General Certificate of EducationExplanatory NotesAdvanced Subsidiary Grades of the five grades: A(a), B(b), C(c), D(d), E(e), of which A(a) is the highest and E(e) the lowest.
Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Candidates need to be able to outline the procedures for dealing with a casualty who has suffered an electric shock or burn.
Explain why an individual should not work without proper supervision and explain why all persons should know how to summon help in an emergency. Carry out a risk assessment of their planned activity while considering how the environment affects the dangers of electricity. Candidates should be able to analyse and design system diagrams as an aid to the understanding and representation of complex systems.
Candidates should be able to construct and interpret flowchart diagrams which describe a sequence of events, using the following symbols only.
Candidates need to be aware that many input devices produce analogue signals and that audio systems usually contain audio amplifiers which are analogue systems requiring an analogue input and producing an analogue output. Candidates should be able to explain the use of logic gates, flip-flops, counters and timers. Candidates should know that an operational amplifier has a very large input resistance, a low output resistance, a very large voltage gain and saturates at the supply voltages. Candidates should be able to explain the function and use of the circuit below as a voltage comparator using a single rail supply. This unit considers the components that candidates are likely to encounter in their course and examines the underlying scientific concepts. Candidates should be able to draw and interpret circuits using standardsymbols for components (see Appendix G) in this specification. Controlled assessments must be marked against the marking criteria given in Appendix E of this specification (amplification of the criteria is given in Section 3.9).
The project must be the work of the individual candidate and will have to be verified by both the candidate and supervisor. The following sections provide guidance on setting project work for the practical electronics system synthesis. Candidates should be aware that while they may use circuit modelling software as part of their design process, credit is only given for work carried out on actual electronics hardware.
The maximum voltage permitted in any project must be less than 30 V and total power consumption must be less than 100 W. All practical work must be under the direct supervision of the member of staff responsible for the prime marking of the controlled assessment or somebody delegated by them.
It is expected that projects will be individual and it is therefore very unlikely that, during the analysis and evaluation stages of the controlled assessment, that candidates will be able to seek assistance from the Internet, magazines or reference books; should they wish to do this candidates should be discouraged from doing so. Mark distribution The skills to be assessed for the project and the mark distribution are given below. There are 22 marking criteria set out in this section, 21 of which may be awarded 0, 1, or 2 marks based upon how well each criterion has been met. In order for any marks to be awarded, an artefact must exist, even if not in working condition.
The project shall not be admitted if it does not contain at least one active component as defined by the specification AND if there is no photograph of the final circuit construction.
A1The candidate has independently identified a suitable problem to solve and has provided a title and an aim set in context.
AmplificationEach candidate should be encouraged to select a suitable problem and to produce a clear and concise statement of the problem.
The candidate makes an independent choice of problem but gives an inadequate aim and context so that it is difficult to see how electronics is being used to solve the problem OR receives assistance with the choice but gives a clear aim and context so that it is clear how electronics is being used to solve the problem. The candidate makes an independent choice and provides an appropriate aim, the context has a detailed description of how electronics is being used to solve the problem.

AmplificationThese marks are awarded for the ability of the candidate to choose and use the appropriate test and measuring instruments. COMMUNICATION SKILLSD3The candidate has produced a report that adequately documents the development and outcome of the project.Marks0-2The report covers some aspect of the development but not in any detail. How Science Works is an underpinning set of concepts and is the means whereby students come to understand how to explain the world about us.
As students become proficient in these aspects of How Science Works, they can also engage with the place and contribution of electronics in the wider world. Electronics engineers design complex systems composed of combinations of subsystems in order to solve problems. Candidates should investigate these subsystems in a practical context and there is the opportunity for them to use protoboard in preparation for their controlled assessment (practical project). Candidates should have a range of practical experiences, the skills from which will be required in their controlled assessment.
The design produced will be based upon the engineer's knowledge of electronic subsystems which is brought together in an appropriate way to produce a final design that meets the user's requirements. They should have developed the idea of breaking systems down into Inputs, Processes and Outputs. Candidates must provide detailed explanations for any software that they use with programmable controllers e.g. No project need be attempted using circuits containing more than three to five active components (integrated circuits or transistors) or more than 20 to 25 passive components (resistors, capacitors or diodes, etc). The writing up and evaluation of the final report must be carried out under formal controlled conditions so that the member of staff responsible for prime marking is able to verify the authenticity of the candidates' work. The research diary can be used to record dialogue between the candidate and the teacher and also detail feedback and the amount of assistance given to the candidate at various stages of the realisation of the project. The final marking criterion (D3) contains the assessment of QWC and allows for marks to be awarded in one of three mark bands. This artefact must have a minimum, of one active device (an active device being one that produces power amplification e.g.
The aim and context is such that it is unclear how electronics is being used to solve the problem. The context should be stated so that it is clear how electronics is being applied to solve the problem. The problem should then be broken down into subsystems and consideration given to each in turn.
The more quantitative the specification, the more realistically the candidate will be able to plan a feasible route to the solution.
The circuit diagram should be that of the final system and should have appropriate labels and component values. The evidence for this may be provided by a statement that confirms the mode and sequence of operation implied in (A1, A2). As always, discussion with the supervisor in clarifying a candidate's thinking must not be confused with dependence on the supervisor for ideas, decision making and problem solving. The report is rarely:i) accurate in spelling, punctuation and grammar such that the meaning is unclear. Moreover, How Science Works recognises the contribution that science, and in particular electronics, has made to the wider world. Results have the same status as AS GCE grades in two I single-certificationsubjects.Advanced Grades A(a) is the highest and E(e)the lowest.
Candidates should be aware that analogue and digital information need to be processed in different systems and that analogue information can be converted to digital information and vice versa. The marks awarded to candidates should reflect the achievement of the individual candidate referenced against the marking criteria. As far as possible, candidates should be encouraged to identify problems of their own choosing and select a project of their own choice.

Where used, the research diary should be collected by the teacher when the task is complete and be used as a method of authenticating candidate's work.
Further information regarding the allocation of marks for each criteria can be found later in this section and in the teacher resource bank for this specification. The specification should be a detailed statement of how the completed solution will perform and will include at least two relevant measurable electronic quantities which are specified precisely and in realistic terms. It acknowledges that scientists can, and must, contribute to debates about the uses to which their work is put and how their work influences decision-making in society.
AA(aa), AB(ab), BB(bb), BC(bc), CC(cc), CD(cd), DD(dd), DE(de), EE(ee) of which grade AA(aa) is the highest and grade EE(ee)the lowest. It will also involve research and communication skill which are vital aspects of bringing innovative solutions to production in the modern world.All controlled assessment projects must have their foundation in the body of the content of Unit 1 of this specification. The ideal design scenario would be for a candidate to use the components and subsystems covered in the course to generate a solution to an identified problem such that revision of the specification is also achieved. It is expected that candidates will use a wide variety of research methods which will provide not only general research opportunities but will form the basis of a possible subsystem solution which may be used as part of the overall solution. The problem is unlikely to be totally original and the solution may not be unique given the level and nature of the course.
Research diaries should not be marked by the teacher, but should be retained by the centre until the deadline for enquiries about results.
These quantitative items depend on the nature of the project and could be the supply voltage range, the current and power consumption, the input and output characteristics, the frequency or a time delay. The report should be written in stages that form a logical sequence and cover all major aspects of planning, development, construction, test and evaluation.
Results have the same status as GCE grades in two single-cedification subjects.Advanced with Advanced Subsidiary (additionall Grades nine double grades AA(aa), AB(ab), BB(bb), BC(bc), CC(cc), CD(cd), DD(dd), DE(de), EE(ee) of which grade AA(aa) is the highest and grade EE(ee) the lowest. Components and systems from outside the scope of this specification may be used, but this should not be at the expense of the candidate's ability to access all of the marking points in the marking criteria. In view of the time constraints and the limited experience of candidates the chosen project should be appropriate to the candidate's ability. However, it should provide a new experience for the candidate and be clearly set in an appropriate context. Therefore, candidates should be given instructions on the presentation of information and be encouraged to use an appropriate style.
All candidates should have access to the 22 clearly defined assessment criteria and should be guided to work within that framework. Mains operated projects and projects including controlling devices powered by mains contravene the Health and Safety at Work Act and are, consequently, not permitted by AQA. When assessing the communication skill, the criteria should have been addressed across the majority of the report for the appropriate award of marks to be made.3-5The report covers some aspects of the development and testing and there will be detailed analysis of at least one subsystem.
Further, OFCOM regulations require radio transmitters, tranceivers and power amplifiers to be approved on an individual basis.
Photographs showing the stages of construction may also be incorporated into the report, but not at the expense of circuit diagrams. The report is sometimes: i) accurate in spelling, punctuation and grammar so that the overall meaning is clear. The report is mostly: i) accurate in spelling, punctuation and grammar so that the meaning is clear.
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