Here are 12 interesting facts about hydrogen, the simplest and commonest element in the universe. Although an element’s number of protons cannot change, the number of neutrons can vary slightly from each atom.
Most carbon on Earth exists as the very stable isotope carbon-12, with a very small amount as carbon-13. Carbon-14 is an unstable isotope of carbon that will eventually decay at a known rate to become carbon-12. But when gas exchange is stopped, be it in a particular part of the body like in deposits on bones and teeth, or when the entire organism dies, the ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 begins to decrease. This plot shows the level of carbon-14 in the atmosphere as measured in New Zealand (red) and Austria (green), representing the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively.
Bomb radiocarbon dating is a term for radiocarbon dating based on timestamps left by above-ground nuclear explosions, and it is especially useful for putting an absolute age on organisms that lived through those events.


The only major fluctuation [in carbon-14] we know of occurred when we began detonating nuclear weapons in the open air, back in the mid-20th Century. Most radiocarbon dating today is done using an accelerator mass spectrometer, an instrument that directly counts the numbers of carbon 14 and carbon12 in a sample. A detailed description of radiocarbon dating is available at the Wikipedia radiocarbon dating web page. About 10 percent of the weight of living organisms is hydrogen – mainly in water, proteins and fats. Antihydrogen is the only antimatter element made so far, with atoms of antihydrogen synthesized at CERN lasting for as long as 1000 seconds (almost 17 minutes).
Hydrogen is believed to be one of three elements produced in the Big Bang; the others are helium and lithium. The first chain reaction discovered was not a nuclear reaction; it was a chemical chain reaction.


The video starts at 2 min 25 sec, where there’s a good slow motion view of the reaction. Each of these electrons  can pair with an electron from another atom to form a strong  covalent bond. Each atom of antihydrogen contains a positron (positively charged version of the electron) orbiting an antiproton (negatively charged version of the proton). The Sun’s nuclear fires convert hydrogen to helium releasing a large amount of energy.
It was discovered in 1913 by Max Bodenstein, who saw a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen gases explode when triggered by light.



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