This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications. Special thanks to Tiffany Do for her research and interest in creating the timeline, and Hillary Jenks and Alexis Moreno for their help in writing the entries. 50,000 a€“ 15,000 BC People of northeast Asia follow herds of caribou, bison & mammoth and migrate across the present day Bering Strait.
1542 Juan Cabrillo claims Southern California territory for the Spanish kingdom, beginning over three and half centuries of occupation. 1822A  Spanish rule in California becomes Mexican rule with the rise of the Republic of Mexico and the country's successful War for Independence from Spain. 1833 The Mexican government secularizes the missions, making them public property and allows for land to be distributed to Indian neophytes and Mexican soldiers as payment for service in the military. 1843 Manuel Micheltorena, governor of southern California, decrees the restoration of southern missions to church control.
1846 Governor Pio Pico sells most of the San Fernando Valley land to Eulogio de Celis before the Mexican War.
1846 - 1848 The Mexican American War results in California becoming part of the United States, along with more than half of former Mexican land. 1847 Agreement of peace (Cahuenga Capitulation) between Fremont and Pico gives Americans control of California in the war. 1849 The gold rush in Northern California draws people, and the Valley is cow country full of ranchos that feed them. 1850 California joins the United States; Los Angeles County (which includes the San Fernando Valley) initially comprises 4,340 square miles and the first United States Census measures its population at 3,530. 1851 Alexander Bell and David Alexander become the first American landowners in the Valley after Vicente de Osa sells Rancho Providencia. 1854 Rancho Ex-Mission de San Fernando falls into hands of Andres Pico who becomes known for his hospitality and entertainment. 1855 A new road allows lines of stages, trains of wagons and pack mules to travel to Kern River gold fields. 1860 Geronimo Lopez’s adobe home becomes known as the Lopez Station for housing the stagehouse for the Valley. 1880 San Fernando Farm Homestead Association officially distributes property to stockholders. 1887 A real estate boom partitions up the Valley, beginning with the Lankershim Ranch Land and Water Company, which buys land from the Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company.
1897 Squatters of the Land Settlers league attempt to squat in the San Fernando Valley under the belief that it is public land for settlement. 1907 Los Angeles approves a 23 million dollar bond issue for aqueduct construction from Owens Valley.
In 1915, the city of Los Angeles annexes the San Fernando ValleyA  - a crucial development as this enables the Valley to gain access to the water coming from Owens Valley from the Los Angeles Aqueduct (completed two years earlier under the direction of William Mulholland). 1916 Due to the influx of water provided by the LA Aqueduct, Valley residents begin growing oranges.
1918 The Valley reports record crops including 55,000,000 pounds of beans, and a variety of fruits and vegetables including apricots, citrus, peaches, potatoes, and sugar beets. 1926 The town of Sherman Oaks and the street Sherman Way bear legacy to pioneer of the San Fernando Valley General Moses Hazeltine Sherman. 1931 Residents protest changing the name of Cahuenga to Highland because of the uniqueness of the name Cahuenga. 1941- May 29 Disney Studio animators strike Disney due to Walt Disney's inconsistent monetary rewards for better workers. 1941 When the United States joins World War II, the Valley changes from a place of agriculture to manufacturing as part of the war effort and defense institutions like Lockheed. 1941 Old Trapper’s Lodge Motel with giant trapper sculptures is built as an attraction. 1945 Despite the wartime ban against strikes, set designers from the Conference of Studio Unions strike against Warner Brothers film studio for 30 weeks.
1956 The San Fernando Valley Campus of the Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences (CSUN) opens.
1959 Valley leaders and parents protest the increase in mailed pornography in the community. 1966 A coalition of property owning and tax paying associations come together to create a mass group to protest hikes on property taxes. Between 1967 and 1971 there are six massive demonstrations at San Fernando Valley State College (now known as California State University Northridge) against the lack of representation or curricula related to ethnic studies and the war in Vietnam.
1971 The Sylmar Tunnel Disaster strikes when Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Company tunnels to bring water from the Feather River to the Los Angeles basin. 1979A  Valley residents march against Rocketdyne’s Canoga Park facility on the anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings to protest the dangerous activities of operations involving nuclear energy. 1991 Motorist Rodney King is pulled over on Foothill Boulevard in Lake View Terrace where 15 LAPD officers in patrol cars converged on him. 1992 The Rodney King trial takes place in Simi Valley with a jury of ten whites, one Latino, and one Asian. 1994 a€“ 57 people lose their lives in the wake of the 6.7 magnitude Northridge Earthquake. 1996 Unrest occurs at California State University Northridge when Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke speaks on campus.
GENI RSS - Global Energy Network Institute - The Global Energy Network Institute (GENI) focuses on the interconnection of electric power networks between nations and continents, with an emphasis on tapping abundant renewable energy resources.
NAIVASHA, Kenya (AlertNet) – Kenya has inaugurated Africa’s biggest geothermal power project in a bid to meet its growing need for electricity and lower its consumption of nonrenewable energy. The 280 megawatt (MW) Olkaria Geothermal Project was commissioned by Kenya’s president, Mwai Kibaki, in July.
India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has issued a draft solar policy for Phase II of the country’s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), outlining its strategy to install 10GW by 2017 through mostly utility-scale projects. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has released an updated 20-year version of its US National Solar Radiation Database. US PV manufacturer SunPower has entered into a definitive joint venture agreement with three of its partners based in Mongolia and China. Orix Corporation, a financial services company based in Tokyo, Japan, has entered into a strategic partnership with Kyudenko Corporation to jointly launch a a€?mega-solara€? power generation business on the Japanese island of Kyushu.
Orix Corporation, a Japanese financial services group, has announced it will begin developing 81.6MW worth of a€?mega-solara€? PV plants at 17 sites across Japan. From 2013, solar-powered litter bins offering wireless internet will be placed on the streets around the city of Aberdeen in Scotland.
Grid parity for residential and commercial consumers is within reach in many European countries, according to the PV Parity project consortium. The President of Costa Rica Laura Chinchilla has officially inaugurated a 1MW solar park in Miravalles which is said to be the country’s largest PV plant to date and the largest project of its kind in Central America. A slew of emerging markets for PV have been identified in a weighty new report from market research firm IHS, which has identified 20GW of PV projects across Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle-East, Africa and "emerging Europe". US PV project developer SunEdison, Chint Solar, the Public Investment Corporation and the Kurisani Youth Development Trust have obtained US$314 million in long-term debt and equity financing for two large-scale solar projects in Limpopo province, South Africa.
China’s CSP capacity could increase to 3GW by 2015, although more conservative estimates predict it will only grow to 1GW, according to a paper by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The installed cost of solar power systems in the US fell substantially last year and in the first half of this year, according the Department of Energya€™s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
The National Solar Jobs Census 2012 published earlier this month revealed that solar companies are hiring faster than the general economy.
The first African initiative to generate hydrogen from water using renewable energy has been installed in Morocco. The global energy map is changing “in dramatic fashion”, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said today, as it launched the 2012 edition of its World Energy Outlook.
The US$12 billion should have been invested in harnessing renewable energy sites where a€?the wind blows the hardest or the sun shines the fiercesta€? such as in the deserts of Asia, the Americas and Africa, says Dr.
World Resources Institute identifies 1,200 coal plants in planning across 59 countries, with about three-quarters in China and India More than 1,000 coal-fired power plants are being planned worldwide, new research has revealed. Megalim Solar Power, a company established by BrightSource Energy and Alstom, has won the bid to build a 121MW solar thermal power plant in Israel. Four years ago, six months before the last presidential election, I expressed skepticism about whether the United States would adopt a cap-and-trade carbon reduction plan, even though both candidates Obama and McCain had explicitly favored such a system.
Tokelau has become the first territory able to meet all its electricity needs with solar power, officials say.
Laos plans to start building a dam on the Mekong River this week, a step that neighboring Cambodia and Vietnam fear could imperil fish and cripple rice fields.
Italy has a total of 456,575 grid-connected PV plants currently in operation, benefitting from the country’s Conto Energia V incentive programme, according to figures published by Italian energy agency GSE.
LONDON, Nov 5 (Reuters) - The world will have to cut the rate of carbon emissions by an unprecedented rate to 2050 to stop global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees this century, a report released by PwC on Monday showed. Iceland's famous for its breathtaking scenery, its geysers, its Blue Lagoon--and for sitting astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
According to RTT News, Gestamp and Zynergy’s joint venture (JV), Southern Solar, will complete the first 25MW of the project by March.
On July 30thA and 31stA the world's largest blackout -- The Great Indian Outage -- stretching from New Delhi to Kolkata occurred. The Serbian government and Luxembourg-based investor Securum Equity Partners have signed a binding framework agreement for a 1GW PV deal. US PV project developer Tenaska has installed the first PV module forA its 130MW Tenaska Imperial South solar project located at the company’s Imperial Solar Energy Center South facility near El Centro, California. The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) has approved loan facilities worth R9,668.50 billion (US$980 million) earmarked for 13 solar projects in South Africa. The solar plant holds a 56MW installed capacity and is outfitted with nearly 700,000 thin-film PV panels from First Solar. US PV manufacturer SunPower Corporation has announced the completion of a 13.78MW solar power system at the US Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake (NAWS China Lake) in California.
The surge in solar activities in Japan is continuing with Tokyo-based Marubeni Corporation announcing plans to create a a€?mega-solar power businessa€? by building an 81.5MW solar plant in Oita City, Japan.
IKEA has allocated €1.5 billion to solar and wind projects up to 2015 in a bid to meet all its on-site energy demands from renewable sources by 2020. Perhaps more than any other state, California has acted on the scientific consensus that global climate change is real and man-made.
The Energy Department released a new report on August 14 highlighting strong growth in the U.S. It’s getting harder and harder to call wind power a niche source of electricity in the United States. Lockheed Martin secured a contract with the Office of Naval Research for the design and development of solid oxide fuel cell generator sets as an alternative to traditional battlefield power generation equipment. Through the NY-Sun Initiative — a programme which aims to co-ordinate a well-funded solar energy expansion plan — US$107 million will be injected into the NY-Sun Competitive PV Program to facilitate the development of large-scale PV systems throughout New York, US, Governor Andrew Cuomo has announced. Energy minister of Punjab, India, Bikram Singh Majithia announced new financial incentives to be incorporated into a revised renewable energy policy for 2012. The government of the state of Gujarat in India has confirmed it is exploring the possibility of setting up a 1,000MW solar power project in conjunction with the International Finance Corporation (IFC).
Through its Engineering and Support Centre, Huntsville, the US Army Corps of Engineers has issued a multiple-award task order contract (MATOC) RFP for US$7 billion in total contract capacity for the acquisition of locally generated, renewable and alternative energy through PPAs. When you see a lot of sixes coming up on a friend’s Monopoly dice, you might begin to harbor a suspicion that the dice are loaded. The global PV monitoring market is predicted to reach 23GW in 2012, according to the Global PV Monitoring 2012 report published by GTM Research.
A partnership between the Interior and Defense departments will reopen 16 million acres of land to renewable energy development.
According to a study by the Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics (BREE), PV, along with onshore wind, will be the cheapest sources of electricity in Australia by 2030.
The latest installation figures from the German Federal Network Agency show that the country’s mid-year subsidy change for rooftop installations has caused a surge in solar demand for the first half of 2012, with more than 4.3GW installed in a period of just six months.
Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), a US electric and gas company, has announced that it will submit a request to New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (BPU) for approval to invest up to US$883 million to expand its Solar 4 All and Solar Loan programmes in order to develop an additional 233MW of solar capacity.
US retail giant Walmart is continuing to fulfill its promise to invest in renewable energy and has installed solar panels on the rooftop of its College Avenue store in San Diego to generate electricity. According to Hellenic Transmission System Operator SA (HTSO), Greece has installed an additional 97MW of grid-connected PV capacity in June 2012, bringing its total PV capacity to 724MW. China’s PV manufacturing base saw a major setback in the first and second quarters of 2012, with a severe slump in exports sparking the government to step in and further raise its PV installation target to 50GW, according to the latest quarterly report on China’s PV market from IMS Research.
Japan's largest single utility-scale solar power plant, using 290,000 multicrystalline solar modules supplied by Kyocera is expected to cost in the region of US$345 million or approximately ?27 billion when complet by autumn 2013. Perhaps not in the way Enerplan wished in a statement to France’s new president, Francois Hollande, but the country is pushing forwards with its plans for renewable energy generation. Shaded parking array designed and developer, Envision Solar International, has announced that through a new partnership with Aconfort, it will be developing new business initiatives through the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Spain. The latest global PV inverter market report from IMS Research paints a mixed business environment for the sector that has more than 150 active suppliers. SolarCity announced that it has partnered with Credit Suisse on a second round of investment. Credit Suisse, which just announced its US$200 million partnership with Solar City, has additionally advised that it has committed US$200 million to Sunrun.
As California is in the midst of policy decisions that will determine its energy future, the GEA National Geothermal Summit will bring policy and industry leaders together in Sacramento Aug.
Endemic overcapacity and continued price declines within the polysilicon sector impeded Korean OCI Company’s previously announced plans for the construction of two plants in May. Researchers have fashioned a new transparent solar cell that will not only permit windows at homes to generate power but also enable people to see outside. Renewable energy will help in Afghanistan's energy scarcity problem according to a study by a researcher from Kansas State University. SolarCity has embarked on the second phase of Project SolarStrong, a billion dollar initiative to install solar panels on 120,000 units of privately managed U.S. A new web application collects cost and performance estimates for electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies and makes them available for utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics. Greater amounts of renewable energy are continually being added to the power mix in the Western states, so ways to integrate those resources are paramount. New research by Columbia Engineering demonstrates remarkable optical nonlinear behavior of graphene that may lead to broad applications in optical interconnects and low-power photonic integrated circuits. Chinese company Sky Solar will be a conduit to help form a strategic partnership for bilateral free trade between China and Chile. Some of the weather extremes bedeviling people around the world have become far more likely because of human-induced global warming, researchers reported on Tuesday. Ireland must invest even more in renewable technologies, expand grid integration and improve energy efficiency, the International Energy Agency says in a review of Irish energy policies, published today. By 2050, more than 6 billion humans are expected to live in cities, according to the United Nations.
Fresh off the record-setting solar weekend in Germany, the country's transmission operators say plans are in the works for a huge transmission line buildout to accommodate growing wind power resources.
SunEdison has sold a total of 98MW of European PV projects, the company has announced, closing three transactions last week. The US Senate’s recent vote to not extend the Department of Treasury's solar energy tax incentive has resulted in a creative alternative by underwriters from financial institutions like Bank of America to Credit Suisse and Citigroup. A new report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) has determined that over the next five years, in spite of economic uncertainty, global power generation from hydropower, solar, wind and other renewable resources will increase by over 40% to 6,400TWh. The Japanese Bank for International Cooporation (JBIC) has signed a general agreement with ICICI Bank (Bank of India) for an export credit line of up to US$30 million to fund a variety of renewable energy projects, it has been announced. In 2011, California became the first US state to install more than 1GW of customer-generated solar energy, according to figures published by the California Public Utilities Commission. Japan has published its latest strategic energy plan, originally formulated in 2003 and reviewed every three years by conference bodies as well as various opinion polls. Spain-based Solarpack Corporacion Tecnologica was recently awarded a contract to supply energy to northern Chile's Collahuasi copper mine.


The Obama Administration today announced 36 new states, local governments, and school districts have joined President Obama's Better Buildings Challenge. 350 megawatt photovoltaic facility in Nevada will benefit Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, generate enough power for over 100,000 homes. Lux Research’s Putting High-Concentration Photovoltaics into Focus report is expecting for high-concentrating PV (HCPV) to start making a bigger footprint in the solar industry. Chinese PV company Sky Solar is planning to invest in a 300MW PV project in Chile, according to a report by Reuters. Speaking at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today announced that more than one hundred commitments and actions have been already mobilized in support of the UN’s global sustainable energy initiative. How much renewable energy can the United States accommodate over the coming decades is the subject of a new report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). When Masayoshi Son heard about the nuclear meltdowns in Fukushima last year, he had a mini meltdown of his own. Japan approved on Monday incentives for renewable energy that could unleash billions of dollars in clean-energy investment and help the world's third-biggest economy shift away from a reliance on nuclear power after the Fukushima disaster. A new lithium ion battery technology may finally make the devices cheap enough and durable enough to turn electric cars from a niche product into a mass-market mode of transport. Cuba looks forwards to adding a 16.5 percent renewable energy contribution to the country's energy output as a crucial factor for security, sustainability and sovereignty.
Global investments in clean energy need to double by 2020 to avoid missing climate change targets, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said on Monday, calling on governments to spend more on technologies such as carbon storage and solar power.
Norwegian-based Scatec Solar and IFC InfraVentures have entered an agreement to develop a number of PV plants in West and Central Africa, the companies have announced.
IBM and CUNY Ventures, a City University of New York (CUNY) Economic Development unit, have partnered under the Smart NY program in order to encourage the adoption of solar.
Having increased the allocation of solar projects to 350MW by 2016, in February this year, Karnataka Renewable Energy Development (KREDL) is in the process of seeking government approval for a solar park, following in the footsteps of states like Gujarat. Pakistan's slow economic growth and energy shortage could be coming to an end if proposals from Suntech to establish 100MW in the country are realized. CNPV Solar Power executives were on hand, May 2, at Enel Green Power’s inauguration ceremony for its solar geothermal hybrid project in Stillwater, Nevada. Retail giant, Macy’s, has added a new solar array to the rooftop of its Edison, New Jersey distribution centre. An Energy Bag has been developed for undersea compressed air energy storage (CAES) of offshore wind, wave and tidal power. Bangladesh has evinced keen interest in importing power from Arunachal Pradesh, once the ongoing hydro electric projects in the state are commissioned. That's right - half of all of Germany was powered by electricity generated by solar plants.
The Inter-American and Development Bank (IDB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have entered a co-financing agreement worth US$600 million to invest in renewable private-sector projects in South America and the Caribbean.
Nicaragua’s Ministry of Energy and Mines has started construction on a 1.38MW project in the west of the country. The fast EV charger has been designed for fast charging in commercial and office areas, and can fully charges an electric car in 30-120 minutes. Seoul: India has formally offered to provide Pakistan with 5,000 megawatt electricity to fulfill its energy requirements on an urgent basis regularly which could be transmitted through Punjab without much delay. Due to an aggressive FiT cut of between 20% for residential and 30%, for large-scale PV installations the German government will introduce the FiT cuts from March 9, 2012. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has, in collaboration with New Energy Technologies, produced its largest-area OPV module ever at 170cm2. The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), the country's largest power supplier, pledged Tuesday to launch projects in the country's most remote corners, offering another 2.07 million people access to electricity by the end of 2015.
Over the past few years, Nicaragua's energy sector has become a State priority, and wheels have been set in motion to promote its development – as well as seek large-scale renewable energy projects. An eminent UK engineer is suggesting building cloud-whitening towers in the Faroe Islands as a "technical fix" for warming across the Arctic. Former president Bill Clinton and NRG Energy’s president David Crane visited Haiti to examine the progress of the solar power installations built in partnership with the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF). Standing on the shores of the Mediterranean, anywhere from Tangiers to Istanbul, it’s not exactly difficult to imagine the region’s renewable potential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has verified Alta Devices’ most recent and highest efficiency solar panel at 23.5%. There exists great wind energy potential that remains to be tapped in South Africa, experts said, reports Xinhua.
Generation from wind turbines in the United States increased 27% in 2011 compared to 2010, continuing a trend of rapid growth. Japan this week marks the one year anniversary of the devastating earthquake and tsunami that has since forced it to re-evaluate its nuclear strategy. A new report released today by the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research shows that Minnesota can meet 100% of its electricity needs with in-state wind and solar power, and (with ample energy efficiency investments) at a comparable cost to its existing electricity supply.
Despite last year's bankruptcies of several solar manufacturers, including government-backed Solyndra, the U.S. ChargeCar aims to create a kit that makes it easy for local auto shops to convert conventional cars to electric. CATALYTIC CONVERTER: Instead of selling pricey new vehicles, the ChargeCar team wants to create a kit that makes it easy for local auto shops to convert gasoline cars to run on electricity. PITTSBURGH -- Chuck Wichrowski remembers the first car he ever worked on, when he was just a college graduate and knew nothing about cars: His wife's 1970 Chevy Nova. As the years rolled by, Wichrowski put his wrench to the cars that drove the Steel City through its industrial heyday. Wichrowski used to run two gas stations, and he knows electric-drive cars need less maintenance than the gas-driven ones. And for the team at Carnegie Mellon University, which is designing cars to get residents to work without burning a pint of gas or even wasting an electron, the future of electric cars is Pittsburgh. Designers of the ChargeCar project say that instead of selling pricey new vehicles, they want to create a kit that makes it easy for local auto shops like Wichrowski's to convert a gasoline car to run on electricity.
Electric-car conversions have been available for decades, whether through small, independent companies or engineers tinkering in their garages.
When Nourbakhsh and his colleagues looked at how Pittsburghers drive, they found that most trips are about half a dozen miles. The team reckoned a battery, combined with a gadget called a supercapacitor and controlled by software, could make most of these miles electric-powered, at a price Pittsburghers could afford. ChargeCar's latest projects sit in a former gas station across the street from Carnegie Mellon. As Nourbakhsh pulls onto the road, he points to wobbling needles and flashing numbers on the computer screen. As the professor fiddles, the team is learning important facts about the most efficient way to power an electric car.
The reason has to do with how batteries work -- and a major technical challenge for automakers. Batteries are good at storing energy, but they degrade if they have to take on, or release, too much power too quickly.
Unlike batteries, supercapacitors are built for abuse: They can take a huge charge and discharge, thousands of times, without losing a step.
They're not so good at holding a charge, Nourbakhsh says, so the team decided to pair one with a battery. As the argument goes, if one knows exactly how someone drives, it's possible to come up with the perfect-size battery and supercapacitor for that driver. Nourbakhsh and his team are at work on a computer program that can predict where a driver speeds up, hits traffic and pauses for doughnuts -- all to make a battery system that's the perfect size. Over time, this program could even learn more about the driver, firing up the capacitor or battery at precisely the right times to get her to work. Nourbakhsh says a regular battery may cost $8,000, but adding a $1,000 capacitor to handle the sudden charges means the battery doesn't need to be as big, so the combo may cost only $2,000.
Paul Scott, vice president of advocacy group Plug-in America, said such a system could be the "magic bullet" of energy storage in cars, since it balances capacity and power. Capacitors have already drawn interest from researchers, engineers and even some of the automakers. Nourbakhsh said the car doesn't have to spend its last electron at the office -- it's possible to design "headroom" for a specific commute while still being efficient and saving on cost.
Some families might choose to have a ChargeCar and reserve a gasoline car for longer trips, said Leland Thorpe, a master's student at Carnegie Mellon who's on the ChargeCar team. Even if electric cars catch on in Pittsburgh, Wichrowski, the manager of Baum Boulevard Automotive, isn't worried about having to lay off mechanics. He said today, some cars have up to a dozen computers to control their systems: air conditioners, power steering and the like. The modern mechanic often has the equipment and know-how to work with them, so electric cars shouldn't be too much harder. Wea€™ll schedule a visit to your facility, conduct a free lighting audit, define youa€™re lighting problems and review all of the LED benefits. D&J Electric is a regional sales representative for Titan LED, an American lighting manufacturerA specializing in energy-efficient, advanced LED lighting solutions. To explore why LEDs have advantages over fluorescent tubes, we must first understand how both light sources work. Fluorescent Lights : Fluorescent tubes, and their smaller cousins compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), work in a strikingly different way to LEDs. Now that we understand how both light sources work, we can more accurately discuss the advantages LEDs hold over fluorescent tubes. Long Term Cost : It is true that LEDs are more expensive initially than fluorescent and compact fluorescent lights, but they can provide huge potential savings over the long term.
Maintenance : The amount of time spent replacing bulbs, especially in larger buildings, can be counterproductive. Noise : Fluorescent tubes are notorious for being noisy, especially if they have been used for a significant amount of time. Environmental Impact : Fluorescent lights by their very nature must contain a small amount of mercury. Durable : Because LEDs are not made of glass and are hollow inside, they are far less fragile than both fluorescent and incandescent bulbs.
No Heat : While fluorescent tubes emit less heat than incandescent and halogen bulbs, they still produce much more than LEDs.
Fluorescent tubes are a great lighting option for those wishing to pay less initially for their needs.
They move south along ice-fee corridors into the North American continent to what is now California.
With him are two Franciscan padres, Junipero Serra and Juan Crespi, who record the expedition and found the first mission. Of the missions’ eight million acres originally designated as the property of converted Native Americans, 500 land grants are created for influential families.
Though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally ends the war, it becomes an issue of contention when existing Californio rights are not honored as promised, and the Treaty is breached. The treaty takes place at the house of Don Feliz (Campo de Cahuenga) near the Cahuenga Pass. His adobe house eventually becomes state historical monument: Los Encinos State Historical Park. This pamphlet extolls the benefits of living in Southern California in order to be healed of many diseases like tuberculosis. Los Angeles Farm and Milling Company, the successor to the Homestead Association, promotes wheat and flour-milling industry.
Going back to Native American terms, the word Cahuenga reflects the Native American origins of the San Fernando Valley. Phyllis O’Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. This will be the third institution of higher education founded in the Valley; in 1947 Pierce College is founded and in 1949 Valley College opens. Murrow televises the Sodium Reactor Experiment from the Santa Susana Research Facility on his program as it powered Moorpark. Although safety inspector Wally Zavattero discovers hazardous conditions and orders precautions taken, they are ignored, leading to an explosion that killed 17 people. Protesting for equality, the senior citizens gather at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center to band together. A local resident videotapes the beating, which becomes a national discussion on police brutality. With twenty billion dollars in damage, it is one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. If the 300 square mile area that is the Valley were a single city, it would be the 5th largest in the nation. 30, 2012) — Developers of renewable energy and shale gas must overcome fundamental geological and environmental challenges if these promising energy sources are to reach their full potential, according to a trio of leading geoscientists.
The Solar Foundation's review of the US solar workforce found that as of September 2012, the solar industry had grown to 119,016 workers under its definition of those "who spend at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related activities".
The completion of Africa’s first wind–hydrogen system is a collaboration between the Pure Energy® Centre in Scotland, Sahara Wind Inc, and Al Akhawayn University in Morocco. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has launched a new tool and redesigned DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site to help fleet managers, municipalities and consumers choose from a wide variety of alternative fuels and energy efficiency strategies for reducing petroleum use, vehicle emissions, and operating costs. This year, though neither President Obama or challenger Romney has uttered the words "climate change" during the campaign, my prediction is that the United States will soon adopt some kind of carbon plan, regardless of who wins. Among energy wonks, Iceland is also well known for using its abundant renewable energy, and especially for tapping the volcanic roots of the island in developing its geothermal resources.
It has been noted that Rohit Rahindernath, CEO and MD of Zynergy stated that the Southern Solar will buy 202 hectares in the Madurai and Ramnad districts, with the JV planning to sell the power generated by the plants directly to industrial consumers. This blackout caused by northern power grid failure had put nearly 700 million people -- twice the population of the U.S. Last year, wind turbines represented one-third of all new generation capacity built in the country, behind only natural gas. Lockheed Martin's fuel cell technology will be integrated with solar panels, providing the military with the power needed to perform missions while using dramatically less fuel. Gujarat estimates that the project could cost around Rs 8 to 9 crore per MW, therefore, the 1,000MW project could cost anywhere between Rs 8,000 to 9,000 crore. Moreover, non-tracking PV is estimated to go on to become the cheapest power generation technology in Australia by 2050.
This marks the company’s 100th solar installation in California and is in line with its aim to expand its solar portfolio to more than 75% of its stores in the state, approximately 130 stores, by the end of 2013. HTSO also revealed that the country’s PV systems generated 161.5 GWh of electricity in the same month. Tough competition in the global market place, vast oversupply and falling prices has put Chinese manufacturers’ balance sheets under huge pressure and China’s government has responded by more than doubling its long-term installation target from 20 to 50 GW by 2020. With project finance now in place, construction of the plant in Kagoshima City, on land owned by IHI Corporation, will start in September.
Delphine Batho, the new minister for ecology, sustainable development and energy, announced the results of two tenders for solar plants. Although having defended reasonably well against price declines, compared to the rest of the supply chain, the market research firm is forecasting inverter sector revenues to only increase by 3% in 2012, while shipments increased nearly 25%. The investment will go towards building solar panel installations and will help offset the upfront cost of solar panels for SolarCity customers.
The investment will help support the purchase and installation of thousands of residential solar systems in the US.
Nevertheless, its North-American arm, OCI Solar Power, has signed a landmark deal with CPS Energy in San Antonio, Texas, to develop more than 400MW of projects. The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) app provides technology cost and performance estimates that can be used to benchmark company costs, model energy scenarios, and inform research and development decisions. With the placement of a sheet of graphene just one-carbon-atom-thick, the researchers transformed the originally passive device into an active one that generated microwave photonic signals and performed parametric wavelength conversion at telecommunication wavelengths. CEO Amy Zhang recently attended a banquet hosted by Chilean President Sebastian Pinera in the capital, Santiago, an event also attended by Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and his entourage.


Yet they ruled it out as a cause of last year’s devastating floods in Thailand, one of the most striking weather events of recent years.
Ports, which constitute more than half the world's largest cities, will face unique challenges as their populations swell. The projects include a 60MW PV plant in Karadzhalovo, Bulgaria, which was sold to a consortium of investors including the First Reserve Energy Infrastructure Fund, Saudi Arabian developer ACWA Power and Turkish private equity firm Crescent Capital. The report, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2012, finds that renewable electricity generation should expand by 1,840TWh between 2011 and 2017; nearly 60% more than the 1,160TWh growth found to have taken place between 2005 and 2011.
The scheme is aimed at both bridge finance as well as long-term finance of solar projects and will be offered to companies already under PPAs. Other private Japanese institutions will also co-finance the loan, adding another US$50 million to the credit line, making the credit a total of US$80 million. The company has been responsible for the design and construction of the plant and has also supplied 13,000 thin-film PV modules for the installation. The report, California Solar Initiative (CSI) also demonstrates that 311MW were installed in the investor-owned utility territories last year. The latest revision includes a road map of energy-based economic growth and reformation of the energy infrastructure. According to a statement emailed to Bloomberg from Compania Minera Dona Ines de Collahuasi, the company will deliver 60,000MWh of energy a year from two solar plants, beginning in Q4 2013. These new commitments total nearly 300 million square feet in job-creating building energy upgrades, equivalent to more than 130 Empire State Buildings. The research company’s new report expects for HCPV to have a 31% compound annual growth rate until 2017, growing to 697MW in five years. Sky Solar, in collaboration with Chilean Sigdo Koppers and the Chinese Development Bank, has announced the signing of an agreement on Tuesday, under which Sky Solar is looking to invest US$900 million to construct the 300MW solar power park over three years.
Waltham, Mass.-manufacturer A123 Systems has produced a cell that delivers 20 percent more power, works at temperatures as low as a€“30 degrees Celsius and as high as 60 degrees C, and should be just as easy as current batteries to manufacture.
IFC will be financing the projects while Scatec will be responsible for designing, developing, constructing and operating PV plants with a capacity of 10MW or more in different African countries. The program aims to develop the ability to analyse and understand key solar market indicators that make solar systems more cost competitive by using IBM's Intelligent Operation Centre (IOC) for Smarter Cities. KREDL wishes to build the 1,000 hectare solar park at Mannur village in Bijapur, India, through a public-private partnership (PPP) model. Speaking at a meeting attended by Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani, Minister for Water and Power, Naveed Qamar, secretaries of the ministries of EAD, Water and Power, chairman NEPRA, CEO AEDB, Pakistan's ambassador to China and senior officials of relevant ministries, Dr Shi Zhengrong, chairman of Suntech, announced plans for the phased installation of plants with a generating capacity of 20MW each. CNPV supplied its PV modules for the project, which has 33MW of geothermal capacity and 26MW of solar capacity.
Overall, the country’s reliance on foreign oil has fallen since 2005, with net imports of total consumption declining from 57% in 2008 to 45% in 2011 – claimed by the administration to be the lowest level since 1995.
The solar farm, located 12km from the city of Diriamba, will be partly funded by the Japanese, with an investment of US$12 million.
It can also charge to set levels in a shorter period of time if a full charge is not necessary. Due to an aggressive FiT cut of between 20% for residential and 30% for large-scale PV installations, the German government will introduce the FiT cuts from March 9, 2012 to eliminate a rush of installations to beat the tariff change. The companies’ engineers have worked together on developing New Energy’s SolarWindow technology that allows the generation of electricity on see-through glass windows. 21, 2012 – As part of the Obama Administration's "We Can't Wait" efforts to strengthen the economy, create jobs and support business growth, Administration officials announced three significant actions to expand the government's purchase of biobased products, promote regional rural job creation efforts, and develop a rural healthcare workforce, all of which build on the historic investments the Administration has made in rural America over the past three years.
In doing so, it also unveiled a plan that could have big implications for renewable energy across the continent. But times have changed in Pittsburgh, and while he still runs Baum Boulevard Automotive, his customers have moved on to mostly foreign cars, and increasingly, hybrids. Yet he has loaned a mechanic to a local university to help it design electric cars for regular Pittsburghers, and he thinks his shop can cash in if the future really is electric. But ChargeCar is likely the first effort to gut a gasoline car and redesign it for a single purpose: the perfect commute. One is a 2006 Honda Civic: Over the next month, the team will convert it into a short-range, all-electric car. From the outside, it looks like a common Scion xB; surrounding the cockpit, though, are scores of dials and gauges.
This car is powered by a battery and a supercapacitor, and these gauges are constantly crunching numbers: how much juice is left, how much power is flowing, how hot the battery is. To deal with that degradation, automakers stuff cars with larger batteries, but that adds cost and weight.
A spokesman for Toyota said, however, that the company has placed more focus on other electric technologies because it found capacitors too costly. Nourbakhsh says that would be a uniquely Pittsburgh solution, as companies "green" their reputations and Pittsburghers do the work in auto shops.
Exterior and interior general illumination, safety and security, general production and service lighting uses are just some of the financial energy savings that local businesses and municipalities can benefit from. We will show you the energy and installation savings you will achieve while filling your buildings with the most beautiful, brilliant white light youa€™ve ever seen. They have been consistently proven to be economical while producing the illumination required in working and public environments. It is how they are designed and the way they operate which produces both positives and negatives to each light source.
Fluorescent tubes are made up of a long glass tube with metal fittings on each end where electricity is passed into them. Unlike both fluorescent and incandescent light sources, LEDs do not contain a gas or a filament of any kind. While incandescent lights last for a paltry 800 to 1500 hours, and fluorescent lights last up to 10,000 hours, LEDs can last up to a staggering 100,000 hours. Due to the longer lifespan of an LED bulb over a fluorescent tube, maintenance and replacement times can be reduced markedly when LEDs are used.
They tend to emit clicking and popping sounds intermittently, but most annoyingly, they can produce a low buzzing sound.
While fluorescents are technically energy saving light sources compared to incandescent bulbs, when contrasted with LEDs there really is no contest. This makes them much more durable and less likely to being rendered inoperable due to being dropped or bashed accidentally. LEDs are lukewarm to the touch and therefore carry less risk of causing an accidental fire or burn. LEDs, however, provide long term savings, great performance, variable colors, and do not contain any hazardous materials.
Having a contracted electrician can safeguard your company's productivity, reputation and safety record.
The Sacred Expedition is a religious & military project of missionization and colonization on behalf of Spain. Using Native American workers to not only construct the mission but also work it, the mission quickly becomes one of the most prosperous in California, producing abundant harvests and goods.
Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the region’s climate. The dam is approximately 200 feet high in San Francisquito Canyon, about 5 miles northeast of what is now Magic Mountain. Photographs at right by Dorothea Lange of the San Fernando Valley in 1936, care of the Library of Congress. Producers pelt metal nuts and bolts from the roof and police hose workers and throw tear gas.
In July the Sodium Reactor Experiment suffers a partial meltdown; its estimated release is 240 times that of 3 Mile Island.
Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley. According to the 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report, the United States remained one of the world’s largest and fastest growing wind markets in 2011. To help ensure reliable energy supplies for the nation’s military bases, while protecting the environment and saving taxpayer money.
But as demand increases in the world's warmer regions, global energy consumption for air conditioning is expected to continue to rise dramatically and could have a major impact on climate change. Each round included an investment of US$100 million from Credit Suisse, for a total of US$200 million. The plant was connected to the grid in March 2012 and had been funded by an IFC €155 million debt financing agreement.
The SEIA predicts solar installations could increase by 75%, exceeding the 3,200MW goal for 2012. With this new finance scheme, Waaree can provide financial support for companies investing in PV in India and for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM).
The CSI program has received a budget of US$2.4 billion and is aiming to reach 1,940MW of solar capacity by the end of 2016. The strategy is to ensure growth and encourage multi-faceted international trade by taking into account the social cost and price differences between nuclear, thermal and renewable energy generation.
Among the first countries in which Scatec and IFC are planning to develop solar power plants are Benin, Cameroon, Togo, Niger and Burkina Faso. Initiated and owned by Enel Green Power, the project is said to be the world’s first and only geothermal hybrid project. Enfinity owns the solar plant and under a 20-year PPA, will sell the electricity produced to Macy’s at a fixed rate. According to Nicaraguan newspaper El Nuavo Diario, the PV installation will become the largest in Central America. Today's announcements are the latest in a series of executive actions the Obama Administration is taking to strengthen the economy and move the country forward because we can't wait for Congress to act.
By converting to LED lighting, we can reduce energy use and energy costs, improve light pollution and light quality and improve where light is directed. All with no ballast to fail, no blinking, no bugs, no noxious mercury, no noise, no waiting for lights to restart. Our award-winning products for both inside and outside your facility offer dramatically improved light and lighting levels--up to 80% reduction in energy plus long-life with ZERO maintenance.
Inside the glass tube is a small amount of magnesium and an inert gas (a gas which does not normally react to stimulation such as heat or electricity), usually argon.
This can provide substantial savings as a result of fewer replacements needing to be bought. Since fluorescent tubes are often used in offices and working environments, this can be distracting.
If it is ingested or inhaled it can cause serious complications and as such must be disposed of safely. Not only that, many fluorescent lights do not provide optimum illumination levels until they have been running for a few minutes. After reading the above, it is easy to see why so many businesses and home owners are turning to LEDs as their number one choice for lighting.
In the event that a breakdown does occur, we are on call to make the necessary electrical repairs as quickly as possible in order to minimize any inconvenience.
The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valley’s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry.
But the taking of this water destroys the environment and the economy of the Owens Valley, once a beautiful valley known for its migrating birds and diverse, self-sustaining ecosystems. The dam fails upon its first full filling on March 12, killing 450 people in the San Francisquito and Santa Clara River valleys.
A grid failure of this magnitude has thrown light on the massive demand for power in a country and its struggle to generate much-needed power supply. In a few states, such as South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa, wind provides more than 10 percent of all electricity.
ACWA subsidiary NOMAC and SunEdison will operate and maintain the plant under a joint vernture agreement. The only negative could be that developers may have to offer higher interest rates than more established asset-backed bonds in order to attract investors.
Kornilakis MEPE, a Greek logistics company, had the system installed on its 68,000mA? warehouse roof.
Co-developed by SunConnect, the project received longer-term financing through PSE&G’s SREC-based solar loan program.
Germany is pretty much singlehandedly proving that solar can be a major, reliable source of power - even in countries that aren't all that sunny.
The Terra SC uses the widely available 3-phase 32A input, eliminating the need for a costly grid connection upgrade.
Now is an excellent time for businesses and municipalities to consider converting to LED lighting and reap these benefits. Both fluorescent tubes and LEDs have their advantages and disadvantages, but LEDs seem to be winning the attention of consumers.
LEDs are completely safe and do not contain such poisonous materials, putting home owners and parents at ease while knowing that they are not contributing to pollution.
A a€?A a€?In today's high technological environments, undersized wiring can lead to intolerable voltage fluctuations that can harm or impede the equipment or its application.
A A In today's high technological environments, undersized wiring can lead to intolerable voltage fluctuations that can harm or impede the equipment or its application. Let's take a look to see why that is, and why you should consider LED lighting over fluorescent tubes. When electricity is passed into the metal caps at each end, it excites the magnesium inside the tube. When electricity is passed through the semiconductor material, the electrons inside begin whizzing about which releases energy in the form of visible light. Similarly, switches may operate motors, equipment, computers, lighting, processes, and a multitude of other applications.
Senator Maclay goes to the County Recorder in Los Angeles and creates the City of San Fernando (township) through a map of development plans. This bloody event leads to the passage of the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, which severely restricts workers’ abilities to strike and the power of unions.
Additional fuel-element handling accidents occurred during the recovery process that resulted in radiological releases to the environment and surrounding communities. Magnesium atoms then release energy in the form of ultraviolet light, which is invisible to the naked eye.
When a switch is not installed in the exact appropriate manner for its design, electrical codes, and the installation application, the switch itself can affect the life of the equipment attached and even create a hazard.
When the ultraviolet light hits the phosphorous coating, the phosphorous begins to glow, creating light.
Whether your connection needs are simple or complex, we will find the best solution to provide a value added installation for your company's needs. Upon hearing the verdict, hundreds of Los Angelenos begin a protest that turns into a a€?livea€? televised six-day riot where 53 people die and the total cost of damages equals $1,000,000,000. The mix of agrarian and industrial life at this early stage in the Valleya€™s history sets a precedent for the future economy of the Valley as a pastoral region with some areas of industry.
Unknown to his readers, Nordhoff is paid by the Southern Pacific Railroad to praise the curative nature of the regiona€™s climate.
Many singers record Jenkinsa€™ song including Bing Crosby (whose version hits #1 on Billboard Magazinea€™s chart in 1944) and the King Sisters; the publicity helps build a population explosion.
The Westerns a€?Bells of San Fernandoa€? and the Western a€?San Fernando Valleya€? are released. Phyllis Oa€™Kray from the crash of a jet plane, Valley residents picket Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Van Nuys to abolish the use of the San Fernando Valley for jet flying. Welcome to a Timeline of the San Fernando Valley This timeline was created for the Museum of the San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications. Until now, there has been no one museum or institution to document, preserve, and celebrate the full scope of the collective history, culture, and arts of such an important place until the 2005 incorporation of The Museum of the San Fernando Valley.This timeline was created for the Museum of The San Fernando ValIey and pulls from resources like Calisphere, the Library of Congress, CSUN, personal blogs and a diverse set of publications.



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