Meanwhile, inmates subsist in bare-bones conditions with few programs to give them a better shot at becoming productive citizens. In the past two decades, Louisiana's prison population has doubled, costing taxpayers billions while New Orleans continues to lead the nation in homicides. Almost every state lets judges decide when to mete out the severest punishment and when a sympathetic defendant should have a chance at freedom down the road. The lobbying muscle of the sheriffs, buttressed by a tough-on-crime electorate, keeps these harsh sentencing schemes firmly in place. Do all of Louisiana's 40,000 inmates need to be incarcerated for the interests of punishment and public safety to be served? In the early 1990s, when the incarceration rate was half what it is now, Louisiana was at a crossroads. It achieved the latter, not with new state prisons -- there was no money for that -- but by encouraging sheriffs to foot the construction bills in return for future profits.
Today, wardens make daily rounds of calls to other sheriffs' prisons in search of convicts to fill their beds.
Fred Schoonover, deputy warden of the 522-bed Tensas Parish Detention Center in northeast Louisiana, says he does not view inmates as a "commodity." But he acknowledges that the prison's business model is built on head counts. Ask anyone who has done time in Louisiana whether he or she would rather be in a state-run prison or a local sheriff-run prison.
Inmates in local prisons are typically serving sentences of 10 years or less on nonviolent charges such as drug possession, burglary or writing bad checks. Yet it is the murderers, rapists and other long-termers who learn trades like welding, auto mechanics, air-conditioning repair and plumbing.
Such opportunities are not available to the 53 percent serving their time in local prisons. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease that is characterized by a debilitating chronic, symmetric polyarthritis with significant extra-articular manifestations, which include rheumatoid nodules, pyoderma gangrenosum, granulomatous dermatitis, vasculitis, and internal organ involvement. Approximately 1 percent of the adult population in North America and Northern Europe are affected with RA, with great variation in prevalence in other parts of the world.
Patients with seronegative RA (negative rheumatoid factor) may not create autoantibodies, but other immune mechanisms are involved. Lastly, joints have unique anatomic and physiologic qualities that render them targets for immune and inflammatory assault. Morning stiffness in and around the joints, lasting at least 1 h before maximal improvement. At least three joint areas simultaneously afflicted with soft-tissue swelling or joint fluid observed by a physician. Simultaneous involvement of the same joint areas on both sides of the body (bilateral involvement of PIP, MCP, or MTP acceptable without perfect symmetry). Subcutaneous nodules over bony prominences or extensor surfaces or in juxta-articular regions (observed by a physician).
Abnormal amount of serum rheumatoid factor by any method while the result has been positive in 5% of control subjects. Erosions or unequivocal bony decalcification localized in or most marked adjacent to the involved joints.
From Arnett FC et al: The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. RA often begins with general constitutional symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, vague musculoskeletal complaints, and generalized weakness. The articular manifestations of RA relate to an inflammatory synovitis that can affect the synovial lining of joints, tendons, and bursae. Chronic inflammation may result in irreversible structural damage of the joint, including cartilage destruction and bony erosion.
Though rheumatoid nodules are benign, they can lead to complications, including ulceration, infection, joint effusion (rheumatoid chyliform bursitis), and fistulas (fistulous rheumatism). Rheumatoid vasculitis has an estimated annual incidence of less than 1 percent, most often affects patients with seropositive disease, and is believed to affect 1 in 8 males with RA, versus 1 in 38 females.11 Small- to medium-sized vessels are primarily affected, often with associated peripheral neuropathy (including motor), digital gangrene, nail fold infarcts, and palpable purpura (see Chap.
Rheumatoid vasculitis can present as lower-extremity ulcers; however, pyoderma gangrenosum  should be suspected if deep liquefying ulcers with a characteristic purple, undermined border occur in patients with RA.
Rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis is a very rare cutaneous manifestation in patients with severe RA. Other vasculitis syndromes, such as erythema elevatum diutinum  and livedo vasculitis (segmental hyalinizing vasculitis), have also been described in patients with RA. In addition to systemic vasculitis, which can affect numerous organ systems, there are multiple non-dermatologic extra-articular manifestations of RA.
There is no one specific histologic, radiographic, or laboratory test that conclusively permits the diagnosis of RA. Because the exact cause of RA is unknown, treatment has been directed against various components of the inflammatory process. Furthermore, new understanding of disease mechanism and the chronic disabling nature of RA has resulted in a shift to earlier use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Systemic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory agents but have a serious side-effect profile when used in large doses over long periods of time. The newest additions to the anti-rheumatic armamentarium are the biologic response modifiers, which act to inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a role in RA. In conclusion, the dermatologist and rheumatologist must function as a cohesive team in the treatment of patients with cutaneous manifestations of RA, which often present during phases of intense disease activity. Four of the most common mosquito pesticides used along the east and Gulf coasts show little risk to juvenile hard clams and oysters, according to a NOAA study.
However, the study, published in the on-line journal Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, also determined that lower oxygen levels in the water, known as hypoxia, and increased acidification actually increased how toxic some of the pesticides were. These ecologically and economically important species inhabit tidal marsh habitats along the U.S.
The study sought to address a lack of toxicity data for mosquito control pesticide effects on shellfish early life stages. Lethal thresholds were determined for the four pesticides, and differences in sensitivity were found between chemicals, species, and life stages tested.
Using a hazard assessment, which compared the toxicity thresholds to concentrations expected in the environment, the researchers calculated a low-level of risk to clams and oysters from application of these pesticides for mosquito control. The researchers also tested the pesticides’ toxicity under climate stress conditions. The study did not address the impacts of the pesticides on other shellfish such as shrimp or lobsters. NOAA’s mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths of the ocean to the surface of the sun, and to conserve and manage our coastal and marine resources. An amoral conservative blogger and an actual newspaper are insisting that if Michael Brown had a juvenile arrest record, it should be made public so they can blame him for his killing by police officer Darren Wilson. So now shoplifting or smoking pot as a juvenile is going to be used as justification for police execution months or years later? It can't be too hard to get a juvenile record in Ferguson, where in 2013 there were 10,000 more arrest warrants issued for nonviolent offenses than there were residents of the town. A majority of Louisiana inmates are housed in for-profit facilities, which must be supplied with a constant influx of human beings or a $182 million industry will go bankrupt. But in a uniquely Louisiana twist, most prison entrepreneurs are rural sheriffs, who hold tremendous sway in remote parishes like Madison, Avoyelles, East Carroll and Concordia. Each inmate is worth $24.39 a day in state money, and sheriffs trade them like horses, unloading a few extras on a colleague who has openings.
Among black men from New Orleans, one in 14 is behind bars; one in seven is either in prison, on parole or on probation. A trio of drug convictions can be enough to land you at the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola for the rest of your life. In Louisiana, murderers automatically receive life without parole on the guilty votes of as few as 10 of 12 jurors. Other states are strategically reducing their prison populations -- using tactics known in policy circles as "smart on crime." Compared with the national average, Louisiana has a much lower percentage of people incarcerated for violent offenses and a much higher percentage behind bars for drug offenses -- perhaps a signal that some nonviolent criminals could be dealt with differently. A New Orleans Times-Picayune team of reporters led by Cindy Chang along with photographer Scott Threlkeld investigates why. Under a federal court order to reduce overcrowding, the state had two choices: Lock up fewer people or build more prisons. The financial incentives were so sweet, and the corrections jobs so sought after, that new prisons sprouted up all over rural Louisiana.
Dee Hutson talks about the benefits of his work as a corrections officer at Richland Parish Detention Center, about 15 miles southeast of Monroe, Louisiana. Urban areas such as New Orleans and Baton Rouge have an excess of sentenced criminals, while prisons in remote parishes must import inmates to survive.
With maximum occupancy and a thrifty touch with expenses, a sheriff can divert the profits to his law enforcement arm, outfitting his deputies with new squad cars, guns and laptops. Like other wardens in this part of the state, he wheels and deals to maintain his tally of human beings. I stay on the phone a lot, calling all over the state, trying to hustle a few," Schoonover said. LaSalle Corrections, based in Ruston, plays a role in housing one of seven Louisiana prisoners. Angola's Bible college offers the only chance for Louisiana inmates to earn an undergraduate degree. Patients with seropositive RA (positive rheumatoid factor) have circulating and tissuebound immune complexes.
This theory led to the recognition that T cells are important players in the etiology of this disease.
Cartilage is subject to repetitive mechanical stress, retains antigens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and has a limited capacity for regeneration. The possible areas are (right or left): PIP, MCP, wrist, elbow, knee, ankle, and MTP joints. Late structural deformities may result from soft-tissue contractures or from bony ankylosis.

Skin manifestations such as palmar erythema, erythromelalgia, autoimmune bullous diseases such as epidermolysis bullosa acquisita , yellow nail syndrome , erythema multiforme , erythema nodosum , and urticaria  also have been reported in patients with RA. Rheumatoid factor, an autoantibody that reacts with the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG), is found in sera of 85 percent of patients with RA. New guidelines released by the American College of Rheumatology in 2002 advocate this switch. They are not a good option alone for RA, but are sometimes used in a low dose with other DMARDs.
Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RA: etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. They are expensive, ranging between 18,000 to 30,000 dollars per year, and both etanercept and adalimumab require the patient to self-administer injections. Patients need their underlying rheumatic disease to be treated aggressively, but proven treatments for these associated dermatologic processes, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, cryoglobulins, vasculitis, and others, should not be forgotten. Such climate variables should be considered when using these pesticides in the coastal zone, the study concluded. In addition to causing painful itchy bumps to people, mosquito bites can transmit serious diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and West Nile virus. The research team examined the toxicity of four mosquito control pesticides (naled, resmethrin, permethrin, and methoprene) to larval and juvenile life stages of hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). So you criminalize virtually everyone (or, you know, everyone black or brown or poor), then use their criminal records as your excuse for killing them in the street. Louis Post-Dispatch should be ashamed of itself for seeking Michael Brown's juvenile records that may or may not exist; Charles C. Johnson is particularly repugnant, but he's enabled by a culture and a media that presumes that it's legitimate to blame an unarmed teenager for his own shooting death if he's black and has ever smoked pot, listened to rap, or been arrested—rightly or wrongly—at any point in his life. Louis Post-Dispatch reports that, according to a court official, Michael Brown was never convicted or charged with a class A or B felony.
A good portion of Louisiana law enforcement is financed with dollars legally skimmed off the top of prison operations.
The prison lobby ensures this does not happen by thwarting nearly every reform that could result in fewer people behind bars.
A prison system that leased its convicts as plantation labor in the 1800s has come full circle and is again a nexus for profit.
Crime rates in Louisiana are relatively high, but that does not begin to explain the state's No. Bobby Jindal, a conservative Republican with presidential ambitions, says the answer is no. There was no need to rein in the growth by keeping sentencing laws in line with those of other states or by putting minor offenders in alternative programs. Inmates spend months or years in 80-man dormitories with nothing to do and few educational opportunities before being released into society with $10 and a bus ticket.
LCS Corrections Services, another homegrown company, runs three Louisiana prisons and is a major donor to political campaigns, including those of urban sheriffs who supply rural prisons with inmates. Special Historical Notes and Other Institutional InformationMSDF is a medium-security correctional facility located in downtown Milwaukee. Ultimately there may be a resultant decline in functional status, possibly leading to premature death.
In the SKG mouse model, autoreactive T cells are preferentially selected, leading to inflammatory arthritis similar to RA. Once proteolytic enzymes cause erosions, narrowing of the joint space, and mechanical instability, rheumatoid inflammation may become self-sustaining. It is in these early stages that definite diagnosis is most difficult, despite a thorough patient evaluation. Characteristic deformities include radial deviation of the hand with ulnar deviation of the digits, the “swan neck” deformity from hyperextension of the PIP joint and compensatory flexion of the DIP joint, and the boutonniere deformity from flexion contracture of the PIP joint and extension of the DIP joint.
The classic rheumatoid nodule is a subcutaneous nodule that occurs in approximately one-fourth of patients with RA . Some patients may have nail fold telangiectasias, with minute digital ulcerations or petechiae and digital pulp papules (Bywaters lesions) .
Pyoderma gangrenosum occurs more frequently and more severely in females and may take years to heal. Histopathologically, these lesions have a dense infiltrate of neutrophils without leukocytoclasia, in the setting of a mixed infiltrate and papillary edema .
Rheumatoid factor should not be used as a definitive screening tool because it can be found in other disease processes (sarcoidosis, liver diseases, pulmonary fibrotic processes, and cryoglobulinemia). In the past, most patients with early disease were started on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs until joint erosions were evident. DMARDs decrease inflammation (confirmed by a reduction in acute phase reactants), reduce or prevent joint damage, and modify the disease process. TNF-? is a pro-inflammatory agent released by macrophages and T cells contributing to synovitis and joint destruction.
Etanercept is a recombinant human TNF dimeric receptor fusion protein consisting of the ligandbinding portion of the human 75-kd TNF receptor linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1.
Clams and oysters are also important for the coastal ecosystem because they filter water, improving water quality, and serve as habitat and food sources for other estuarine species. One approach to controlling mosquitoes is to apply pesticides by spraying from planes or trucks over a large area. Naled, an organophosphate chemical, was the most toxic compound in oyster larvae, while resmethrin was the most toxic compound in clam larvae. Police officer repeatedly and fatally shoots unarmed teenager and the police and the media rush to find reasons to blame the dead unarmed teenager. Maybe we should just pass laws establishing a lottery into which every teenager arrested for anything ever is entered, and those whose names come up in the lottery are just shot dead by the police on the spot. So will the Post-Dispatch drop its hunt for Brown's juvenile records, or is it going to press on looking for speeding tickets? Despite locking up more people for longer periods than any other state, Louisiana has one of the highest rates of both violent and property crimes.
After binding to antigen, these autoantibodies result in complement fixation and recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which result in joint destruction. T cells also activate other cells via cytokines, including osteoclasts, which play a major role in the bone resorption seen in RA. However, early diagnosis and treatment are essential because most of joint damage is thought to occur early in the disease process. These papules are a manifestation of mild vasculitis and typically occur without systemic signs of vasculitis.
Leg ulcers may also appear in patients with Felty syndrome, a combination of chronic RA, hypersplenism, and leukopenia .
It may be difficult to differentiate rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis from acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet syndrome) . It is also found in approximately 5 percent of the unaffected population.12 A false-positive rheumatoid factor can be caused by many factors, including chronic bacterial infections such as infective endocarditis, tuberculosis, and Lyme disease, as well as by viral diseases such as rubella and infectious mononucleosis. The use of DMARDs is now recommended early in the disease course, when joint damage has already occurred or is imminent. Shellfish growers, however, are concerned that pesticide spraying near the coastlines may contaminate both their hatcheries and source waters. However, to effectively control mosquitoes, the pesticides must  target species which live in aquatic habitats that are also home to sensitive estuarine species.
Decreased swimming activity was observed after four days in larval oysters and decreased growth was found in juvenile clams and oysters after 21 days. Only when I say "every teenager arrested for anything ever is entered," really I just mean the black ones. Johnson insistently describes himself as an "award-winning journalist," with one of his major awards being a college journalism prize named after a New York Post editorial page editor and with a prize including an internship at Fox News. Possible antigens in RA include heat shock proteins, collagen, and cyclic citrullinated peptides.
Effector cytokines of the T cell include interferon-?, interleukin 1, interleukin 17, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, many of which have been, or are being, used as therapeutic targets to treat RA. The American College of Rheumatology has guidelines for the diagnosis of RA (Table 161-1).7 For a patient to be diagnosed with RA, four of the seven criteria must be present, and the first four criteria listed must be present for at least 6 weeks. Although the initial manifestations in the hand may be asymmetric, the clinical course subsequently takes on a symmetric and diffuse pattern.
Histopathology of skin biopsy specimens usually shows leukocytoclastic vasculitis with neutrophilic infiltration of the vessel wall, fibrinoid necrosis, and hemorrhage without palisaded granulomatous reaction.10 Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis mostly involves postcapillary venules and may affect arterioles and larger vessels of the viscera, heart, and central nervous system.
In addition, there needs to be an infusion center nearby where the patient can receive therapy. This is compounded by a lack of data on the toxicity of mosquito insecticides for these shellfish.
He's perhaps best known for his coverage of the Republican Senate run-off in Mississippi, where a media call held by Sen. Extra-articular manifestations may help to delineate the disease process early and may signify a more serious disease process requiring the initiation of aggressive therapy. There is characteristic involvement of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal joints with sparing of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints.
The spectrum of clinical lesions reported in rheumatoid vasculitis is wide and varies with the size and location of the vessels involved and with the extent of the disease . They may be used alone or in combination, but their use may be limited by loss of efficacy or systemic toxicity.
Most patients receiving TNF-? blocking agents have failed therapy with one or a combination of the previously mentioned DMARDs.
The following Wednesday February 13, 2013 I returned to the hospital to see if the a€?Wound Doctora€? Dr.
Also, since many residential communities where the pesticides may be used are near these coastal aquatic habitats, the potential for direct overspray or unintentional drift into these waters is increased. Thad Cochran's campaign was interrupted by someone asking "if the black people were harvesting cotton why do you think it's okay to harvest their votes" after Johnson "reported" that the Cochran campaign was buying black votes, then tweeted out the call-in information for the campaign media call.

MSDF continues to house offenders on DCC probation and parole holds, pending investigation of the alleged violation.
Unfortunately, the presence of vasculitis, especially at the onset of the disease, portends a poor outcome. Medications are often used in combination, but the decision about which drug to use is often individualized and determined by the clinical severity and loss of function and resultant disability, along with concerns about the safety profile of each given patient.
Last, adalimumab, the newest of these agents, is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds membrane bound and soluble TNF-?.15 Etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab render TNF-? biologically inactive, thereby significantly decreasing the synovitis and retarding the progression of joint destruction.
Inhibiting the normal host immune response has led to concern about re-activation of tuberculosis, increased susceptibility to other infections, and predisposition to the development of malignancy. Johnson has also recently distinguished himself with a series of tweets attacking James Foley after the journalist's beheading. Patients with evidence of vasculitis affecting the skin should be started on aggressive therapy and followed closely for other organ involvement. The true risk of malignancy is difficult to establish because patients with RA are thought to have a higher incidence of lymphoid malignancy than the normal population and some have shown that the incidence of lymphomas may in fact be increased in patients taking anti-TNF-? drugs.17 As with all medications, knowing your patient's medical history is the key to proper use of these medications.
He's already claimed that Michael Brown's hypothetical juvenile record included second-degree murder charges. They should not be used in patients with concurrent serious infection or in those predisposed to serious infections (patients with poorly controlled diabetes).
What I witness next made me sick to my stomach.A  The bandages removed by the nurse were filthy. The facility has a capacity of 1,040 offenders, with beds the majority of beds designated for adult males (42 beds for females).
Extreme caution and consultation with the hematologist-oncologist should be used before prescribing these medications to patients with a recent history of malignancy. President I never dreamed in 2010 I would go from working with at-risk youth to fighting for at-risk seniors like my brother.A  We fought our way out of a single parent household in a NE housing project and pulled ourselves up by our boots with no straps.A  We did this without the baggage of drug addiction, police records and academic inferiority to be all that we could be! President, has integrity, honesty and fair play become a lost art among politicians in America. A It got worst a second 18 year old student from the same school was shot and killed on Tuesday evening making him the 6th student and on Wednesday his friend and former Suitland student died of his wounds.A  His death marked the 7th student to be murdered inA the Prince Georges County School system this year. A A third victim in less than 24 hours was shot and killed in a attemped robbery at a nearby gas station in the same community.A Mr. He made three executive orders that eventually became a structure for future civil rights legislation.A The first Executive Order 9981 came in 1948, is generally understood to be the act that desegregated the armed services.
After several years of planning, recommendations and revisions between Truman, the Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity and the various branches of the military, Army units became racially integrated. This process was also helped by the pressure of manpower shortages during the Korean War as replacements to previously segregated units could now be of any race.A The second order, also in 1948, made it illegal to discriminate against persons applying for civil service positions based on race. The third executive order, in 1951, established Committee on Government Contract Compliance (CGCC). This committee ensured that defense contractors to the armed forces could not discriminate against a person because of their race.A In retirement however, Truman was less progressive on the issue of race. He described the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches as silly, stating that the marches would not "accomplish a darn thing."A President Franklin D.
RooseveltThe New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936.
The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. A During Franklin's terms as President, despite his need to placate southern sentiment, she was vocal in her support of the African-American civil rights movement.A Mrs.
Roosevelt was outspoken in her support of Marian Anderson in 1939 when the black singer was denied the use of Washington's Constitution Hall and was instrumental in the subsequent concert held on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. KennedyThe turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s.
Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to a peaceful settlement in the courts.A A In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. Marshall while President Kennedy reluctantly federalized and sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.A Campus Riots left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class.
A A His brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front. A On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President, and which had hours earlier been under Wallace's command.A That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights. As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.A Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the status of Women on December 14, 1961. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963.
A Earlier, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.A Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for jobs and freedom on August 28, 1963.
Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. The March was considered a "triumph of managed protest", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred.A Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. A Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.A Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on a Sunday at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; at the end of the day six children had died in the explosion and aftermath. A A As a result of this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some drastic amendments that critically endangered any prospects for passage of the bill, to the outrage of the President. JohnsonIn conjunction with the civil rights movement, Johnson overcame southern resistance and convinced Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed most forms of racial segregation. A A He called the congressional leaders to the White House in late October 1963 to line up the necessary votes in the House for passage. A After Kennedy's death, it was Johnson who picked up the torch and pushed the bill through the Senate. A Legend has it that, as he put down his pen, Johnson told an aide, "We have lost the South for a generation", anticipating a coming backlash from Southern whites against Johnson's Democratic Party.A In 1965, he achieved passage of a second civil rights bill, the Voting Rights Act, which outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time.
In accordance with the act, several states, "seven of the eleven southern states of the former confederacy" - Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, VirginiaA a€” were subjected to the procedure of pre-clearance in 1965, while Texas, home to the majority of the African American population at the time, followed in 1975.A After the murder of civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo, Johnson went on television to announce the arrest of four Ku Klux Klansmen implicated in her death.
He angrily denounced the Klan as a "hooded society of bigots," and warned them to "return to a decent society before it's too late." Johnson was the first President to arrest and prosecute members of the Klan since Ulysses S.
NixonThe Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South.
Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern whites.A  Hopeful of doing well in the South in 1972, he sought to dispose of desegregation as a political issue before then. Soon after his inauguration, he appointed Vice President Agnew to lead a task force, which worked with local leadersa€”both white and blacka€”to determine how to integrate local schools.A Vice-President Spiro Agnew had little interest in the work, and most of it was done by Labor Secretary George Shultz. Federal aid was available, and a meeting with President Nixon was a possible reward for compliant committees. A By September 1970, fewer than ten percent of black children were attending segregated schools. A But by 1971, however, tensions over desegregation surfaced in Northern cities, with angry protests over the busing of children to schools outside their neighborhood to achieve racial balance. During the week white parents were seen in and out of the facility and on the weekend they would pick-up their children and take them home. My time was spend one block over on 13th and V Street working out of Harrison Playground and Harrison Elementary. I was of no help, I knew little or nothing about Hillcrest and how it served the community. I was more concerned about the knuckleheads I would encounter hanging out in the U Street corridor. We discussed what remedies we could use to combat these acts of truancy.A My thoughts, why not try to use athletics as a motivational tool? The athletic team concept helped me to improve my school attendance and discipline, why not use the same vehicle for these knuckleheads (I know a knucklehead when I see one, because I was one). A I would notice after school the young men who should have been attending Harrison during school hours would migrate to the playground.
Cousins and Roving Leader Director, Stanley Anderson, I held tryouts for the Harrison touch football team on Harrison Playground in the evenings after school. You name the sport, football, basketball, baseball, track and field, most could run like the wind. I wished that I could have been that talented at their young age.Getting them to tryout for the team was easy, but getting them to improve their attendance and their grades was not going to be an easy chore. The rules of participation were; regular school attendance, maintain a C average, respectful behavior (no profanity) and be on time for school and practice. Several I had to dismiss from the team or I benched them in favor of a not so talented teammate, but as we started to win without them, they changed their rebel ways.A I convinced other elementary schools in walking distance of Harrison to participate, Garrison and Grimke principals liked the concept and came aboard. The idea went over so well other elementary schools wanted to participate and the program went city-wide. With my coaching genius, Harrison Elementary won the first City Wide Elementary Touch Football League Championship. It took several practices before Andrew Johnson my high school teammate and police officer could convince his colleagues to take off their guns during practice.A The league was the brainchild of the late Mayor for Life, Marion Barry. The league was designed to help improve police community relations and it did for a minute.A In 1968 all hell broke loose after the gun related death of our Prince of Peace in Memphis, Tn, Dr.
I remember NFL Hall of Fame and Green Bay Packer player Willie Wood and I standing on the corner of 9th and U Streets after having lunch at the in-crowd hangout of the Che Maurice restaurant.
It was a beautiful bright sun shiny April 4th day when someone rode by in a car and yelled "Harold Bell they just shot and killed Dr.

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