Whether you are buying, renting or selling; whether you are looking for a holiday home, for an investment, commercial property, land, and any other type of property for sale and for rent in NEPAL , ITradeProperty can help. ITradeProperty was launched in 2009, ITradeProperty contains property listing directly from owner or agent. We invite you to browse through our website to find out what we can do for you and search for the property you are looking for.
In January 2010 we launched a Property Ownership Search tool for New York and have expanded it since then to cover California, New York, Florida, New Jersey and eleven other states in the United States. Find out who owns a particular property or who is the owner or landlord of a specific building located in Los Angeles County, CA. The Ownership Summary section on each property report will display all the property ownership data we have on the property in question. In cases where there is a building permit filed on a building, we provide the phone number of the applicant. Where available, we provide tenant phone records for rental apartments, office buildings or retail spaces. Properties Maine Hunting and Fishing Property MAINE HUNTING CABIN + 2.5 ACRES $17,800 OWNER FIN. Q- Would removal of the dam help alleviate upstream flooding problems suffered by residents of the Family Farm neighborhood in Woodside? A- Searsville Dam was not designed to provide any flood protection benefit downstream and has caused flooding upstream. A- While the dam was well built, the average age for a dam is reported, by Stanford, to be 40 years and Searsville Dam is 120 years old. Q- Stanford currently uses the reservoir for non-potable water use, such as irrigation, landscaping and fire-fighting. A- As with other completed dam removals, this project design would maintain or replace existing owner needs with improved facilities and ease of operation. A- Recent studies and completed dam removal efforts have shown that dam removal is almost always less expensive than eventual dam safety retrofitting, installation of required fish passage facilities, and ongoing maintenance costs. A- Fortunately, there are many sources of funding for dam removal and ecosystem restoration projects of this kind. A- The existing ecosystem has emerged around an artificial and unsustainable reservoir that is filling in with sediment. Q- What effects would removal -- including possible flushing of sediment -- have on the recovering population of steelhead elsewhere in the watershed? A- The dam has held back sediment for over a century and altered the natural flow of gravels and beneficial sediments downstream creating a a€?hungry watera€? situation that has impacted bank erosion and the native habitat for steelhead. Corte Madera Creek and the many tributary streams (above) contain excellent habitat and continues to support wild, rainbow trout (below), which are the descendants of sea-run steelhead. Q- The current wetlands support a rich bird habitat and foraging ground for bats a€“ would this be protected with the removal? A- Some of the recently established wetlands and habitat utilized by birds and bats can remain with dam removal and design plans would maximize the protection of sensitive areas in a manner similar to other successful dam removal efforts. Stanford officials have often wondered about the impacts of dam removal on vegetation established on the reservoir and possible negative impacts to neotropical migrant birds that have been observed here in high abundance. Searsville Dam removal would restore miles of currently buried streams, riparian forests and thick border habitats, and increase the amount of highly productive fringe wetland habitat that these riparian zones provide. Overall, the project could trade in the unsustainable, artificial, reservoir habitat for a net gain in stream habitat, riparian forest habitat, fringe wetland habitat, historic wetland ponds, and upland habitat.
A- Dam removal will eliminate the artificial reservoir habitat that currently allows for the breeding and dispersal of several exotic and invasive species that prey upon and compete with the native species. A- Dozens of large dams have been successfully removed and hundreds of medium and smaller dams have been taken out over the past couple decades. A- Over 500 dams have been removed in the United States in recent years and several dams that were about the size of Searsville, and larger, have recently been removed from rivers around the country. The mouth of San Francisquito Creek (above) is near several wetland restoration projects in need of sediment. Q- How would the removal of 60 feet of concrete blocks affect the biological preserve and surrounding communities?
A- Removal of the concrete blocks would be a short-term disturbance to the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and surrounding communities. A- Doing nothing at the dam and reservoir is not an option that any stakeholders are currently considering or embracing due to the imminent negative impacts of such a non-action.
Q- How will you work with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve and other watershed stakeholders to ensure their concerns are being met? A- Members and supporters of the Beyond Searsville Dam Coalition have been collaborating with Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford University, San Francisquito Joint Powers Authority, San Francisquito Watershed Project, local jurisdictions, government agencies, community groups, and other non-profit groups for several decades on a variety of watershed related projects.
Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve Director, Philippe Cohen (green cap), and Stanford Engineering Professor, David Freyberg (at right), atop Searsville Dam talking to a group from the Salmonid Restoration Federation conference who were interested in dam removal. 1) What is a dam?a€?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water.
However, this inventory only covers dams that meet minimum height and impoundment requirements, so an unknown number of small dams are not included in the inventory. 3) Which state has the most dams?a€?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?a€?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams. 5) How many dams actually produce power?a€?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams.
7) Why are some dams being removed?a€?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?a€?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis.
9) How many dams have been removed to date?a€?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available. 10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?a€?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars. 11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?a€?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams. 12) Who pays for dam removal?a€?Who pays for the removal of a dam is often a complex issue. 13) Who decides that dams should be removed?a€?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam. 14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?a€?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions.
15) What benefits do dams provide?a€?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation.
16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?a€?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams. Rather than plugging rivers with multiple hydropower dams, a cheaper and less environmentally harmful solution is to use existing energy efficiency technologies.
17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?a€?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term. 18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?a€?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river.
19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?a€?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?a€?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment. How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?a€?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. 1) What is a dam?There are a number of technical and legal definitions of a dam but generally it is any structure that impounds or diverts water. 3) Which state has the most dams?According to the NID, Texas has the most dams of any state at 6,798. 4) Who regulates dam operations?A number of state and federal agencies are responsible for regulating dams. 5) How many dams actually produce power?FERC regulates approximately 2,300 hydroelectric producing dams. 7) Why are some dams being removed?There has been a growing movement to remove dams where the costs - including environmental, safety, and socio-cultural impacts - outweigh the benefits - including hydropower, flood control, irrigation, or recreation - or where the dam no longer serves any useful purpose. 8) How are dams removed?Because dams and rivers vary greatly, physical removal strategies and techniques may also vary on a case by case basis. 9) How many dams have been removed to date?Currently, American Rivers is aware of more than 600 dams that have been removed over the past 50 years in this country.A  We are still in the process of gathering this data, so that figure is likely to increase as more information becomes available.
10) How much does it cost to remove a dam?Because the size and location of dams vary so greatly, the cost to remove an individual dam can range from tens of thousands of dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars. 11) Who owns the dams that are being removed?Private businesses, federal agencies, state agencies, local governments, or public utilities may own dams. 13) Who decides that dams should be removed?The decision to remove a dam is made by varying entities, depending on the regulatory oversight of the dam. 14) Can rivers be restored through dam removal?Although most rivers cannot be completely restored to historic conditions - simply because of the amount of development that has occurred on and along them - dam removal can often recreate conditions that move the river towards those historic conditions.
15) What benefits do dams provide?Dams may provide a variety of benefits, including water supply, power generation, flood control, recreation, and irrigation. 16) How can the benefits of a dam be replaced when it is removed?While dams serve a number of human needs, society has developed ways to address many of these needs without dams.
17) Is it cost effective to remove a dam?Dam removal can be expensive in the short term, but in most cases where dams have been removed or are being considered for removal, money is actually saved over the long term. 18) Will the removal of a dam matter if other dams in the system are not removed?Some rivers are so heavily developed and dammed that removal of one dam on that river will only return flows to a small portion of the river. 19) Are we going to decide in twenty years that we need to start building dams again?We have learned a lot in the past twenty years about the many impacts dams have on rivers, and we have learned many alternatives to damming rivers. 21) What are the potential downsides to dam removal?Dam removal does result in fundamental changes to the local environment. 22)How quickly do rivers recover after dam removal?Rivers are very dynamic and resilient systems. You will find property ownership information gathered from multiple sources including title documents, assessment rolls, permit data, HPD registration and voter registration (New York City), and notice addresses. The tool queries all properties owned by an individual or a corporation since 2000 and outputs the results in a clean and easy-to-read format.
Just type in a single property address and a property report will be pulled up containing: a property overview, property ownership records, deeds, tax liens, and more. Building permit phone numbers tend to be very reliable and we are among the very few service providers who provide such valuable information. As the elevation of the reservoir and trapped sediment were lowered, upstream flooding issues caused by the dam are expected to be eliminated.
The dam removal design plan can maximize flood protection benefits to downstream communities.
Searsville Dam provides a moderate amount of water that can easily be replaced with a less harmful water diversion facility that allows for improved functionality to Stanford. Federal, state, local, private, and non-profit entities are all providing large grants and donations to dam removal efforts nationwide. Some of the current vegetation and habitat that has grown up on the upstream end of the reservoir can be maintained with the dam removal design.
Dam removal would provide additional spawning gravels below the dam for steelhead as well as more natural water flow regimes and anticipated improvements to water quality.
These native trout are genetically isolated by the dam and their survival is at risk due to inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity. It is critical to understand that while the artificial, and disappearing, open-water reservoir habitat will be reduced, the historic and ecologically unique habitat buried by the dam and reservoir will be restored. In addition, much of the established riparian vegetation at the upper end of Searsville Reservoir could remain with theA  dam removal design.
The historic map below shows what this habitat looked like before the dam and what it can look like again with dam removal and ecosystem restoration. Several species of non-native bass, sunfish, and panfish as well as bullfrogs occur in the warm, artificial, flat-water of Searsville Reservoir. Much more complicated dam removals have been completed that involved hydro-power replacement, polluted sediment disposal, adjacent development, and other challenges that this project would not have. There are also several dams that are planned for removal over the next couple years that are many times larger in size and in the amount of stored sediment.
A portion of the sediment can be transported for other uses, including the stated desire for it at planned San Francisco Bay wetland restoration projects or nearby agricultural sites.
We will continue to work with all of these stakeholders to address their concerns, as we feel that the safety and ecosystem issues are in our mutual interest and that the most effective project will occur when shared goals are best addressed. While many progressive leaders at Stanford acknowledge the potential benefits of dam removal and the need for comprehensive studies to analyze specific dam removal alternatives, many watershed stakeholders are concerned that several individuals at Stanford are misrepresenting the issue and standing in the way of productive collaboration and investigation on this critical watershed decision that impacts all stakeholders. There are approximately 75,000 dams in the US Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) National Inventory of Dams (NID), which is the most comprehensive inventory of dams nationwide. Of the 75,000 dams in the database, approximately 66,000 are located on rivers (the remainder impound water off-river).
Generally, the process involves drawing down the reservoir, potentially removing the sediment built up behind the dam, removing the structure, and mitigating for downstream effects of increased flow and sediment re-suspension. Most of the dams removed to date have been owned privately, by local government, or by public utilities.
In past cases, removal has been financed by the dam owner, local, state and federal governments, and in some cases agreements whereby multiple stakeholders contribute to cover the costs. In most cases, the dam owner itself is the decision-maker, often deciding that the costs of continuing to operate and maintain the dam are more than removing the dam.
For example, fish are returning to historic stretches of river that had been previously obstructed on Butte Creek in California, theA Souadabscook River in Maine, and the Clearwater River in Idaho, as a result of dam removals. For instance, flood control can often be accomplished more effectively and for less money by restoring wetlands, maintaining riparian buffers, or moving people out of the floodplain. Removal eliminates the expenses associated with maintenance and safety as well as direct and indirect expenses associated with fish and wildlife protection (e.g.
The reservoir will be eliminated, and with it the flat-water habitat that had been created. Experience has shown that natural river systems can be restored relatively rapidly after dam removal. The valley and historic wetlands that are buried beneath Searsville Dam and Reservoir once provided natural flood protection benefits by filling and absorbing winter rains and then slowly releasing flows following the peak flow event.
Large cracks that remain on the dam were observed by the dam caretaker immediately after the 1906 earthquake. The shrinking reservoir provides a fading amount of storage capacity that can be replaced with existing off-stream reservoirs, expanded storage areas, new off-stream storage, and possible dredging of the remaining upper Searsville Reservoir areas. Almost all dam removal studies and construction efforts are being partially or fully funded with these available grants. In addition, miles of historic stream, riparian, and wetland habitat currently buried can be revived and restored with the dam removal. The existing downstream steelhead population is able to migrate up all other existing spawning and rearing tributaries in the watershed and away from any potential short-term disturbances from the dam removal. Several miles of stream habitat and associated riparian forests, comprising over 6 different tributary streams, can be reestablished. These species are able to breed in this artificial habitat and spread downstream of the reservoir were they can prey on and compete with threatened steelhead trout, other native aquatic species; including amphibians and even small birds and mammals. Habitat restoration of this size has been successfully completed at hundreds of locations and many dam removal projects have enabled stream habitat and native wildlife to restore themselves quickly.
See our Dam Blog page and American Rivers website for more information on completed and planned dam removal projects.
Noise abatement methods, scheduled use of roads by trucks, use of cleaner burning biodiesel in equipment operation, working around Preserve activities and research, and other determined actions could be implemented to reduce impacts.
Dredging the reservoir and maintaining some open water has also been considered, but has limited benefits and most of the existing ecosystem and safety problems with the dam would remain. We firmly believe that a collaborative, well-designed dam removal effort can be in the best interest of Stanford University and the entire watershed community. Non-federal dams that produce hydropower are regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). According to the NID, Oroville Dam, on the Feather River in California, is the tallest dam in the United States, measuring in at 770 ft. State dam safety offices can often order a dam to be removed if there are major safety concerns.
Updating antiquated irrigation systems and replacing inappropriate crops can dramatically reduce the need for dams and reservoirs in the arid West. Many dams that have been removed no longer had any beneficial use or that use was very limited. In some cases, this additional section of river is enough to sustain crucial populations of endangered or threatened species of fish, mollusks, and other wildlife.
In the next twenty years we are likely to learn even more about alternatives to dams and the impacts of dams on rivers.
Wetlands surrounding the reservoir will also be drained, although new wetlands are often created both in the newly restored river reach above the former dam site and in the river below.


For example, spawning fish returned to theA Souadabscook River in Maine only months after a dam was removed, and the flushing of the sediment from the Milwaukee River in Wisconsin following the Woolen Mills Dam removal took only six months. One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. All over the nation, restoration projects are being constructed that restore historic wetlands and adjacent riparian overflow areas to provide the dual benefits of ecosystem restoration and natural flood protection.
It is not known what the current structural condition of the dam is because it has been 43 years since the Division of Safety of Dams (DSOD) has inspected the foundation, toe, and groins of the dam. New diversion facilities can tie into existing storage facilities, irrigation, and landscaping pipelines and improve water delivery. One state agency, the Department of Water Resources, already offered to study alternatives at Searsville Dam, including removal, at no cost to Stanford.
The artificial reservoir ecosystem also currently harbors many exotic species of fish and frogs, which would be eliminated or drastically reduced in numbers, benefiting native species. As observed with other dam removal efforts, such as the Marmot Dam removal in Oregon, wild salmon and steelhead migrated upstream of the removed dam within several days of it being removed and reestablished themselves into historic habitat, expanding their distribution and improving their population health. Biologically-rich wetland ponds and seasonal overflow wetland areas that are currently covered by the reservoir can be restored along with acres of transitional and upland habitat. Dam removal and ecosystem restoration plans can minimize the risk of additional exotic species becoming established during the restoration effort and help to minimize future exotic introductions.
Other sediment alternatives such as slurry piping and controlled sediment transport can be utilized to design the best plan to address project complexities. As with so many other recently completed dam removal efforts, project stakeholders decided that the long-term gains to the ecosystem, dam owner, and surrounding communities warranted the short-term disturbance of dam removal. Only dam removal has the combined benefits of eliminating the safety liability of the dam, providing a free flowing stream, restoring historic habitat (wetland, stream, riparian), eliminating or reducing non-native species, providing unimpeded steelhead migration, and providing natural flood protection features.
Non-federal dams that do not produce hydropower are regulated by the state in which they reside. The dam with the largest impoundment is Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River in Nevada, which stores approximately 30 million acre-feet of water. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission can order a hydropower dam under their jurisdiction to be removed for both environmental and safety reasons.
In addition, removal often generates income from newly available recreation opportunities - including fishing, kayaking, and rafting - which may actually result in a net economic benefit.
Sediment that collects behind a dam, sometimes over hundreds of years, may contain toxics such as PCBs, dioxide, and heavy metals. In addition, dam removal efforts nationwide are being awarded funding to precede the dam removal with major downstream flood protection projects to increase channel capacity, replace undersized bridges, improve levee systems, and ensure that flood risks are reduced with the project.
Many earthquakes and several decades have past since this last detailed foundation inspection.
The remaining upper reservoir, west of Portola Road, is an historic wetland pond that preceded the construction of Searsville Dam. Water quality and habitat conditions downstream are expected to improve with dam removal, as has been the case elsewhere. Dam removal projects have consistently shown a strong benefit to salmon and steelhead populations in watersheds across the world.
An amazing and diverse array of habitat types and species will be restored for birds, bats, steelhead, and the full array of native species. Most of the non-native species utilizing Searsville Reservoir cannot thrive in the natural flowing stream environment. A combination of multiple sediment options has been used in other dam removal efforts and may provide the best way to deal with the sediment.
The dam that provides the most hydroelectric power in the United States is Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in Washington, which generates 6180 megawatts (MW) of power. Re-suspension of these toxic-laden sediments in the process of dam removal has the potential to damage downstream water quality and threaten the health of fish and wildlife and water users. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted.
This is an unprecedented opportunity to get massive funding and ease of permitting to reduce flooding, restore ecosystem health, and rebuild Stanforda€™s out-dated water supply facilities to a modern and sustainable state.
Stanford is responsible for coordinating this inspection that DSOD has identified in the above 2007 inspection report as a a€?prudenta€? measure that should be taken.
This pond can be maintained and continue to provide fire-fighting needs as well as water storage capacity and open-water wetland habitat benefits. Dam removal would also allow for the resurgence of annual steelhead trout runs to the watersheda€™s largest tributary for the first time in 120 years, bringing back a critical keystone species to the ecosystem. Removal of Searsville Dam would open up over ten miles of historic spawning and rearing habitat in the largest tributary of the entire watershed, where high quality habitat and native rainbow trout persist. In addition, the dam removal will reestablish critical wildlife migration routes at this confluence of riparian corridors currently blocked by the dam and submerged by the reservoir. A detailed Dam Removal Alternatives Analysis study would identify the many options available.
Short term impacts of the dam removal itself can include increased water turbidity and sediment buildup downstream from releasing large amounts of sediment from the reservoir, and water quality impacts from sudden releases of water and changes in temperature. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak.
If government officials decide they want your property, they can take it--for a wide variety of shady reasons that go far beyond the usual definition of "public purposes." The courts have allowed these injustices to persist. Beyond Searsville Dam requested that the DSOD require this study and they have informed Stanford that the study should happen before the end of 2012. As part of the larger Searsville Dam removal and ecosystem restoration project, Stanford has an unprecedented opportunity to upgrade their water delivery and storage facilities with the benefit of available grant funding, eliminated safety liability, and ease of permitting. The altered and artificial ecosystem would be transformed to a self-sustainable and native one.
The remaining, and historic, upper pond located west of Portola Road can continue to provide open-water wetland habitat. She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. And there is nothing you can do about it--not yet.A  A Real estate developer and property rights expert Don Corace offers the first in-depth look at eminent domain abuse and other government regulations that are strangling the rights of property owners across America . As the dam and concrete continue to age, experience additional earthquakes, and as the reservoir fills in and transported sediment potentially scours the dam, the structural integrity is expected to be reduced over time. In addition, the upgraded water diversion and storage facilities can be designed to serve a critical secondary function of reducing flooding downstream by diverting and storing peak storm flows into collection basins as is being considered by the Joint Powers Authority in the watershed.
In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. Government Pirates is filled with shocking stories of corrupt politicians, activist judges, entrenched bureaucrats, greedy developers, NIMBY (Not-in-My-Backyard) activists, and environmental extremists who conspire to seize property and extort money and land in return for permits.
The active San Andreas Fault run adjacent to Searsville Reservoir, which can be seen as the oval blue shape near the center of the map, adjacent to the highest a€?Very-Violenta€? shaking severity level on the above image. Such multi-objective funding and permitting opportunities are being jumped at by dam owners across the country. Corace provides the hard facts about individual rights and offers invaluable advice for those whose property may be in danger. Dam removal can eliminate the dam failure risk identified by San Mateo County and extensive downstream inundation. It is the one book that every property owner in America has to read.Questions for Don CoraceWhat will people learn from reading Government Pirates? Searsville Dam is listed as a a€?High Hazarda€? dam by the US Army Corps, State of California, and San Mateo County (pg. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction. Readers will learn: How unelected and unaccountable judges have eroded the intent of our founding fathers to protect private property rights Four categories of takings by the government--eminent domain, local zoning laws, the regulation of wetlands and complying with the Endangered Species Act Forty shocking stories from across America of how homes and small businesses are either being seized or whose owners are being strangled by regulations A blueprint on how to turn the tide of abuse There has been a lot of media attention about eminent domain abuse. 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. As noted in the above document, a High Hazard dam is defined as a dam whose failure would result in a€?probable loss of lives and significant property damagea€?.
Eminent domain is the authority of government to seize property for a "public use." It was widely utilized in the 1800s to acquire land for railroads and post offices and then evolved to be used to build roads, schools, dams, and military bases.
Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3, cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). Stanforda€™s own report, SPEAR3,A  cites an analysis that determined failure of Searsville Dam could release a a€?catastrophica€? flow of 60,433 cubic feet per second, or a€?about 6 times the 500-year peak flow of 10,500 cfsa€? (Section 7.1 Page 7). He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. In addition to geologic, aging, and seismic considerations, the dama€™s limited spillway design and operation and bypass flow drain pipe present additional safety challenges for dealing with dam overtopping during flood events and the ability to quickly drain the reservoir during an emergency. Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. In my teens, I worked as a laborer, carpentera€™s apprentice, surveyor by day and attended city council meetings with him at night. Over the years, I have had hands-on experience in every aspect of the development process with projects valued at more than $2 billion.
I have been involved in some of the most complex and controversial projects in the country.
He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Although there have been plenty of excellent books written on property rights by lawyers or journalists, Government Piratesis the first to be written by someone who has actually been in the trenches, and who has had their own money on the line.
Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. I picked up my morning newspaper on June 24, 2005, and read that the Supreme Court voted 5 to 4 in the Kelo case. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. To give government the legal authority to seize property to simply generate more tax revenues is unconscionable. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication.
At the time I was also embroiled in an ugly controversy over a bald eagle whose nest was located on some property we owned. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite.
Certain neighborhood groups were using the Endangered Species Act as tool to stop the project. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. I realized that eminent domain abuse like what happened in the Kelo case was outrageous, but at least in eminent domain cases property owners are supposed to be compensated by law. In endangered species issues, the Endangered Species Act clearly trumps the Fifth Amendment and allows government to not only not compensate land owners, but also to extort land and money in return for approvals. The same applies to local zoning laws and the regulation of wetlands--where I have also had considerable experience. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before.
One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way.
I was raised to respect the environment and learned at an early age to hunt and fish and enjoy the outdoors. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. Many people who consider themselves environmentalists have made it their lifea€™s mission to protect the environment at all costs--including at the expense of private property rights and economic growth. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. On a deeper examination of their motives, you will find that many of them use environmental causes to further that agenda to promote an anti-capitalistic and government-mandated redistribution of wealth. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor.
It is true that environmentalists have been successful in shedding light on important environmental issues and have forced landowners and industry to find creative ways to develop property and natural resources while safeguarding the environment.
Unfortunately, as evidenced by stories in my book, there are too many instances of environmentalists simply going too far.
Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. Although many property rights organizations throughout the country are doing an excellent job in fighting property rights abuse, we need to take it up another notch and use the media as a weapon.
She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. We need to educate the public and get a groundswell of support to make lawmakers and bureaucrats accountable for their actions.
Efforts to pass meaningful reforms will not be successful unless these officials--as well as NIMBYa€™s and environmental extremists are exposed. I feel it is my responsibility to shed light on the issues--and make those who do not respect property rights famous. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. The founding fathers believed that "the right of property is the guardian of every other right," but it is also a basic human right. A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments.
Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health.
After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out.
I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf.
From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons.


A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication.
Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work.
He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut.
The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet).
The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior.
Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums. Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site.
Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo.
Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered.
People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier.
The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator.
It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple.
On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues. I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday.
She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive".
A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked. Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement.
Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it. We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue. When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion. One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze.
Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement.
Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose. A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her.
She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site.
She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her.
Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance.
By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings. They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others.
After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest.
The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone.
Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding. Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained.
Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt. Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking.
About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken.
The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king.
The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed.
This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple.
Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place.
These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel".
This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls.
In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken).
Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.



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