Besides accessing SQLTalk through its user interface, you can also access SQLTalk as a custom control available through GUPTA?s SQLConsole or Team Builder. These commands format, display, and print the results of a SQL query in a complex multi-page report. If you are not using a single-user engine, you may need to start the SQLBase server on the server machine before running SQLTalk on the client machine. You can specify the name of a script file containing SQLTalk commands, which will be run automatically when SQLTalk starts. Note that there is also a feature left in SQLTalk for backward compatibility which affects this command-line argument. In the same way that you can specify an input file and its encoding, you can also specify an output file and its encoding.
You can also specify the name of a configuration file which will supply all client connectivity information (such as server names and available network protocols) to SQLTalk. File specifications that contain special characters (such as spaces) must be delimited by quotes. The Current Connections box displays ISLAND as the database name, which confirms your connection to this database. Note: The username and password defaults to SYSADM for all new databases until you define another user name and password from within SQLTalk. You can enter SQL and SQLTalk commands as described in the SQL Language Reference Manual and in this manual. Note: You can also connect to a database by entering the following command in SQLTalk?s window. You need to start the SQLBase server on the server machine before running SQLTalk on the client machine. The syntax of the sqllxtlk command is described in the diagram shown in Starting the SQLTalk program in Windows on Starting the SQLTalk program in Windows. If you run sqllxtlk from a directory other than the one where the binary is actually located, and you have not specified the clientruntimedir keyword in your configuration file, you may encounter an error due to the program?s inability to find the supporting binary files. If there are no errors in your login values, you see the SQLTalk command prompt as shown below.
To execute a SQL or SQLTalk command, either right-click on the Execute Script button with the mouse, or press CONTROL-ENTER or SHIFT F2 while the cursor is within the command. SQLTalk commands that contain data values use the backslash (\) to mark the beginning of input data. Any command in this file is executed upon startup, but no output will be displayed on the screen.
This option is only useful in the batch mode when running SQLTalk under any Windows platform.
If you are using a multi-user server, after SQLTalk starts, issue a SET SERVER command to connect to a server.
This is the database name, username, password, and database server name used for connecting to SQLBase. The following examples using the Windows SQLTalk program get their input from a command file called sales.rpt. The database finds the data that matches this specification and displays it in a temporary table called a result table. Result set mode is useful for a browsing application where you need to examine data before deciding what to do with it. Before running FETCH, you can set the starting position within the result set with the SET SCROLLROW command.
These are called cursor-controlled operations because they rely on the cursor specified in the WHERE CURRENT OF or ADJUSTING clause.
While in result set mode, restriction mode can filter a query?s result set to form the basis for successive queries from that table or tables.
This command takes the rows for table T2 in the current result set and joins them with the rows from the table T3.
A bind variable, also called a program variable, refers to a data value associated with a SQL command.
Bind variables let you type a command once, replacing variable slots with the data that is to be executed with the command.
Use bind variables to enter long data, such as LONG VARCHAR, LONG NVARCHAR, or LONG BINARY.
If the data for the LONG VARCHAR column comes from a file, enter the name of the file after the $LONG keyword.
The error message text line contains an error code (in this case, 00353), a mnemonic (EXE NSY), and a message text (Not a synonym).
When a server starts, or when a client attempts to connect to a server, three important configuration files must be found or an error message is issued.
If a client application connects to the database using the API function sqliniEx, then it supplies the explicit name and location of the configuration file, and the API will simply attempt to open that file. Note: If the SQLBASE environment variable is set, SQLBase looks only in the directory to which it points.
Once the configuration file (default name SQL.INI) has been located, two other important files must be located. As a DBA, you ensure the smooth operation of one or more databases and you are responsible for the design, planning, installation, configuration, security, management, maintenance, and operation of a database management system (DBMS) and its supporting network.
A good way to ensure that the databases meet the needs of your organization is by becoming familiar with the organization?s applications: who are its users, what data is stored and accessed, and what types of transactions occur. A user with this authority level has privileges on all database objects and can grant, change, or revoke the object privileges of any user but SYSADM.
On an organizational level, your company needs to determine the number of people required to maintain its databases and applications.
If you work in a large organization, you are likely to have one user with SYSADM authority who designates several users with DBA authority level and privileges.
If you work in a small organization, the user with SYSADM authority may be the DBA as well.
Users need data that is easy to access and that they can use in both ad- hoc queries and daily transaction processing. A relational database reduces data to its most basic level in simple, two-dimensional tables that contain columns and rows of data values.
For example, in an order entry system, the customer information is stored in a separate table than the order information. This link enables SQLBase to match a row in the Orders table to its associated row in the Customers table, allowing you to find the customer name and address for each order. A relational system produces a result set by retrieving a set of rows from one or more tables.
The sequence (left-to-right or up-to-down) of data in a table holds no information about the data itself.
In a relational system, the meaning of a column or row does not depend on its order relative to the other columns and rows.
Selection is the process of retrieving all rows of a table which meet some specified criterion. Projection is the process of retrieving one or more columns from a table in a specified order and removing any duplicate rows. Joining is the process of retrieving columns from different tables where the values of a common column in each table are equal. Hierarchical and network database systems store some data as values and other data as pointers. You must use pointers to associate records to one another in a network or hierarchical database. In contrast, relational database systems can use any value to link one table to another, and you define relationships between values when you query the data, not when you create the tables. A single database can contain all the data associated with one application or with a group of related applications.
To ensure the creation of unique rows, you might create an additional column to store the time at which the order was placed, or to store a uniquely-generated sequence number (such as an invoice number). A table can have a primary key which is a column or a group of columns whose value uniquely identifies each row. SQLBase has SQL commands that enable you to add new columns to existing tables and make existing columns wider. SQLBase decides whether or not to use an index when accessing a table, and users need not be aware that SQLBase is using an index. A stored command is a compiled query, data manipulation command, or procedure that is stored for later execution. A SQLBase procedure is a set of Scalable Application Language (SAL) and SQL statements that is assigned a name, compiled, and optionally stored in a SQLBase database.
SQLBase also provides preconstructed procedures as useful tools to help you maintain your database. An external function is a user-defined function that resides in an "external" DLL (Dynamic Link Library) that is invoked within a SQLBase stored procedure. Using external functions enhances the power of the SQLBase server, allowing you to achieve maximum flexibility and performance with minimal programming effort.
A trigger activates a stored or inline procedure that SQLBase automatically executes when a user attempts to change the data in a table. For details on the trigger execution order before a single data manipulation statement is executed, read the Section DML Execution Model in Chapter 1 of the SQLBase SQL Language Reference.


When you create, change, or drop a database object, SQLBase modifies rows in the system catalog tables that describe the object and how it is related to other objects. The system catalog also contains the name, size, type, and valid values of each table?s columns. To guarantee the integrity of data, SQLBase uses page locks to prevent users from changing data while another user is reading or changing data on the same page. The term distributed processing describes the placement of computers where they are needed, whether on the floor of a manufacturing facility, in an accounting department, in a laboratory, at a field location, or in an executive office.
The term distributed processing had been used for several years to label network configurations where remote computers exchanged data. Client-server technology is a form of distributed processing where computing activities are shared among cooperating, networked computers. Through client-server architecture, users gain access to capabilities available on a server computer which are not available locally on their desktop computer. When the processing duties are shared by a client and server in a sophisticated manner, it is called cooperative processing. In a cooperative processing environment, components of an application run where they are best suited. Eventually, database software vendors moved the client component down to microcomputers and LANs, and the database server soon followed. In contrast, a relational database system has the flexibility and functionality necessary to work across networked computer systems. Unlike a file server, a database server sends only a part (subset) of the database back to the requesting PC. Have you ever found someone reading a book while doing gym, at railway station or any public place where considerable amount of background chatters are expected.
Throughout my higher study, I took guidelines from lectures but mostly I relied on books from various writers on difficult subjects. Many times, we feel embraced because the person next to you have a lot of stuff while speaking. Points to be noted, in many cases books are not simply book; it is outcome of years of research. Expertise in any subject can open new job opportunity, you may be a speaker, writer or even can you can take classes online or in-person.
If you develop self-learning approach then it will save lot of money and you would be learning more and more. SQLBase is a relational database management system (RDBMS), providing complete implementation of Structured Query Language (SQL) as well as its own control language. Read either the SQLBase Starter Guide or read Chapter 6, DBA Operations, in the Database Administrator?s Guide for information on starting the server from your particular platform. In addition, some SQLBase servers and clients support multiple network communication protocols. Optionally, you can precede that file name with an encoding option to tell SQLTalk how to handle the input file.
If you do not use the configuration file argument, SQLTalk presumes that the configuration file name is SQL.INI, and searches for it using an algorithm described in chapter 3 of the Database Administrator?s Guide. Once you have created one or more additional user names, you can override the default by entering another name. To remedy this, you can either change to the binary?s directory before running, or you can use the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable to point to the directory that contains those binary files. The default database included with all Gupta installations, for testing purposes, is "ISLAND".
You are now free to enter commands as described in the next section, Working in the SQLTalk interface.
You can also use the REMARK command, explained in Chapter 3, to enter a comment that spans multiple lines. You cannot be connected to a database to restore it (read the explanation for the RESTORE command).
BAT is a command line option that enables you to run report and command scripts as batch files. If this clause is not specified, output is written to the standard output device (usually the display screen). The rows in the result table represent the data that either meet the conditions or have undergone the operations specified in the query. However, in result set mode (also called scroll mode), the rows of the result table are available for subsequent scrolling and retrieval.
When you issue a FETCH command, the database returns the number of rows specified starting at the first row. It also introduces the concept of cursors and restriction modes, which are described in more detail in the sections Cursors and Restriction mode. This is necessary so that the result set for the first cursor is not invalidated after the operation. Once a result set has been created, an application can position the cursor on any row in the result set. Bind variables associate (bind) a syntactic location in a SQL command with a data value that is to be used in that command. For example, value :1 from the INSERT command is successively replaced with HOUSE, BIZ, and MED. When a program detects an error condition, it uses the error code to look up the error message. The path and name of the configuration file are part of the service information and will be passed as a command-line argument when the service is started.
Depending on the size of the databases and the applications, you may have one or more DBAs. You can, in turn, operate on this result set instead of operating against the tables from which you originally retrieved the rows.
Part of the flexibility of a relational database comes from this property; no information is "hidden" in the physical layout of the database.
This means that you can retrieve data from a select number of columns without having to retrieve data from all columns.
Note that this is a very narrow definition of selection, and should not be confused with the SQL SELECT command, which does more than just selection.
To find a record, you have to navigate or find a path to the record you want and give multiple procedural commands that tell the system to walk down that path, step-by-step. You do not have to know how the database stores data in order to retrieve, change, or destroy that data. For example, in a network system, the data that order #123 comes to a total of $58.00 would be stored as a value in a field. You must decide whether to store data as a pointer or as a value when you define the database.
When you create a database, you are actually naming an eventual collection of tables, associated indexes, and views. Collecting data into a single database lets you enable or prevent access to all the data in just one operation.
Consider a sales order table with columns for the date, product code, quantity, and customer ID.
Another table can have a foreign key which is a column or a group of columns whose values are equal to those of the first table?s primary key. A table with a unique index cannot have two rows with the same values in the column or columns that form the index key. When you store a view, SQLBase stores the definition of the view in the system catalog, but SQLBase does not store any data for the view itself because the data already exists in the base table or tables. This allows programmers, database administrators, and end users to see the data as it suits their needs.
When you access a table, view, or external function created by another user (once you have been granted the privilege), you must fully-qualify the table name by prefixing it with the owner's name, unless a synonym for the table or view is available. SQLBase stores the command?s or procedure?s execution plan as well, so subsequent execution is very fast. Procedures reduce network traffic and simplify your applications since they are stored and processed on the server. Static procedures must be stored (at which time they are parsed and precompiled) before they are executed.
It extends the functionality of stored procedures with no impact on the application or the server. You create one or more triggers on a table, with each trigger defined to activate on a specific command (an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE).
Triggers can prevent users from making incorrect or inconsistent data changes that can jeopardize database integrity. The system catalog contains tables that store information about the database?s tables, views, columns, indexes, execution plans, and security privileges. Locks prevent lost updates from occurring and ensure that data does not change while you are reading it or changing it yourself.
A network links computers so that they can exchange information, share resources, and perform distributed processing.
You can place systems where they are needed while still having access to the facilities of other widely dispersed systems. Two developments in the 1980s brought a new meaning to the term: PCs (Personal Computers) and LANs (Local Area Networks).


The user interface on PCs became sophisticated with bit-mapped displays that used windowing and graphics, and a mouse. Users began to wonder if they could move some transaction processing systems, which had traditionally run on minicomputers and mainframes, onto PCs.
An application is functionally split into two or more programs which execute on different computers and communicate with each other by passing messages across the network. Client computers cannot share their resources or use the resources of other client computers. The client manages the screen display and graphics, carries on an interactive dialogue with the user, validates data, does some local computation, and provides a network interface that talks to the server.
Data-intensive applications suffer performance problems when all computing happens on the client. For example, a network-intrinsic application is one that does not make sense on a stand-alone system. At first, database software was monolithic and ran on one large computer accessed by dumb terminals. Most database servers use SQL because it is a convenient language for specifying logical subsets of data.
Users can access a database without having to know its location, and you can move a database with no affect on users or applications. You can upgrade an application by adding more clients or by purchasing a more powerful database server machine.
You can maintain each database separately from other databases and you can administer the shared data and allow programmers to support the applications. You can use hardware and software from different manufacturers, and you can match them to the requirements of your applications. If a database server goes down, only its clients are affected, not your entire organization.
The point to be noted is anything written by great writer or thinkers in past is often only available in books. Lectures were available for limited time and period which limited knowledge, just opposite of that, I was used to access library and read as much as times. A writer put enormous effort his saying in a few sentences, which is formally known as a book. In some cases you may be eligible candidate for getting promotion and definitely more salary. One of my friends is serious about his career IT industry, he embedded himself with many IT standard certification which added great values in his resume. There is also a Windows program, sqlnttlk.exe, which executes in console mode, not GUI mode, and behaves nearly identically to sqllxtlk on Linux.
The actual interface is very similar to the Linux console-mode version of SQLTalk, which is described in the next section.
If you specify the argument input="filename" then sqllxtlk will start, execute the commands in the input file, and end. Any command in this file is executed upon startup, but no output is displayed on the screen. If you want to connect to a server without connecting to a specific database, specify the NOCONNECT option on the command line. For example, if you specify only the password, SQLBase uses the default username, database name, and server name.
This is useful for browsing applications because you can continue to narrow the focus of a query. You can then start entering data on the next line, and continue entering on successive lines.
Each server executable accepts an optional command-line argument that contains the file name (and, optionally, the path) of the configuration file. Some Gupta client tools, such as SQLTalk, can accept a command-line argument specifying the configuration file, and if such an argument is specified then the sqliniEx method of connecting is used. They, in turn, may specialize in maintaining databases or applications, or they may support both a database and the applications that access it.
This set-at-a-time approach means that a single relational command can retrieve, update, or delete multiple rows stored in the database. The same goes for rows: you can retrieve data from a subset of rows without having to retrieve all the rows. The data that order #123 belongs to customer #345 would be stored as a pointer from the order record to the corresponding customer record. Network and hierarchical systems use relationships that are pointer-based and predefined or static. If a customer orders ten widgets in the morning and then another ten in the afternoon, this would create two duplicate rows in the table, one for each order. One of the rules of referential integrity is that the value of a table?s foreign key must match the value of another table?s primary key. You cannot do some operations through a view, but you do not need to know that an apparent table is actually a view.
For example, employees might have access to columns containing general information about office locations and phone extensions, while administrators might have access to additional columns containing more confidential information such as employees? home addresses and phone numbers. If one is available, you can refer to the user?s table or view without having to fully qualify the name. They also provide more flexible security, allowing end users access to data which they otherwise have no privilege to access.
Dynamic procedures contain dynamic embedded SQL statements, which are parsed and compiled at execution time. The SQLBase server converts data types of parameters that are declared in stored procedures into their external representation. When external functions are called, they are dynamically plugged in and behave like built-in functions.
They also began to think about new types of applications that had not been possible before. The client sends a request to a server and when the server receives the request, it processes it and sends the results back to the client. The idea is to off-load time- and data-intensive tasks to the database server while doing as much processing on the client as possible.
Later, database software become more sophisticated and split the database function into two components: the client (frontend) and the server (backend). Application processing is the client?s responsibility and a client?s request for data results in the file server sending an entire database across the network to the client. The client is responsible for executing the application and formatting a compact SQL command which it then sends across the network to the database server. So I would like to say that Books provide the information that goes deeper than just classroom discussions.
When you challenge your mind to focus, focus and only focus; this habit certainly carries over into other areas of life. Many people think that building personal branding is very tough and only celebrities can avail that.
You can share various plots from the book you read; slowly as you read more books, you will find the possibilities of sharing are endless. You can start ready any of below listed awesome book, it may take you to your destination or you can chose from you field or work. The good thing is – you are mentally ready to face such circumstances as you are competent, it gives you guts to face challenges. The preparation classes of certification are really costly, due to his self-learning he is able to crack desired one. A set is a group of objects with a defining rule that enables you to tell whether a given object is in the set or not.
For details on referential integrity, read Chapter 6, Referential Integrity in the SQLBase SQL Language Reference.
Database processing, such as retrieving and sorting data, is centralized at a database server. It is often the case that requests are processed faster and more economically on a shared high-performance database server than on a stand-alone client computer. Distributed database is a good example of a network-intrinsic application because it uses the network to provide shared access to data for many users. As the number of clients making requests for data increases, so does the likelihood of network performance degradation and bottlenecks. The database server is responsible for parsing and executing the SQL command and sending data and a status code back to the client. For example, the set of white rabbits is a subset of all rabbits with the defining property that the animal has white fur. One you start reading books you will start realizing, to reach those incredible heights you desire.



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