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Globalization+ Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
Though scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times+, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery+ and voyages to the New World+.
The term ''globalization'' is derived from the word ''globalize'', which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. Economist Takis Fotopoulos+ defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal+ globalization. Manfred Steger+, professor of Global Studies+ and research leader in the Global Cities Institute+ at RMIT University+, identifies four main empirical dimensions of globalization+: economic, political, cultural, and ecological, with a fifth dimension - the ideological - cutting across the other four. Lechner and Boli (2012) define it as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different ways.
There are both distal and proximate causes+ which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization.
Archaic globalization+ is seen as a phase in the history of globalization+ conventionally referring to globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the 1600s. Also posited is a 'multi-polar' nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans. Trade on the Silk Road+ was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent+, Persia+, Europe, and Arabia+, opening long-distance, political and economic interactions between the civilizations.
Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism, the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange.
During the 19th century, globalization approached its modern form as a direct result of the industrial revolution+. After the Second World War, work by politicians led to the Bretton Woods conference+, an agreement by major governments to lay down the framework for international monetary policy, commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth multiple rounds of trade opening simplified and lowered trade barriers. Since the 1970s, aviation has become increasingly affordable to middle classes in developed countries.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly.
The migration+ and movement of people can also be highlighted as a prominent feature of the globalization process. Globalized society offers a complex web of forces and factors that bring people, cultures, markets, beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to one another.
With improvements in transportation+ and communication, international business grew rapidly after the beginning of the 20th century. International business arrangements have led to the formation of multinational enterprises (MNE), companies that have a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than one country. Businesses generally argue that survival in the new global marketplace requires companies to source goods+, services+, labor+ and materials overseas to continuously upgrade their products and technology in order to survive increased competition. International trade+ is the exchange of capital+, goods+, and services+ across international borders+ or territories. An absolute trade advantage+ exists when countries can produce a commodity with less costs per unit produced than could its trading partner.
Establishment of free trade areas has become an essential feature of modern governments to handle preferential trading arrangements with foreign and multinational entities. A special economic zone+ (SEZ) is a region in which laws such as taxes and customs regulations are more financially libertarian than a country's typical laws.
A FTZ is an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without intervention by the customs authorities.
A free trade area+ is a trade bloc+ whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement, which eliminates tariff+s, import quota+s, and preferences on most (if not all) goods+ and services traded between them.
Qualifying Industrial Zones+ (QIZ) are industrial parks in Jordan+ and Egypt that allow these countries to take advantage of the free trade agreements between the United States and Israel.
The Asia-Pacific+ has been described as "the most integrated trading region on the planet" because its intra-regional trade accounts probably for as much as 50-60% of the region's total imports and exports.
It has also extra-regional trade: consumer goods exports such as televisions, radio+s, bicycles, and textiles into the United States, Europe, and Japan fueled the economic expansion. Tax havens have been criticized because they often result in the accumulation of idle cash that is expensive and inefficient for companies to repatriate+.
Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border+ movement of goods, service, technology and capital.Joshi, Rakesh Mohan, (2009) International Business, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York ISBN 0-19-568909-7. In 1944, 44 nations attended the Bretton Woods Conference+ with a purpose of stabilizing world currencies and establishing credit for international trade in the post World War II era.
In India, business process outsourcing+ has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation". The global economy, or world economy, is the economy+ of the world, considered as an international exchange of goods and services. By the early 21st century, a worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors+ came together to facilitate international flows of financial capital+ for purposes of investment+ and trade financing+. While within-country income inequality has increased throughout the globalization period, globally inequality has lessened as developing countries have experienced much more rapid growth. Economic inequality affects equity+, equality of outcome+ and subsequent equality of opportunity+.
Passport is essential document for traveling abroad for diverse purposes such as study, tourism, business purposes and family visits etc.
Globalization and women in China+ The study of the impact of globalization on women in China examines the role and status of Chinese women relative to the political and cultural changes that have taken place in the 20th century as a consequence of globalization. One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled, ''Towards New Education'', where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education.
Friedman+ popularized the term "flat world"+, arguing that globalized trade+, outsourcing+, supply-chaining+, and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse. He used "political globalization" to refer to the emergence of a transnational elite and a phasing out of the nation-state+.
This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.
The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principals from the East. Because it predated the Great Divergence+ of the nineteenth century, in which Western Europe+ pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic output, archaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World+ centers such as Gujarat+, Bengal+, coastal China and Japan.

Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of import+ing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade. Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, and religions, syncretic+ philosophies, and various technologies, as well as diseases, also travelled along the Silk Routes. The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the East India Company+, the shift of hegemony+ to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty Year War, and a rise of new commodities – most particularly slave trade+. Industrialization allowed standardized+ production of household items using economies of scale while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Initially, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade+ (GATT), led to a series of agreements to remove trade restrictions. Open skies+ policies and low-cost carrier+s have helped to bring competition to the market.
This slowed down from the 1910s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War+ but picked up again in the 1980s and 1990s. In the period between 1965–90, the proportion of the labor force migrating approximately doubled. One influential event was the late 2000s recession+, which was associated with lower growth (such as cross-border phone calls+ and Skype+ usage) or even temporarily negative growth (such as trade) of global interconnectedness. A MNE may also be called a multinational corporation+ (MNC) or transnational company (TNC).
In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product+ (GDP). By the same reasoning, it should import commodities in which it has an absolute disadvantage. Types of SEZs include free trade zones+ (FTZ), free zones+ (FZ), industrial park+s, and free port+s.
Only if the goods are moved into the rest of the country do they become subject to customs duties+.
If people are also free to move between the countries, in addition to a free-trade area, it would also be considered an open border+. The ASEAN Free Trade Area+ is a trade bloc+ agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations+ supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries.
Whereas the globalization of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs, taxes, and other impediments that suppresses global trade, economic globalization is the process of increasing economic integration+ between countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market. While the international economic order envisioned by the conference gave way to the neo-liberal economic order prevalent today, the conference established many of the organizations essential to advancement towards a close-knit global economy+ and global financial system+, such as the World Bank+, the International Monetary Fund+, and the International Trade Organization+. Scholars find that China has attained a degree of openness that is unprecedented among large and populous nations, with competition from foreign goods in almost every sector of the economy. In some contexts, the two terms are distinguished: the "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national+ economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements.
This global financial system emerged during the first modern wave of economic globalization+, marked by the establishment of central bank+s, multilateral+ treaties+, and intergovernmental organization+s aimed at improving the transparency+, regulation+, and effectiveness of international markets. Economic inequality varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures or systems (for example, capitalism+ or socialism+), ongoing or past wars, between genders+, and between differences in individuals' abilities to create wealth+. Although earlier studies considered economic inequality as necessary and beneficial, some economists see it as an important social problem.
Income differences between rich and poor countries are very large, although they are changing rapidly. Indian passports are concerned through a network of 37 Passport agencies, CPV Division (only Diplomatic and Official passports) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Administration. All Passport Offices issue machine-readable passports as per the rule laid down by the International Civil Aviation association. We will market your registration through our extensive marketing strategies and give it the exposure you deserve. Globalization and disease+ Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital and people across political and geographic boundaries, has helped spread some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans. ISBN 9780803983236 Advances in transportation+, such as the steam locomotive+, steamship+, jet engine+, container ship+s, and in telecommunication+s infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph+ and its modern offspring, the Internet+, and mobile phone+s, have been major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence+ of economic and cultural activities.
A related term, ''corporate giants'', was coined by Charles Taze Russell+ in 1897 to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow. James has also argued that four different forms of globalization can be distinguished that complement and cut across the solely empirical dimensions+. Without the traditional ideas from the East, Western globalization would not have emerged the way it did. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network.
The Triangular Trade+ made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the western hemisphere.
In the 19th century, steamships+ reduced the cost of international transport significantly and railroads+ made inland transport cheaper. GATT's successor was the World Trade Organization+ (WTO), which provided a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements and a dispute resolution process. In the 1990s, the growth of low-cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between different countries.
The revolutions of 1989+ and subsequent liberalization in many parts of the world resulted in a significant expansion of global interconnectedness. The DHL Global Connectedness Index studies four main types of cross-border flow: trade (in both goods and services), information, people (including tourists, students and migrants) and capital. Well known MNCs include fast food+ companies such as McDonald's+ and Yum Brands+, vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors+, Ford Motor Company+ and Toyota+, consumer electronics companies like Foxconn+, Samsung+, LG+ and Sony+, and energy companies such as ExxonMobil+, Shell+ and BP+. Industrialization+, advanced transport+ation, multinational corporation+s, offshoring+ and outsourcing+ all have a major impact on world trade.
While there are possible gains from trade+ with absolute advantage, comparative advantage+ – that is, the ability to offer goods and services at a lower marginal+ and opportunity cost+ – extends the range of possible mutually beneficial exchanges.
Free trade zones are organized around areas with geographical advantages for trade, such as major seaports, international airports, and national frontiers. The international trade of endangered species+ was second only to drug trafficking among smuggling "industries".
Depending on the paradigm, economic globalization can be viewed as either a positive or a negative phenomenon. Foreign investment helped to greatly increase product quality and knowledge and standards, especially in heavy industry.
It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity+, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even if there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or if establishing figures is difficult.

The world economy+ became increasingly financially integrated+ throughout the 20th century as nations liberalized capital accounts and deregulated financial sectors.
Early studies suggesting that greater equality inhibits economic growth+ did not account for lags between inequality changes and growth changes. Per capita incomes in China and India doubled in the prior twenty years, a feat that required 150 years in the US.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies+ and culture+s grew very quickly.
By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists.
Other of his usages included "ideological+ globalization", "technological+ globalization" and "social globalization". According to James, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. The movement of people, such as refugees, artists, craftsmen, missionaries, robbers and envoys, resulted in the exchange of religions, art, languages and new technologies. The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred Crosby+'s concept of The Columbian Exchange+ also played a central role in this process. It shows that the depth of global integration fell by about one-tenth after 2008, but by 2013 had recovered well above its pre-crash peak.
In a globalized business environment, companies argue that the comparative advantages offered by international trade have become essential to remaining competitive. It is a region where a group of countries has agreed to reduce or eliminate trade barriers. Different jurisdiction+s tend to be havens for different types of taxes and for different categories of people and companies. While investigations of illegal tax haven abuse have been ongoing, especially in light of the 2015 HSBC files revelations, there have been few convictions.
Traditional Chinese medicine+ often incorporates ingredients from all parts of plants, the leaf, stem, flower, root, and also ingredients from animals and minerals. Economic globalization comprises the globalization of production+, markets+, competition+, technology, and corporations and industries. China's experience supports the assertion that globalization greatly increases wealth for poor countries. With greater exposure to volatile capital flows, a series of financial crises+ in Europe, Asia, and Latin America had contagious effects on other countries. Later studies claimed that one of the most robust determinants of sustained economic growth is the level of income inequality. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business+ and work+ organization, economics+, socio+-cultural+ resources, and the natural environment+. Economist Theodore Levitt+ is widely credited with coining the term in an article entitled "Globalization of Markets", which appeared in the May–June 1983 issue of Harvard Business Review+. The interactions amongst states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africa, the Middle East and certain parts of Europe.
The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high 'modern globalization' in the late 19th century. Early modern trade and communications involved a vast group including European, Muslim+, Indian, Southeast Asian and Chinese merchants, particularly in the Indian Ocean region. The approach of using global agreements to advance trade stumbled with the failure of the Doha round+ of trade negotiation. The central feature of a tax haven is that its laws and other measures can be used to evade or avoid the tax laws or regulations of other jurisdictions. The use of parts of endangered species (such as seahorses+, rhinoceros+ horns, saiga antelope+ horns, and tiger+ bones and claws) resulted in a black market+ of poachers who hunt restricted animals.
Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies+ integrating with less developed economies+ by means of foreign direct investment+, the reduction of trade barrier+s as well as other economic reform+s and, in many cases, immigration+. By the early 21st century, financial institutions had become increasingly large with a more sophisticated and interconnected range of investment activities. However, the term 'globalization' was in use well before (at least as early as 1944) and had been used by other scholars as early as 1981.
With early globalization it was difficult for states to interact with others that were not within close proximity. This phase of globalization was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese+ and Spanish Empire+s, and later the Dutch+ and British Empire+s. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism+ such as in Africa+ and Asia+.
Many countries then shifted to bilateral or smaller multilateral agreements, such as the 2011 South Korea–United States Free Trade Agreement+.
These business transactions involve economic resources such as capital+, natural+ and human resources+ used for international production of physical goods and services such as finance+, banking+, insurance+, construction+ and other productive+ activities. Thus, when the United States experienced a financial crisis early in that century, it quickly propagated among other nations. Levitt can be credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980s. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others existence and another phase of globalization was able to occur. In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies+ like the British East India Company+ (founded in 1600) and the Dutch East India Company+ (founded in 1602, often described as the first multinational corporation+ in which stock was offered) were established. The invention of shipping containers+ in 1956 helped advance the globalization of commerce. It became known as the global financial crisis+ and is recognized as the catalyst for the worldwide Great Recession+.
Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards. Globalization in China+ Globalization in China discusses the history of globalization in China; including the economic, social, cultural influences that have been integrated into Chinese society.
If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other. This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to function.
It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today.

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