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Description: This map is justifiably considered by many scholars to be the finest cartographic production of its age. As royal cosmographer, it was Riberoa€™s duty to revise the patron real [padron general], the standard or official map, as new data was brought back by the pilots from their voyages of discovery.
In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal. In 1526 Ribero was a prominent member of the junta of pilots at Seville, under the presidency of Ferdinand Columbus.
The map shown here, the Propoganda map, is the one now in the Biblioteca Apostalica Vaticana, Vatican City.
Beginning on the northern part of the North American continent, on the coast of Tiera de Labrador [Greenland] a brief inscription reads: The English discovered this country.
Tierra de los Baccallos [Newfoundland], which is still a part of the mainland as on the map of Ruysch (#313), is thus described: The land of cod fish discovered by the Corte Reals and where they were lost. Tiera De EstevA? Gomez commemorates the voyage made in 1525 by Estevan Gomez, the captain of the San Antonio, who deserted Magellan and returned to Spain.
On his return voyage, Gomez saw the Bermuda Islands, which were rediscovered long after by Gates and Somers in 1610. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa. Nueva EspaA±a, or Mexico, has the following inscription: Nueva EspaA±a is thus called because it contains many things [of the kind found] in Spain. The northern coast of Brazil has this inscription: All over this coast, from Rio dulce to the Cape of San Roque, nothing of account has been found. Tiera Del Brazil has this legend: Here, the only thing of value is the brazil [dyewood], which costs only the trouble of cutting and carrying it to the vessels, which the Indians do for very little. The La Plata region of South America was first explored by Juan de Solis, who, in 1512, succeeded Vespucci as Pilot Major.
The following inscription on Tiera De Patagones, or the Country of the Patagonians, discloses that Ribero was familiar with the description of that country which was brought back to Spain in 1522 by the survivors of the Magellan expedition: Those who inhabit that land where Fernam de Magellan found the strait, are men of large bodies, almost giants, covered with skins of beasts.
As can be seen there are a multitude of place-names on the coasts of all of the continents. Further north, on the west coast of the modern day United States, but relating to the Atlantic coast, the inscription reads as follows: Everywhere on this northern coast the Indians are taller than those of Santo Domingo and other islands. In accordance with the recommendations of the Spanish members of the Conference at Badajos that all Spanish maps should thereafter locate the Line of Demarcation, Ribero drew such a line 370 leagues west of San Antonio, the westernmost of the Cape Verde Islands, using it as the initial meridian. The route or track taken by the famous Magellan expedition in 1519-20 is marked on Riberoa€™s map by drawings of his first two ships, the Victoria and the Trinidad. As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532). Typical of Riberoa€™s world maps is their decoration, which depicted quadrants, astrolabes (bottom left and right) and text providing the rules of navigation and information about various countries.


On the Propoganda map, specifically, there are Indians, monkeys, opossums, rheas and parrots which were becoming familiar on the South American scene; but Ribero also adds deer, a jaguar, a possible bear, a dragon, some birds and a number of small animals that are difficult to interpret, but, according to Wilma George, give the impression of some of the South American rodents such as the mara, chinchilla and viscacha. This detail of the Pacific Ocean on the Vaticana€™s a€?Propogandaa€? edition of 1529 shows a quadrant (lower left) and circular figure for finding solar declination (dominating the central Pacific), both with accompanying instructions. Detail: Eastern Hemisphere from the 1529 Propoganda or Second Borgian edition of Riberoa€™s map.
In 1524 Ribero was also a member of the Conference of Badajos that was assembled to settle the dispute as to whether the Philippine Islands lay within the part of the world allotted by the Treaty of Tordesillas to Spain or to Portugal.A  This conference dissolved without agreement, but Spain retained control of both groups of islands until 1528, when Charles V sold his claim to the Spice [Moluccan] Islands to Portugal as part of the Treaty of Saragossa. Tiera De Garay, north of the Gulf of Mexico, was so named for Francis de Garay, the Governor of Jamaica, who in 1519 sent Pineda to find a strait through the land to the a€?South Seaa€? recently discovered by Balboa.A  Pineda sailed along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico as far west as the river Panuco, discovering a large river, the R.
As mentioned earlier, several of Riberoa€™s famous large planispheres, impressively executed in the style of nautical charts, as well as a plan of the western hemisphere, have been preserved and are found today in the libraries of Mantua (the 1525 map), the Vatican (1529), Weimar (1527 and 1529), and WolfenbA?ttel (1532).A  Fragments of a world map produced in 1530, probably for a member of the important Augsburg merchant dynasty the House of Welser, are preserved in the Studienbibliothek, Dillingen on the Danube. DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant (#258). The Laon globe, apparently following closely in time to Behaima€™s famous globe, is an engraved and gilded red copper ball, having a diameter of 17 cm, about the size of a 36-pounder cannon ball, and pierced by a socket which at a former period held an axis. As to its geographical representations and design, this terrestrial globe appears to be older than that of Martin Behaim, yet at the southern extremity of Africa we find the names Mons Niger and S.
The Laon globe gives a wholly different representation of the North compared with Behaim, more in agreement with the usual maps of the world of the Nicolaus Germanus type, with sea at the pole round the north of the continent, which terminates approximately at the Arctic Circle. In the Atlantic it shows two elongated islands, Antela and Salirosa, undoubtedly meant for Antillia and Salvagio.
The large declination table incorporating a calendar and, uniquely among Riberoa€™s charts, illustrations of the signs of the zodiac and a wind rose.
Located immediately to the south of the fiercely contested and strategically important Molucca Islands and flanked with the standards of Castile and of Portugal, which fly from poles of unequal length placed at unequal distances from its top. There is evidence that at one time it was part of an astronomical clock and to have had only a secondary or incidental, and in part rather careless, application to geography. Thomas, inscribed with the legend Huc usque Portugalenses navigio pervenere 1493 [a Portuguese ship reached this far in 1493], CA?oa€™s a€?furthesta€? in 1485. The Scandinavian peninsula (called Norvegia) has a form somewhat resembling this type; but to the north of it, Gronlandia appears as an island, with a land called Livonia projecting northward on the east, and two islands, Yslandia and Tile, on the west.
Africa on the Laon globe resembles the form presented by Fra Mauro in his 1459 planisphere (#249).
Perhaps the globe maker had at command only a somewhat defaced specimen of a map like Biancoa€™s (#241) or that of Weimar, showing perforce only two islands, and merely copied them, guessing at the dim names and outlines, without thinking or caring whether anything more were implied or making any farther search. The text in the boxes explains how to read solar declination off of the figure and the accompanying latitude scale (given the date), how to use the quadrant, and how to calculate latitude given the solar declination and the suna€™s height at noon. Some of the Indians came on board, and asked to be carried [away, and] they died afterwards at sea.A  According to Pigafetta, those Indians, so far from having left of their own accord, were treacherously chained and kidnapped. Nothing is known of the origin of the Laon globe, or of the sources of its representation of the North.


This is apparently the last instance in which the larger two islands of the old group or series, marked by their traditional names or what are meant for such, appear together. It has two meridian circles, which intersect at right angles and which can be moved about a common axis, likewise a horizon circle which is movable.
Ravenstein believes that the above legend could have been added quite easily long after the completion of the globe itself, a procedure by no means unknown among map publishers to bring items up-to-date. The astrolabe, which is dated 1529, carries a shadow scale; the inscription below identifies it as a marinera€™s instrument. Lawrence, mention is made of an archipelago, which may refer to the Iles de la Madeleine, borrowed apparently from some Portuguese map of the Fagundes expeditions.A  On the northwest coast there is a Rio solo and, on the Pacific coast, what the Weimar Ribero calls R. Numerous circles appear engraved on the surface of the ball, drawn at every 15th degree, including meridians and parallels.
The world maps in the Vatican, Dillingen and WolfenbA?ttel also feature masterful drawings of mountains, trees, castellated towns, ships, birds and mammals. The astrolabe shown by Ribero is not the standard marinera€™s version, but a a€?quadrante horarioa€?, as described in the inscription next to the drawing. 1261-64), a distinguished mathematician of Novara, wrote a Tractus de Sphera solida, in which he describes the manufacture of globes of wood or metal. The prime meridian passes through the Madeira Islands, a fact which suggests a Portuguese origin, since these islands are generally thought to have been discovered by Lusitanian seamen.
Horary quadrants were usually used on land to tell the time; they incorporated features for taking measurements that were either unnecessary for navigation (such as the indirect determination of altitude or distance) or readily available in other forms (such as tables of solar declination). Although clearly labeled as an a€?[a]strolabio maritimeoa€?, it consists of a solid disc rather than an open wheel, and it has a shadow square on the back. One hundred and eighty degrees east of this prime meridian, a second meridian is engraved, equally prominent, passing through the middle of the continent of Asia, and 60 degrees still farther to the eastward is a third. Yet the inscription to the left of the quadrant on the chart describes not only how to use it to deter- mine the declination of the sun or stars, but also how to use the altimetric scale on it to find the height of a tower or of a flat surface, or the width of a river. Each of these meridians is divided into degrees, which are grouped in fifths and are numbered by tens, starting at the equator.
The meridians are intersected by a number of parallels, lightly engraved in the northern hemisphere, less distinct in the southern, and represent the seven climates employed by the cosmographers of the Greek and Roman period, as well as by those of the middle ages, in their division of the eartha€™s surface. The inscription reads as follows: The country of Stephen Gomez, which he discovered at the command of his Majesty, in the year 1525.



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