it exist, and each type has two names. What most laymen generically call Raynauda€™s disease could be either primary Raynauda€™s or secondary Raynauda€™s.A Primary Raynauda€™s, the most common form of the disorder, is what physicians and medical textbooks correctly refer to as Raynauda€™s disease.
Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynauda€™s mainly affects women between the ages of 15 and 40. Ita€™s also more common in people who live in colder climates.A Secondary Raynauda€™s, also known as Raynauda€™s phenomenon, is caused by an underlying problem like scleroderma, Sjogrena€™s syndrome (both connective tissue diseases), lupus (an autoimmune disease), rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disease), hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland), diseases of the arteries (such as atherosclerosis and Buergera€™s disease), carpal tunnel syndrome, nerve damage, or chemical exposure.
As well, people in certain occupations, such as those who operate vibrating tools, may be more vulnerable to secondary Raynauda€™s.A Most typically, cold temperatures provoke Raynauda€™s attacks.
Just taking an item out of your freezer, putting your hands in cold water, or exposing yourself to cold air could trigger one. For some people, however, cold is not even necessary; emotional stress is enough to instigate an episode.
In both cases, the body seems to exaggerate its natural response of trying to preserve its core temperature by slowing blood supply to its extremities. During an attack, which can last from less than a minute to several hours, affected areas of your skin usually first turn white. As your blood circulation improves, the affected areas may turn red, throb, tingle or swell. Raynauda€™s attacks may grow more severe over time.A If the condition becomes severe, blood circulation to your extremities could permanently diminish, resulting in deformities in affected areas like your fingers or toes. Also, skin ulcers or gangrene could develop if an artery to an affected area becomes completely blocked.A Depending on the cause and severity of symptoms, treatment can take many forms. Medications may include alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, or vasodilators, all of which help relax blood vessels.
For example, during a session in either type of sauna, the bathera€™s heart responds to the sauna heat by increasing blood flow and perspiration production to cool the bathera€™s body. In this way, sauna bathing is a form of cardiovascular exercise.A Perspiring in a sauna, especially a far infrared sauna, also helps the body rid itself of harmful toxins that have built up over time. With experts having already drawn the connection between nicotine, secondhand smoke and Raynauda€™s, this benefit is certainly noteworthy.A As anyone who has stepped into a sauna seeking relief from muscle aches, sports injuries or ailments such as arthritis or fibromyalgia should already know, sauna bathing also offers a proven way to alleviate pain. A clinical study conducted at Sunnybrook and Womena€™s College Health Science Centers at the University of Toronto confirmed that far infrared therapy can bring about significant improvements in both subjective measures of pain and discomfort associated with Raynauda€™s disease.A Lastly, sauna bathing fosters relaxation and stress relief.
To those Raynauda€™s sufferers whose attacks are caused by emotional stress, as well as to the innumerable Raynauda€™s sufferers whose emotional stress is understandably caused by their attacks, this news is likely very welcome.A If you think you may be suffering from Raynauda€™s disease or Raynauda€™s phenomenon, be sure to discuss your concerns with a qualified health professional.
Meanwhile, youa€™d be wise to investigate the many ways a home sauna, be it a traditional Finnish sauna or a far infrared sauna, can improve your health and happiness.A Insomnia and the Far Infrared Saunaby Pertti Olavi JalasjaaYoua€™ve wisely avoided sleeping pills, but it seems as if youa€™ve tried almost everything else to get a better nighta€™s sleep.
The comforting heat of a sauna works to induce healthy perspiration, assist respiratory function, benefit blood pressure, stimulate endorphins, cleanse skin, and relieve sore, tired muscles.
By raising your body temperature in a sauna bath right before bedtime, you compel it to normalize itself afterwards, and ita€™s this temperature readjustment following the sauna bath that helps to improve the quality of your sleep.A Of course, other effects of the heat bath can certainly contribute to improvements in your sleep.
Regular sauna bathers routinely report that soaking in a hot sauna helps them rid their minds of the anxieties, frustrations and worries that may have been plaguing them prior to bathing. And by helping to alleviate any existing physical pain like headaches, muscle strain or joint stiffness, a sauna bath can effectively disarm many of the aggravations that might have impeded truly restful sleep.A Home saunas are available in many styles and sizes.
Around the globe, doctors, researchers and other professionals have discovered the tremendous value of using sauna heat to help increase the human bodya€™s white blood cell count, stimulate its immune system, facilitate detoxification, and produce a state of general relaxation that is vital to the healing process.A In many countries, experts continue to research the therapeutic properties of the sauna.
Chuwa Tei, professor of medicine and chair of the department of internal medicine at Japana€™s Kagoshima University, and his colleagues have demonstrated saunasa€™ usefulness in treating heart patients.A In one study, Tei and his colleagues compared 25 men with at least one risk factor for heart disease, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or smoking, with a group of 10 healthy men. Each study participant spent 15 minutes in a 140-degree Fahrenheit (60-degree Celsius) dry sauna, followed by 30 minutes in a bed covered with blankets, once a day for two weeks. The researchers then measured how well the participantsa€™ blood vessels expanded and contracted, a sign of the health of the vessels.
The researchers also found that the sauna therapy lowered participantsa€™ blood pressure slightly. The results of the study should be encouraging to anyone concerned about blood vessel diseases like atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and erectile dysfunction.In earlier studies, Tei and his colleagues demonstrated that sauna therapy improved the blood vessel function in hamsters with chronic heart failure. The hamsters that received sauna therapy also lived about three weeks longer than those that didna€™t receive sauna therapy.A German researchers recently studied 22 kindergarten children who took weekly sauna baths and compared them to a group of children that did not take any sauna baths.
Both groups were followed for 18 months and closely monitored for any occurrence of ear infections, colds, or upper respiratory problems.
The researchers found that the children who did not take the weekly sauna baths took twice as many sick days as their counterparts.A Other findings suggest that it may be more than the heat of a sauna that is so advantageous to human health. Tests have indicated that the practice of tossing or splashing water on heated rocks in a traditional Finnish sauna produces a high quantity of negative ions in the air.
Research has concluded that air abundant with negative ions offers great benefits, while a lack of negative ions or a higher ration of positive to negative ions in the air we breathe can cause physical harm.And while a June 2001 edition of The St.
Lying above the 60th parallel, the southern boundary of the Arctic Circle, northernmost Finland receives little sunlight during the winter, which typically begins in November and lasts at least until May.
Throughout all of Finland, winter days are remarkably short, with the sun low on the horizon even at midday. In the far north, the period known as a€?kaamosa€? or polar night, during which the sun never rises above the horizon, is nearly two months long.A Light deprivation is a serious concern during Finnish winters, particularly in areas where continuous darkness stretches several weeks. Many experts believe it could explain why Finland has one of the worlda€™s highest suicide rates. Each year, 14 percent of northern populations reportedly experience the a€?winter blues,a€? and another six percent suffer from the more serious Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a type of clinical depression that, by definition, afflicts people only at certain times of the year. A In addition to depression, common symptoms of SAD include anxiety, fatigue and low energy, irritability, increased sleeping, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite, most notably carbohydrate cravings.A For many people, Seasonal Affective Disorder is a seriously disabling illness that prevents them from functioning normally without continuous medical treatment. For others, it is a mild but debilitating condition that causes discomfort but not severe suffering. This milder form of SAD, called Subsyndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder, is what most people perceive to be the aforementioned winter blues.A Yet another form of SAD is Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder (RSAD), and it typically strikes during the late spring or early summer and lasts throughout the warmer months. Also known as summer depression, RSAD is characterized by decreased sleep, weight loss, poor appetite, and other symptoms. Because treatment options can differ for SAD and RSAD, ita€™s important to note that the information in the following paragraphs pertains specifically to SAD a€“ in other words, winter depression.A According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder include monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOs), psychotherapy, and light therapy. Certain sources claim that, in addition to being used to treat SAD, insomnia and jet lag, light therapy can also be beneficial for people suffering from skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis and vitiglio.A For treating Seasonal Affective Disorder, the most commonly used phototherapy equipment is a portable lighting device known as a light box.
The patient sits in front of the box for a prescribed period of time that can be as brief as 15 minutes or as long as several hours.
The duration and frequency of light therapy sessions often depend on the patienta€™s physical needs and lifestyle. As one might surmise, light therapy sessions for SAD typically begin in the autumn months and continue throughout the winter, sometimes even into the early spring.A The light box may be mounted upright to a wall or slanted downwards and set on a table. The light from a slanted light box is designed to focus on the table upon which it sits, so patients may look down to read or enjoy other sedentary activities during their phototherapy sessions. Patients using an upright light box must face the light box, although they dona€™t need to look directly into the light. As for the brightness of the light utilized, the light sources in these light boxes typically range from 2,500 to 10,000 lux (units of illumination). In comparison, average indoor lighting typically ranges from 300 to 500 lux, and a sunny summer day is roughly 100,000 lux.A Before undergoing any light therapy treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder, be sure to discuss your concerns and options with a qualified health professional. If you believe that you suffer from SAD, it is vital that you receive a proper diagnosis from a physician experienced in treating mood disorders. As well, certain risks (like potential eye strain, hypomania and headache, among others) are associated with phototherapy, especially for people who are photosensitive, so consulting with your doctor and an ophthalmologist could prevent additional problems from arising during or after your treatments.
If you decide to pursue light therapy treatments without the assistance of a qualified health professional, be aware that different companies hold decidedly different stances on exactly what constitutes light therapy. A Among the health-related companies that are now making light therapy part of their business are manufacturers and retailers of home saunas.
It is a logical development since far infrared sauna therapy has repeatedly been proven to be an effective form of light therapy. The light found in a far infrared sauna is, of course, far infrared light, a type of invisible light located below the optical color red in the electromagnetic spectrum.A An indispensable part of life on Earth, far infrared light has long been used by humans to purify polluted air, keep newborn babies warm in hospitals, promote growth in plants, and more.
Little did the early sauna bathers of Finland realize centuries ago that their beloved heat baths might someday become a source of hope and healing, not just for the people of their own country but for everyone who finds the dark days of winter hard to weather.A Sweat and Far Infrared Saunas- Here's the Skinnyby Pertti Olavi Jalasjaa For whatever reason, most people feel uncomfortable talking about perspiration. For example, ita€™s not unusual to hear someone remark that he or she a€?sweateda€? over an academic assignment, a€?worked up a sweata€? on the tennis courts, or a€?lost a pint of sweata€? while awaiting an important decision.
But these are simply colloquial expressions that many of us utilize to make a point about our mental or physical stress or exertion related to a particular undertaking or event.
After all, to do so, polite society decrees, would be in poor taste.A And yet much could be gained if people felt free to discuss the natural biological process of perspiration without fear of judgment or reproach. When we perspire in a far infrared sauna, we help our bodies rid themselves of the countless toxins like mercury, lead, cadmium and other contaminants that have accumulated within us over time. As well, by intensely sweating in a far infrared sauna we benefit our hearts, lungs, kidneys and other organs that are essential to our survival. Far infrared sauna bathing has also been proven to promote pain relief, muscle relaxation, and emotional tranquility.A For people suffering from certain skin diseases, far infrared sauna bathing can be particularly therapeutic. As the far infrared heat induces an increase in blood circulation to the skin, the bodya€™s defence against chronic skin conditions like acne, eczema and psoriasis is considerably bolstered.
As well, thorough sweating helps unclog the skin of whatever unhealthy remnants of soap, lotions, deodorants or makeup may be unnecessarily lodged in its pores.
Dead skin cells are also effectively flushed away by a good sweat in a far infrared sauna.A Increased blood flow and decreased toxins and foreign material in our skin mean more natural nutrients and fewer reasons for irritations and disease.
Elasticity, texture, tone and color can all noticeably improve after just a few sessions in a far infrared sauna. These benefits are available even if your skin has suffered harsh damage from excessive exposure to the sun.A You dona€™t have to talk about perspiration if you dona€™t want to. If you live a mostly sedentary lifestyle and therefore dona€™t perspire much on a regular basis, you must take action for the sake of the health of your heart, lungs, skin and other vital organs.
People face stress at home, at work, at school a€“ anywhere opportunities to react to internal or external stimulation exist.A That stimulation can come from a disagreement with a spouse, a conflict with a co-worker, criticism from a teacher, bad news from a doctor, and so on.
And the stimulation need not be negative; people often become stressed when they start new jobs or enter into new relationships. Even a big, surprise win at the casino can cause stress.A A little stress isna€™t necessarily a bad thing. Stress during a job interview can help you give the best answers to the people asking the tough questions. These hormones are not harmful in moderate amounts, but cortisol is secreted excessively in response to chronic stress and is extremely toxic in these larger amounts.A a€?Cortisol actually kills and disables your brain cells,a€? says Dr.
Chronic exposure to cortisol causes the mental haziness, forgetfulness and confusion that is associated with aging.a€?A People under stress may also be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease.
Stress causes arteries to constrict and blood to become stickier, increase the probability of an artery-clogging blood clot.
As well, people who regularly experience sudden increases in blood pressure caused by stress may, over time, develop injuries in the inner lining of their blood vessels.A Studies suggest that chronic stress may increase a persona€™s chances for developing infections, having strokes, experiencing flare ups of multiple sclerosis, and suffering gastrointestinal problems like peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Chronic stress has also been linked to the development of insulin resistance, a key factor in diabetes. And ask anybody who has ever suffered from headaches, insomnia, skin disorders or sexual dysfunction if they believe that stress was at least partly to blame for their woes, and then construct your own conclusions about how damaging stress can be to onea€™s health and well being.A If you think you have a serious condition that has been caused or made worse by certain stressors in your life, you should discuss your concerns with a qualified physician. If, however, youa€™d like to improve the quality of your life by learning how to better cope with stress, many options exist.
Perhaps your first focus should be on discovering the remarkable benefits of relaxation.Relaxation decreases blood pressure, respiration and pulse rates, releases muscle tension, and eases emotional strains. In their quests for greater relaxation, some people choose biofeedback while others opt for massage therapy. Studies indicate that soaking in a hot sauna bath can help improve respiratory function, increase cardiovascular strength, reduce and remove body toxins, strengthen the bodya€™s immune system, relieve headaches, and cleanse and beautify skin. Sauna bathing can also increase blood circulation, relaxing tight, tired or aching muscles by providing them with more oxygen.A If youa€™re searching for a healthy way to alleviate the stress in your life, consider purchasing a home sauna.
Residential saunas are available in a range of styles and sizes, from pre-cut Finnish sauna kits to outdoor barrel saunas and far infrared heat therapy rooms. Seemingly ubiquitous advertisements and TV commercials for antiperspirants continue to convince generations of consumers that perspiration is an undesirable, offensive bodily function.
While no one would dispute that sweat can be quite unwelcome in important social and business situations, it would be imprudent not to acknowledge the necessity of perspiration and understand the critical role it plays in human health.A Sweating is an essential function of the human body, as essential as eating, breathing and sleeping.
Skin is sometimes called a€?the third kidneya€? for this very reason.A Your body eliminates various toxins through a variety of metabolic processes, one being urination and another being perspiration.
The kidneys filter waste materials from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine.
The temperature in a traditional Finnish sauna is usually between 180 and 200 degrees Fahrenheit (80 and 95 degrees Celsius).
The two types of sauna operate differently, but, at their respective temperature ranges, working up a sufficient sweat in either type should be achievable for even the most inexperienced sauna bather.A Using high heat to induce perspiration has a great number of benefits. In addition to decreasing the amount of toxins and heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, in your body, an intense sweat bath in a sauna can help cleanse it of other impurities like cholesterol, nicotine, sodium, and sulfuric acid. By improving blood circulation, regular sauna bathing can help draw the skina€™s own natural nutrients to the surface, leading to better tone, texture and elasticity. Thata€™s why sauna bathing is being increasingly included in high-intensity treatment programs for skin ailments like acne, eczema and psoriasis. Some beauty specialists in Europe even claim the sauna can be quite a powerful weapon in the war against cellulite.A As beneficial and therapeutic as sweating in a soothing hot sauna may be, however, it is imperative that bathers not allow the experience to dehydrate them.
As well, be sure to discuss your plans and expectations with your personal physician before you take to the sauna for the first time, as he or she should know of any existing conditions or limitations that pertain specifically to your health and might impact your sauna use.A As for all those advertisements and TV commercials that say sweating is bad, forget about them, and start doing what you know is best for your health.

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