Netlore Archive: Viral image purports to show a satellite view of the 2003 east coast blackout (power outage) in North America.
Analysis This bogus image began circulating within days of the northeast blackout of August 14, 2003.
The photo is, in fact, a cropped, doctored version of a well-known composite image created from satellite photos taken between 1994 and 1995 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program.
Around 12:15, on the afternoon of August 14, 2003, a software program that helps monitor how well the electric grid is working in the American Midwest shut itself down after after it started getting incorrect input data. A little over an hour later, one of the six coal-fired generators at the Eastlake Power Plant in Ohio shut down.
Let’s get one thing out of the way right up front: The North American electric grid is not one bad day away from the kind of catastrophic failures we saw in India this week. We don’t know yet what, exactly, caused the Indian blackouts, but there are several key differences between their grid and our grid. The issue is something that grid experts call situational awareness—basically, the big picture.
In 2003, it took about 30 seconds for data about what was happening on the grid to be gathered, compiled, analyzed, and displayed in a way that grid controllers could use.
If we’d had a phasor network in 2003, grid controllers would have had that hour warning about the problem.
If we want the grid to work as well three decades from now as it does today, we need to put some money into it. Learn about how the grid works and what grid controllers do by reading a free chapter from my book, Before the Lights Go Out.
Admit it — you’ve probably been sleeping on that same ratty, old, broken-down, ready-for-the-dump mattress that you’ve been crashing on for years. On the upside, being in Toronto during that blackout was one of the most surreal and wonderful experiences of my life.
Shame I had to walk most of the way home since the streets were jammed, it was amazing how many people volunteered to be impromptu traffic wardens. Of course, the UK has a number of things in its favour A small, compact island means that generation is never too far from supply. In my experience in Canada (living in two reasonably big cities with what I assume are fairly modern grids), 90 minutes of power outage a year is probably a reasonable guess.
Growing up in Massachusetts, we had a blackout pretty much every afternoon in the summer, when the thunderstorm broke. That sounds pretty fast, until you consider the fact that electrons move at close to the speed of light.
Electrons move through wires slower than most people walk.  What moves at the speed of light is changes in the electric field. Also a physics guy, not an electrical engineer, but from what I understand neither the drift velocity nor the instantaneous velocity is relevant, just the changes in the electric field. But it seems to me that for the purposes of her article, the salient point is how quickly the effects of a disturbance at point A are transmitted to point B. In that scenario, the movement of actual electrons isn’t nearly as important as the change in electrical potential. That said, it does seem that the article’s wording clearly discusses the actual velocity of electrons. While most of the Northeastern US lost power in the 2003 blackout, our home (located in Northeast Ohio) never lost power. It’s frustrating to me how all of this infrastructure is invisible and only handled by experts far away from me. If appliances could be controlled through the same wire that powers them, we could evolve a more robust way of prioritizing power demands.
Domestic infrastructure including the grids, bridges, locks and dams, roads, public schools, public transportation, are all suffering under the impossible weight of our military budget. In 2003, I was working in an old garment factory building that had been converted into an open, spacious office environment.
More time passed, and we got a few phone calls and slowly pieced together that the entire eastern seaboard was down. That said, syncrophasors are cool, you used to be able to go on the Schweitzer (SEL – big proponent of syncrophasors) website and see the various grids (East, West, ERCOT) spin around a bit out of sync with each other.
Hey Maggie- I appreciate all of these articles on energy- incredibly important info for us all. More than 600 million people in the northern and eastern parts of India lost power on Tuesday, putting roughly half of India’s population in the dark. Some analysts said public outrage over the widespread outages may force Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s government to tackle reforms in the crisis-riddled power sector.
So another point related when looking at power reliability, is energy security in the light of extreme weather events. And it is safest when you spread the energy with a smart grid, when millions of electric car owners batteries become the energy storage points. If India just forgot about increasing coal while it was deploying it’s solar infrastructure they would be sitting in the dark for THE NEXT 90 YEARS! Maybe China should ship their spare solar technology to India (for distributed power) and the USA can make our own. So, it wouldn’t have anything to do with India’s decrepit electrical transmission infrastructure?
India plans to add only 88,000 megawatts (from a Reuters report from today) and it will take them 5 years to do it!
In the weeks leading up to the failure, extreme heat had caused power use to reach record levels in New Delhi.
A senior director for an Indian power company described the outage as “a fairly large breakdown that exposed major technical faults in India’s grid system. Obviously India needs to cut down all of its forests to make room for clean green solar panels and wind turbines. The CNN report touched on increased use of electricity for air conditioning and agricultural irrigation, as the monsoon rains have been delayed. Coal power networks are politically corrupt in India, China, and the United States, including the coal producers, utilities, and politicians.
Mike that is a nice article loaded with info but it does not indicate serious action by China or India and I don’t believe the US will take a leadership role for many years to come. One difference between solar and fossil fuels is that most home or village solar installations require labor.
We can trace the too big to care phenomenon back to 19th century railroads, early 20th century steel mills and 1920s coal mines, none of which cared for worker safety or welfare. There’s no reason for our electric companies to care if our power works, not until we have enough blackouts again and again and again, which enrages citizens to vote out some pro-business Congresspeople. This Times of India informative article (12 July 2012) predicts power outages and reviews the main causes.
The Indian middle class needs the electricity for air-conditioning, computers, plasma TVs etc, while a couple of hundred million Indians, surplus to requirement, would love just a single bulb.
India is a country riven by class inequality, but is so ancient a civilization that they have turn such injustice into an hereditary system of intractable caste differences, and made a religion out of it. If you are thinking about installing a solar energy system to have power in a blackout, there are some facts you need to consider. In the event of a power outage, basic habits such as charging a cell phone or powering a small fan or space heater become essential.
During a power outage, the power utility sends out repair crews to find and fix the points of failure. We have been using SMA inverters for a long time—they are great products with high reliability.
These new inverters address both of the technical and safety issues by creating a small, independent circuit entirely disconnected from the grid. The SMA inverters represent a convenient compromise between many solar owner’s desires for backup power and their reluctance to make the large upfront investment in a full battery backup solution.
The ability to generate and use a limited amount of clean solar power during a blackout adds to the other advantages of going solar. With a grid connection and net-metering rules, your solar power system can generate clean energy and share it with the grid.
Solar energy systems are safe, reliable, and durable—the panels are warranted for 25 years. If we had those services, we know from experience that we could exist for weeks at a time with no electrical service from the utility company.
In regards to whether or not you need to isolate your solar system when electrical wiring repairs are being done: your electrician would probably know this, but they would want to shut off the inverter, which effectively shuts off your system so it is safe to do the electrical work. With a steep growth of power generation from photovoltaic (PV) and wind power and with 8 GW base load capacity suddenly taken out of service, the situation in Germany has developed into a nightmare for system operators. Reports from the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E)[1] and the German Grid Agency[2] reflect concern for the operational security of the power system.
This note will present the main conclusions from the three reports combined with data, collected from the German system operators. Since January 2012, all four German system operators have published estimated photovoltaic generation based on representative samples.
Most German wind power is installed in the northern part of the country, while most PV capacity is installed in Bavaria. The regulating work which must be made by controllable power sources grows considerably with the growth of wind power and PV. Although PV may be able to give some relief to the grids, PV cannot reduce the need for peak capacity and additional PV will cause a considerable growth in the need for regulating capacity. In April 2012, the president of ENTSO-E[4], Daniel Dobbeni, stated his concern about security of power system operation in Europe in a letter to the European Commissioner for Energy, Günther Oettinger. Among the countermeasures of the transmission system operators (TSOs) is the use of the HVDC links across the Baltic Sea for a redistribution of power flows. The countermeasures have cost implications and cannot be implemented without cost sharing agreements.
The paper estimates the necessary investment for reinforcement of the western and the eastern transport corridors in Germany to be 30 billion euros for the next decade.
Efficient market arrangements are important for efficient congestion management, secure grid operation and overall market efficiency.
The Federal German Grid Agency has confirmed the assumption of a strained grid in a 120-page report on the supply situation for electricity and gas in Germany during the winter season of 2011-2012. It is useful for the general understanding of the significance of the infrastructure when an authority evaluates actual system conditions and publishes annual reports for better or for worse.
Besides the scenarios described in the Grid Agency report of August 31, 2011 the shortage of natural gas in February 2012 was followed by an unexpected event which added to the load on the electric grids and required additional measures from the transmissions system operators for maintaining system security.
In addition to that, an unusually large number of forecast errors caused an exhaustion of the regulating reserves. The synchronous compensator Biblis was commissioned in February 2012 and provided the expected relief of the voltage problems. German and Austrian power plant reserves were used in several cases for the relief of power lines and as a supplement to already exhausted regulating capacity. The supply of more power from renewable sources than can actually be transferred by the grid would add to overloading of the grid, because the price signals would displace conventional power plants in the merit order and the electricity export from Germany in the internal market would increase. The cooperation between grid operators for electricity and gas must be improved in order to take account of the growing significance of gas power plants and gas supply to the security of supply of the electric grids. The general view seems to be concern for the future capacity of power plants, regulating power and reserves.
For both years, most re-dispatch concerned the Remptendorf-Redwitz line between Germany and Austria. Feed-in reduction was initiated 197 times during the winter season of 2011-2012, compared to 39 times the previous year.
In 184 cases, wind power caused high feed-in from distribution grids into the transmission grids.

This information confirms that the German electricity supply had narrow margins during the winter of 2011-2012 without room for additional heroic political decisions.
German grid operators are obliged to report all operational interventions aimed at avoiding overloads or power failures.
The interventions included about 2,000 megawatts of re-dispatch and about 4,000 megawatts in feed-in reductions.
The number of interventions has increased dramatically in Germany from 2010-2011 to 2011-2012.
In an attempt to establish an impression of the extent of interventions in Germany, EON Netz will be used as an example. Thus, there have been interventions active for 23.1 percent of the hours during the first quarter of 2012. The total amount of curtailed energy from wind and CHP is probably modest, but the observations seem to indicate that German grids are frequently loaded to the capacity limits. The Federal political system in Germany has for some time been conscious of the risk of a large blackout. In 2011, the Office of Technology Assessment at the German Bundestag (TAB) published an interesting report on the consequences of blackouts lasting up to two weeks. The conclusion is that an interruption of the power supply will be tantamount to a national disaster after only a few days.
Compare the faux image to actual satellite photographs of the event, which cover a much smaller area and are considerably less dramatic.
2012, this image circulated again in postings purporting to show the magnitude of east coast power outages caused by Hurricane Sandy. An hour after that, the alarm and monitoring system in the control room of one of the nation’s largest electric conglomerates failed. The real causes of the 2003 blackout were fixable problems, and the good news is that, since then, we’ve made great strides in fixing them. I’ve heard a lot of people speculating on this, but the folks who know the grid say that, while such a huge blackout is theoretically possible, it is also extremely unlikely. Even on a good day, there’s not enough electricity for all the people who want it, said Jeff Dagle, an engineer with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Advanced Power and Energy Systems research group.
It’s not a line, it’s a loop—power plants connected to customers and back to power plants again. That sounds pretty fast, until you consider the fact that changes on the grid happen much, much faster***. There’s a good chance they’d have been able to fix it, or, at least, make the resulting blackout smaller and more localized. It led utilities and the government to team up to install a true phasor network throughout the United States. The average substation transformer is 42 years old—two years older than the designed lifespan of a substation transformer. So are new national rules Gellings told me about, which put a much higher penalty on utility companies that don’t keep their trees trimmed. The improvements would also make our grid more energy efficient, which he says could save an additional $20 billion annually in energy costs.
But after a 42-year-old man in New Jersey had a seizure at work, some very smart emergency room doctors used data they saw on his Fitbit Charge HR to decide on the best way to treat him. Discounting ways that end with you behind bars, here’s some friendly advice: become an expert in a field everyone knows is important, but that very few fully understand. We scavenged wood from alleyways and cooked chicken in the parking lot behind our building. India’s grid is sub-divided into Northern, North Eastern, Eastern, Western and Southern grids. A grid that was designed as a single entity, back in the days when power was nationalised.and an absolutely insane amount of peaking capacity, put in place because of the regular stress tests run on the system as the entire nation puts the kettle on during ad breaks. For example, in a copper wire of cross-section 0.5 mm2, carrying a current of 5 A, the drift velocity of the electrons is on the order of a millimetre per second. This is not directly relevant to electricity transmission; the only part relevant to that is the change in the electric field. Instantaneous velocity is not relevant to the speed at which electrons actually, physically move through wires; drift velocity is. That may not be what Maggie meant to discuss, but surely from a pedantic point of view (and pedantry in science is highly useful) your original comment was accurate. With air traffic control we have some idea at least what it might be like, but no one has made a movie yet AFAIK about power balancing.
The notion that 20 billion a year is impossible to attain for the corrections and improvements needed in the grid is directly tied to the political reality that until military spending is drastically reduced any and all major domestic infrastructure overhauls are fiscally impossible.
Against America eventually having the kind of electrical grid problems that post-war Iraq experienced? This means that the switch actually flipped a relay by the breaker box, and the relay could handle the current necessary to run the lights. By that time, it was pretty clear that the blackout wasn’t caused by smacking a relay on the wall. I saw someone just last night taking pictures of a sunset where the foreground mountains were 30 miles away – with his on-camera flash blasting away. They had neighbouring operating centres telling them that their data was wrong, based on load flows, but they didn’t believe them.
The stimulus (aka the Recovery Act) is a key part of why any major improvements are happening on the grid at all. One of the principal barriers to cheap coal production is environmental protection, and for good reason: The IMF estimates that coal pollution kills about 70,000 Indians per year and development of coal in India (and China) is undermining efforts to decrease global carbon emissions.
By the end of 2012, the Solar Mission called for 810 megawatts of installed panels, but, according to a recently released report, India passed the 1 gigawatt mark in June of this year, a full 6 months ahead of the plan for 22 gigawatts by 2022.
The Solar Mission aims to provide more reliable sources of power to those citizens while reducing energy cost, decreasing reliance on foreign coal, and ameliorating the consequences of India’s economic growth for the environment.
Even though the 4-5 million US citizens affected from power outage after the recent Derecho are hardly comparable to 600 million, but it showed that it can hit everybody.
He speculated that some states had attempted to draw more power than permitted due to higher consumption. That’s why the companies and power plants are never charged for killing people with SOx an mercury, not to mention carbon dioxide. That’s why the plutocrats of the West prefer India to China-it represents an ideal of zero social mobility and hereditary privilege that they deeply admire and are striving to emulate. The government is intentionally bankrupting coal powered plants from providing a nation with ample amount of electricity.
There are many advantages to installing a grid-connected solar energy system, but having full power to your home or business during a blackout is not one of them. The electronics that control a solar electric system constantly adjust voltage and current in order to keep the panels operating at their most efficient and powerful operating point through a range of varying sunlight conditions. So, even if you disregard the need for efficiency, connecting this variable resource directly to your home’s electrical system would cause your lights to blink, damage your refrigerator, and wreak havoc on your computers and television.
The linemen and women can be jeopardized if there is a local power generator (like a solar array) leaking power onto the grid lines. The biggest “for” argument is that, with battery backup, your home or business can be powered during a blackout. These new inverters feature a secure power supply (SPS) that can connect to an external socket outlet and provide up to 1,500W of daytime power—when the sun is shining and the array is generating sufficient power—in the event of a grid outage.
The inverter controls the solar panel electrical output as an alternative to sending out variable power levels.
Solar panels and installation involve high initial expenses, but this cost is soon offset by savings on energy bills. With fossil fuel costs and utility rates predicted to rise, solar can be a good way to lock in long-term savings now.
Assuming your home is grid-tied (meaning you feed energy to the grid and draw when your demands exceed your solar output), if there is a black-out, your system will automatically shut down. If you (or your electrician) still have questions or you ever consider expanding your system, please give us a call! The variations of wind and PV generation create situations which require long distance transport of huge amounts of power. The risk of a prolonged and widespread power blackout was earlier recognized by the German Bundestag and discussed in an interesting report[3].
The data will give research environments a new opportunity to analyze the impact of RES in Germany.
This means that PV does not add its full peak capacity to the grid problems during high wind periods.
The nuclear moratorium has created the most serious supply problems in the southern part of Germany. Due to insufficient coordination of protection systems, a circuit tripped and started cascading outages. The rapid increase of wind power and other renewable energy sources (RES) without a corresponding reinforcement of the electric grids has caused the problems. The timely implementation of the projects will require the active support of European policy makers.
Therefore, the organization of more consistent markets and redefinition of bidding areas deserve consideration. It is the understanding of the grid agency that the existing legal framework allows the transmission system operators to use measures which can reduce the supply to a level that can be transferred by the grid. A consistent use of the established instruments for acceleration of the reinforcement of the grids is required.
Hopefully, the messages of the Grid Agency will be understood, so a better harmony between the transition of the production facilities toward green solutions and the necessary adaptation of the infrastructure can be achieved.
The grid operator for the eastern Germany, 50Hertz, has published a very brief report on the event in German. Nevertheless the remaining links had to be relieved and 50Hertz had to activate comprehensive measures. Through April 9, 50Hertz has issued 23 similar reports on strained grid conditions in 2012.
In spite of the obligation to publish information on all interventions, it is difficult to form an overview. There are four grid operators for the primary level (380 kV) and a number of grid operators at lower voltage levels.
An intervention concerning EEG § 11 is valid for electricity production in one local area. They cannot be completely avoided, but the restoration process can be more or less well prepared. By 4:15 pm, 256 power plants were offline and 55 million people in eight states and Canada were in the dark. The bad news, say some grid experts, is that we’re still not doing a great job of preparing our electric infrastructure for the future. As Clark Gellings, a fellow at the Electric Power Research Institute put it, “An engineer will never say never,” but you should definitely not assume anything resembling an imminent threat at that scale. First Energy, the conglomerate that owned both the broken generator and the failed alarm system, had also been lax on trimming trees near their power lines.
If nearby trees aren’t trimmed, the lines can slump too close to the branches—which creates a short circuit. Partly, that had to do with the faulty software program that wasn’t turned back on and the alarm system failure that apparently went unnoticed. If a power plant goes offline in Arizona, it can create a measurable effect in Canada in about a second. Also known as PMUs, they’re just anonymous little boxes that sit on server racks in electrical substations. For the most part, our grid hasn’t been modernized—it’s largely mechanical equipment operating a digital world, Clark Gellings said.

In the future, we’re going to have more electricity production happening in the rural Midwest, where wind resources are most abundant, but the people will still live far away. Just like the national grid is really a patchwork of grids, it’s also a patchwork of regulatory systems.
More power plants are actually in the East where the coal is abundant and a few along the major rivers, higher up in the Himalayas. The odd thing is that our block of homes oftentimes does lose power every now and again while the rest of our neighbors do not.
We are a nation of citizens held to the narrow confines of goals inherent in our ( their ) military-industrial complex . My desk was in a cluster of four, along with my boss and two coworkers on my team, and our cluster was right next to the fuse box. Further, Indian coal development can create underground fires that cause houses to fall into the earth and fuels the corruption in the Indian energy sector that’s holding back meaningful reform. The report also found that India had only about 506 megawatts of installed capacity as recently as March, meaning that the country doubled its efforts in only two moths. So it wouldn’t have anything to do with the nearly 50% loss of power between the generating station and the end user due to decrepit electrical transmission and rampant theft? Spokesperson for Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) and the Northern Regional Load Despatch Centre (NRLDC) stated that Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana were the states responsible for the overdraw.
They could close those plants before they reach their lifespan but I doubt that even China would give up on the investment. Even homes with solar may lose power in the event of a grid outage if their system does not include some form of energy storage.
To do this, the system needs to be able to produce quantities of power that are not dependent on how much your house is actually using at the time. Therefore, utility rules mandate that in the event of a power outage, solar arrays must automatically shut down. The biggest “against” of battery storage is the cost, which can double the cost of your clean energy system. This gives customers confidence that they can get a small supply of electricity from their solar inverter even when the grid is out and other solar PV systems are down. You do not need to do anything, as your system would have been installed with an automatic disconnect that shuts your system down for you when the grid goes down.
This observation suggests additional PV generation is needed to relieve the supply problems.
In the TenneT area, a calculation for April 2011 has shown that wind power alone would extend the regulating range by more than 50 percent, while the actual combination of wind power and PV has doubled the regulating range.
The result was that the continental grid in Europe was divided into three islands and about 17 gigawatts of load was shed.
However, the remedial actions cannot be guaranteed, as they depend on prevailing system conditions. The Grid Agency will create incentives for improvements of the forecasts by adaptation of the price system for balancing power. Further decommissioning of conventional power plants cannot be defended in Germany for the time being. Fortunately, this need is clearly inferior to the need for action in the electricity grids.
A strong grid is important, but several other integration measures deserve careful consideration. One of the main purposes of the lists of interventions is to support the calculation of economic compensations for the owners of the affected power plants. Therefore, vital infrastructure sectors should be prepared for power failures and the necessary facilities for a black start of the power system should be installed and ready for action. He worked with grid and generation planning at ELSAM, the coordinating office for west Danish power stations, until 1997. So we can talk about serious problems with the North American grid—but that doesn’t mean that you should be stocking up on home generators and canned peas in preparation for an India-like event.
The electricity has to move at a constant speed (an analogy for what the engineers call frequency) and it has to flow at a constant depth (analogous to voltage). In the case of the Eastern part of the continent, all of the management districts are aggregated into a larger joint district. That uncoordinated mixture of regulation and de-regulation often fails to incentivize the investments the grid actually needs. These include a militarized domestic police force, a vast domestic intelligence gathering operation, Northcom and so much more; all to the tune of hundreds of billions of taxpayer dollars. Except that, in practice, it’s half that, because more than half of our electrical consumption is commercial and industrial. 60V potential between the grounds of different circuits, things like that, but mostly if you just plugged something in, it worked.
Solar power is actually less expensive than diesel in India and renewables more broadly are becoming increasingly plausible alternatives to expanded coal development.
India is an economic basket case always on the edge of their budget for providing power and water so they will stick to their domestic coal supplemented by imports. In a grid-connected system, that excess power is put back onto the grid for others to use, and your utility credits you on your bill for that power. Solar systems have detectors that sense whether power is coming across the grid, and whenever grid power is down, they automatically shut down too, to protect utility workers. Batteries also compromise the “clean energy” aspect of solar—they are toxic and very costly to discard when no longer useful. The bottom line is, with new technology, grid-connected solar can deliver a limited amount of electricity to your home or business during a power outage.
The reason this is necessary is so that your system is not feeding live power onto the grid when people may be working on the lines. The case demonstrates how a local event in Germany can turn into a widespread European disturbance. The prevention of decommissioning of power plants for conventional production will require regulating and legal measures. Wolmirsted-Helmstedt is the northernmost link between the 50Hertz area (the former DDR) and the other German system operators.
It makes no difference to the owner of a wind turbine if local or national grids are congested.
As Planning Director at Eltra, Transmission System Operator in West Denmark, he was in charge of West Denmark's affiliation to the Nordic spot market for electricity, Nord Pool, in 1999. Our system has rules that prevent us from dipping into our electric reserves on a day-to-day basis. In order to maintain that constant speed and constant depth, you have to also maintain an almost perfect balance between supply and demand … everywhere, at all times.
The systems in place to tell grid controllers what the electrons were doing moved a lot more slowly than the electrons themselves. After the 2003 blackout, grid experts went back and essentially replayed the whole thing in a computer modeling program. They see what’s happening on the line—how well supply and demand are balanced, whether voltage and frequency are stable and within the normal range. To write about and discuss energy and infrastructure and domestic funding without at least a mention of our nascent police state and overextended military foreign policy is to in effect discuss the details of the broken table that the dead elephant is laying on without mentioning the elephant. So, it wouldn’t have anything to do with increasing demand in the rapidly growing cities while the government struggles to keep up with generating capacity? China may switch from building new coal plants to natural gas, they are interested in domestic fracking, and that seems to be the current trend.
Batteries have a relatively short life, compared to other solar system components; they are also very heavy and bulky, and require a lot of maintenance to perform at their best. If more power stations nevertheless should be decommissioned in southern Germany, the needed reserve capacity would increase correspondingly.
Until his retirement in 2005, his main responsibility was the integration of wind power into the power grid in Denmark.
So when one generator goes out, the electricity it was supplying has to come from someplace else. The more lines you lose, the more likely it is that the remaining lines will, themselves, droop into something. The idea was to try to get a better idea of where things went wrong and how a similar event could be prevented in the future. Over the last five years a partnership between federal Recovery Act funds and private industry dollars has invested $7.8 billion in upgrading the grid, Massoud Amin said. Jeff Dagle told me that improvements are being made, but they might not be moving fast enough if there’s a major change in energy use—for instance, if Americans start buying electric cars at higher rates than they do today. Many of those states aren’t going to get a direct benefit from the line, even if that’s what’s best on the whole. Science is political because the goals of scientific institutions are primarily guided by funding and profit for corporations over the needs of civility and humanity.  I dont think its the responsibility of scientist to make complex political statements in connection to their practice but given the starkness of the economic priorities of today, taking note of the imbalance is stating basic and objective facts. With countries like India and China we can expect atmospheric CO2 to continue to rise at and accelerating rate well into the middle of the 21st century. Besides, the need for capacity mechanisms should be intensively investigated in the medium term. He is still active as a consultant with an interest in safe and efficient integration of wind power.
Like a stream flowing into a new channel, the load will shift from one group of transmission lines to another. The more lines that short, the more power plants have to shut down to protect themselves from fluctuations in frequency and voltage. They found that, about an hour before the blackout, the grid was showing signs of stress that controllers didn’t see at the time, said Carl Imhoff, manager of the Energy and Environment Sector at PNNL. Local regulators may understand that, but when they have to operate in the best interests of their state or county, they might still challenge the line, Gellings said.
This is where the truth becomes unspeakable if you want published and you want accolades without being marginalized as controversial. The more times you have to shift load around, the more the grid starts to get away from you. It can show you, for instance, if the stability of the grid is changing as electricity moves from Cleveland to Columbus.
This is part of why it can take as long as 12 years to get a single new transmission line built.
Obviously, there would be other issues if the country were to shift like that, but my point is, is the basic theory sound? Maddow, last night interviewing Muller on his BEST study, accepted his conclusion that nat.
In 2003, six transmission lines went down in a row, several of them major channels for the flow of electricity.
In another example, de-regulation in many states has created a confused system where there are now lots of stakeholders in the electric grid, but nobody has an incentive to think about, or invest in, the long term.
Depending on what part of the United States you live in, the grid averages 90-214 minutes of blackout time per customer, per year*. Today, our grid can give controllers information about the big picture in less than 10 seconds.
And that’s not even counting the blackouts that happen because of extreme weather or other disasters, like fires. Researchers like Massoud Amin are working on getting that response time down to fewer than 3 seconds.

National geographic documentary guns germs and steel youtube
Preparedness of man made disaster betraying

Rubric: How To Survive Emp


  1. nigar
    Quarry tile base that life implies much more function sensitive to EMP.
  2. princessa757
    Region, was all rubble and only as well expensive but some of the national Infrastructures Report1 written.
    And disaster skulking about every single corner, or to hoard.
    You turn out recruits, Leonard Fournette, now at LSU, who had quart.