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Make sure you read the review of the hot new BlackBerry Storm Cellphone from Research in Motion. MoDOT Real Time Network is made up of a series of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers strategically located to cover the entire state at a maximum distance of 70 km, collecting data 24 hours a day. All stations have been built to NGS (National Geodetic Survey) CORS (Continuously Operating Reference System) specifications. The objective of the system is to provide real time kinematic (RTK) data via the Internet for use in improving GPS data collection accuracy. MoDOT has made access of this system available to users in the area without cost after MoDOT ensured that its needs and the needs of its other governmental partners have been met.
Cell service coverage is the key to effective use of the network however, if cellular coverage cannot be obtained in a particular area, the network has a website available for downloading data collected at the time of the field collection.
Uses of an RTK GPS network might include: Surveying, GIS data collection, Construction, Machine Control, Automatic Vehicle Location, Asset Management, Automated road salting, Snowplow guidance, unmanned mowers. Some of the benefits of using a of a Reference Station Network system of this type include the elimination the need for local base stations and the personnel required to “watch” the local base station, enforcement of a consistent known datum, and use of a known coordinate system.
As with any survey GPS solution, a localization file should be created for each project to orient the project coordinates to the network coordinates (state plane). Members of the survey party create impressions on people encountered during the conduct of their job activities.
Periodic calibration checks of all survey instruments are to be conducted to insure proper operation. Before beginning a survey, the district survey party chief is furnished a copy of the location study.
The district survey party chief maintains a daily diary in a separate bound field notebook.
Measurements are made to the best possible accuracy consistent with the equipment used and necessary speed of completing the work.
Taping accuracy requires proper tension on the tape, the use of hand levels or other devices to insure level taping, and particular care in setting and measuring to and from taping points.
Bench leveling accuracy requires unyielding turning points, a level in proper adjustment, balancing the length of backsight and foresight, and care in maintaining a plumb level rod when taking readings. The 10-second repeating type theodolite or electronic distance measuring device (EDM) commonly available in the district is suitable for this order of work. Survey and recording accuracy considerably better than that previously indicated might be necessary on particular surveys such as alignment control base lines for photogrammetric surveys and resulting centerline survey. The first step in a survey is the establishment of horizontal and vertical control that is located in a manner well suited for any future survey work conducted during design or construction of the project. The survey party may establish 2D control points, staking the alignment when needed, and completing the survey. The survey party may establish 3D control points in lieu of performing separate procedures for 2D control points and bench levels. Sometime during the survey the final location is plainly marked by painting trees, fence posts, etc. The arc definition of degree of curve is preferred for use to determine the radius for all curves. The designer supplies the district survey party chief with NGS, USC & GS, or USGS Datum to be used for the project. After the bench levels have been adjusted and the elevations set, the survey party is ready to proceed with profiles, cross sections, culvert sections, and digital map models. All man-made features are accurately located through a designated corridor using electronic data collection or conventional methods. The location survey includes ties between the highway survey alignment and corners of the U.S. A celestial or GPS observation is made to obtain the true azimuth for use in establishing state plane coordinates and bearings. The extent of surveys for railroad crossings will vary considerably, depending upon the effects of the roadway improvement project on the railroad facility. Where railroads parallel the survey close enough that a common right of way line will be used, or where there is a possibility of encroaching upon the railroad right of way, a milepost or alignment tie is accurately located.
The three lines of ground profiles provide critical information used in the layout of structures.
Bridge surveys for widening existing bridges include the same survey information as that required for new structures. Surveys for grade separation structures, both railroad and highway, include offset profiles to beyond the limits of the structure along the centerline on which the structure is to be constructed. In order to provide the best possible structural design, it is imperative that the bridge survey be completed as fully and accurately as possible.
Care is exercised to insure that the valley sections, profiles, and channel change surveys do not conflict with the stream meander survey, contours, and other survey data. The stream meander should be accurately located since it determines the structure location. The profile is taken along the thread of the stream with the distance measured along the general centerline of the stream. The streambed profile is equated to the survey centerline and extends from station 0+00 downstream to upstream.
When the stream is flowing, the profile of the water surface is also indicated since it provides an accurate hydraulic gradient.


A minimum of three valley sections are required, one upstream and two downstream of the proposed structure. Upstream Valley Section – The upstream valley section is used to help determine the upstream water surface elevation and the flow velocity entering the bridge. First Downstream Valley Section – The first downstream valley section is used to establish the water surface elevation and flow velocity downstream of the bridge which is used to calculate the energy loss through the bridge caused by the bridge and roadway fill. Second Downstream Valley Section – The second downstream valley section is used to establish a starting water surface elevation and flow velocity for the hydraulic model.
Valley sections are taken through the entire valley including the stream channel and floodplain at right angles to both the channel and 100-year flood flows. Small Tributaries – For bridges over the main channel with a small tributary entering either upstream or downstream of the bridge, additional valley sections will not be required when the drainage area of the tributary is less than 20% of the drainage area of the main channel. Larger Tributaries – The Bridge Division can provide assistance in determining locations for these valley sections. For each surveyed valley section obtain the distance along the channel meander from the roadway centerline.
The stationing along the valley section is established from left to right looking downstream.
The type of ground cover should be indicated to assist office personnel in the establishment of Manning's "n" value. The stationing for the typical channel sections is established from left to right looking downstream.
The typical channel sections extend to the top of the high bank of the stream or, in the case where the stream bank is also the side of the valley; the sections extend to 5 ft. In addition to other required sections, a section showing the entire waterway below extreme high water for existing structures crossing the stream being surveyed is required if they are within the limits of the obtained stream bed profile.
An extreme high water elevation is obtained for the centerline profile, either by observation of visible high water marks or by conferring with maintenance personnel or local residents. A low water elevation at the centerline profile is necessary for streams that are generally never dry.
Pages 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Bridge Survey Report Form are partially completed in the field to supplement the bridge survey. Triangulation may be necessary to project the survey centerline across larger streams where it is not practical to make a direct measurement across the stream.
Multiple structures in the same floodplain work as a system and changes to the hydraulic capacity of one structure in this system affects backwater elevations, flow velocity, scour potential, etc. A streambed profile is provided for all structures, including overflow structures that have a defined channel, even if that structure is not being replaced.
A streambed profile is not required for overflow structures that do not have a defined channel. Prior to a request for a survey the designer sends a letter to property owners located along the proposed roadway improvement. During the process of making surveys, it may become necessary to trim crops or trees; or be involved in other circumstances that may involve property damage related to obtaining survey information. Survey parties are to utilize the equipment and procedures available to provide the maximum level of safety for their personnel and the traveling public.
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We have an collection of Net10 Prepaid Cell Phone Service Prepaid Reviews in various styles. The network uses US GPS and Russian Glonass signals and is expandable to future signals such as Galileo. The profiles aid in determining the length of structure, minimum footing depth, allowable substructure location, span lengths, superstructure type, superstructure depth and verification of the proposed profile grade. One profile at the centerline of the roadway and the other two offset beyond the outer extents of the shoulders on either side.
Centerline and offset profiles for the crossing shall extend sufficiently beyond the limits of the proposed structure.
On photogrammetric surveys all bridge survey information is obtained in the field except man-made features, stream meander, channel sections, water elevations and channel change surveys.
The alignment, stream meander, man-made features including any buildings near extreme high water elevation, valley and channel sections, contours, north point, direction of flow, and datum are drawn on this sheet in the field. The meander shall be plotted a minimum of 1000’ upstream and downstream of the structure location, and extend from the furthest upstream valley section to the furthest downstream valley section. With the exception of certain situations (i.e, drainage ditches) care is exercised to avoid placing the profile centered between the banks.
The ideal location for valley section placement for creation of a hydraulic model is upstream and downstream of the disturbance to flow caused by the structure and roadway fill. The slope of the contraction and expansion lines should be based on 100-yr flood flow path. Placement should be in a location near the initial section that provides a natural constriction. Placement should be in a location downstream of the final location of the first downstream valley section within a range of 0.


To conform to right angles, the valley section may be "doglegged" so the first leg is at right angles to one side of the valley, the second leg is at right angles to the channel, and the third leg is at right angles to the opposite side of the valley.
A complete detail section is taken under the existing structure with a general description of the structure along with the elevation of extreme high water at the existing structure.
When only the overflow structure is being replaced, the bridge survey is still developed based on all structures that are in the floodplain. If the existing structure was not constructed by the state, the bridge survey includes complete details of the existing structure to the extent required to structurally analyze its loading capacity.
A complete set of notes containing the data plotted on this sheet is included in the field notebooks.
Where the stream has both a high bank and a low bank, both are located and indicated on the plat sheet (use a solid line for the high bank and a dashed line for the low bank).
When stream bed profiles are required on confluent streams, the streambed profile limits for the tributary stream extends to the confluence of the streams. Additional guidance should be sought at multiple structures in the same floodplain, severe bends, deeply incised channels, drainage ditches, high skews, most stream junctions and other atypical locations. For locations without an existing structure or when the replacement structure may be shorter, the origin of the expansion line may be moved closer to the bank of the channel.
If a natural constriction does not exist, the section should be placed at a location representative of the average floodplain width downstream in the vicinity of the bridge and should not be placed at an excessively wide location in the floodplain or at junctions with tributaries. 5 to 1.0 times the distance between the roadway centerline and the final location of the first downstream valley section (measured along the 100-yr flood flow path) that provides a natural constriction. For hydraulic modeling purposes if the angle of the stream flow is within 15° of the 100-year flood flow it may be considered to be at a right angle and doglegging the valley section is unnecessary.
These sections are not precisely tied to the survey centerline but the survey field book indicates the approximate distance from the survey centerline to where the sections are taken. Bridge surveys are provided for each structure being replaced and should be tailored to that structure, but the bridge survey data is developed based on the system of bridges and not each individual structure even if only one structure in the system is being replaced.
Streambed profiles are provided for all other structures in the floodplain that have a defined channel. Click image to get bigger picture, and if you find Net10 Prepaid Cell Phone Service Prepaid Reviews interesting, you might pin it to Pinterest. Sufficient length of the profiles on stream crossings is important as they are used as valley sections for hydraulic modeling. If an electronic data collector is used, the field drawing and manual notes are not required. The Bridge Division can provide assistance in determining locations for the valley sections. The location of the section should remain either at or downstream of the intersections of the expansion lines and floodplain limits after any location or orientation adjustments are made. If a natural constriction does not exist the section should be placed at a location representative of the average floodplain width downstream in the vicinity of the bridge and should not be placed at an excessively wide location in the floodplain or at junctions with tributaries. If this distance does not furnish representative profiles, the distance should be increased or additional offset profiles obtained as necessary to provide a true representation of the terrain features. The bridge survey for widening the existing structure includes accurate ties to the existing bridge from the survey centerline. Contours are taken up and down the valley for this distance measured along the valley, not along the stream meander.
Orientation adjustments may be needed when the channel flow is not parallel to the 100-yr flood flow (see Valley Section Orientation below for details). Profiles in ditches or on existing roadway fill are not representative without supplemental profiles. For multiple box culverts, classified as bridges, the bridge survey includes the flow line elevation and the top slab elevation for the existing structure.
If water is present in the stream when aerial photographs are taken conventional survey methods must be used to obtain the streambed profile and portions of channel sections below the water surface. For span type structures, the bridge survey includes elevations along the existing bridge floor at 5 ft. Prior to aerial photography, the district will determine the locations of valley sections from topographic maps. The valley sections are to be located on suitable maps to aid in obtaining sufficient aerial photographic coverage of the location. A minimum of two FM radios is needed for two -way communications between survey crewmembers. Where dual structures for divided lane facilities are separated by more than 64 ft., offset profiles are obtained on each side of each structure.
Where deck replacement is necessary on steel beam or girder bridges, bottom of top flange elevations for each stringer or girder for each substructure unit are required. Locations where elevations are taken on existing bridges must be clearly described on the bridge survey sheets. Stationing at existing bridge ends and at the centerline of each intermediate bent or pier is also required.
Much of this information, except for top of rail profiles, drainage and milepost location or alignment ties, can be obtained on a photogrammetric survey.



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