Power System Analysis and Design Software, 2nd edition, PWS Publishers, Boston, MA, 1994 (with G. It’s not too often you hear about a rat bringing down an entire nuclear plant, but then stranger things have happened. However, rats, or rodents in general, shutting down a business operation by chewing through wiring or contaminating the premises is not that uncommon. Nowadays having a 24hr pest security or pest detection, call it what you will, is essential if you want to protect your business from any unwanted pests. New technologies, such as PestNetOnline, aim to provide full detail and transparency over pest activity on business premises and the corrective pest management put in place to tackle any existing problem.
Let’s hope businesses can continue to keep one step ahead of pests and I can continue to go to my local take-away without worrying about rat droppings in my beloved chicken tikka masala. We are Ireland’s largest provider of commercial pest control services and a leading provider of home pest control. Unfortunately, in today’s operating environment, most end users are pushing loads well past nameplate design limitations resulting in increased winding temperatures. Increased heating plays a major effect on the degradation of insulation quality and drastically diminishes its life expectancy. Transformers are either self cooled through natural oil convection and rated ONAN (Figure 1) or fan cooled and rated ONAF Figures 2 and 3. Bottom mount fans blow air across the total length of the cooler or radiator but have higher motor failure due to water entrance around the shaft seal. Side-mounted fans have a longer life expectancy but tend to blow only across the section of the cooler or radiator where placed.
Open frame motors are not recommended in any case due to higher failure rates caused by environmental considerations. Figure 3 – ONAF cooling provide by fans used to increase cooling using natural oil convection.
Typically one fan failure does not cause serious problems but does result in an overall temperature increase for the transformer especially if it is overloaded as can be seen in infrared Figure 4. Observation of one failure should be an indicator that others may be ready to fail as well leaving the transformer in danger of over temperature. Figure 5 shows loss of cooling in some radiators due to concrete pad settling tilting the transformer. Care should be taken to not overfill and create a problem due to oil expansion that takes place during overheating. In Figure 6 all of the oil valves to the radiators are higher than the oil which prevents oil circulation. Pump flow rate is hard to measure and typically uses a small vane gage located in the piping indicating pump ON or OFF activity.
A simple test can be performed by turning the pump off and looking at the indicators to determine if they read correctly. Ultrasonic inspection for bearing wear is an excellent test and can be performed at anytime as long as the pump is running as shown in Figure 10. Envirnonmental testing (climate chamber testing) of such prototypes can be usefull with repect to this manner as simulations can be time consuming and complex. I find this information very useful in my consultancy work since I need to brush up my knowledge every now and then. Electrical Corner StoreCheck out our new #Electrical Corner Store with selected Electrician's Books, Testing and Safety equipment and other electrician's stuff!
Science at GlanceOur mission is to be the leading provider of scientific information in the field of power and engineering in general. Glover was a Principal Engineer at Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, a tenured Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Northeastern University, and held several engineering positions with companies that include the International Engineering Company, Commonwealth Associates, Inc., and American Electric Power Service Corporation. The infamous Fukushima nuclear plant had just this misfortune earlier this week, when a rat – that’s right, just one measly rat (15cm long according to reports) – managed to cause a power failure, which took over 24 hours to restore. For example, Pubs, bars and restaurants can’t afford to run the risk of pest contamination because if a pest steps through their ‘door’ its game over for that restaurant. This shouldn’t just involve having a professional pest controller regularly checking your business premises for any sign of pest activity, but moreover it should also include employee training and pest awareness.
Or, if it’s a sudden infestation, it can be quickly tackled to minimise disruption to business and bring the pest problem swiftly under control.
Since this time my mind has been well and truly expanded on the merits of SEO and online marketing – a completely different language to me when I first started.


In most extreme cases, forced oil or forced oil over water cooling with a rating of OFAF or OFWF (Figure 7) are used. The design of the transformer relies on a specific heat transfer between the windings, oil and the radiator or cooler for heat extraction. The use of totally enclosed, nonvented motors with high quality shaft seals do, however, increase motor life.
Side-mounted fans are also very susceptible to prevalent wind direction which can help or defeat the air movement across the heat transfer surface.
This can, in some cases, be corrected by increasing the oil level in the main tank to a level permitting oil flow through the radiators. Low oil level can be a result of leaks or failure to be adequately filled when last serviced. Built to tight tolerances, they do not tolerate loose bearings or bushings. As they age, bearings, bushings or thrust washers wear and can cause impeller drag on the pump housings (Figures 8 and 9).
Highly specialized for design of LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities. Every day, the generation and usage of energy produces more pollution than any other single industry. If you do not read Chapter 2 thoroughly before you read this chapter, you probably will not be able to properly diagnose your machine!!!!The Whirlpool belt-driven design is well over thirty years old. Glover is experienced in analyzing such elements as control systems, power electronics, motor drives, inverters, rectifiers, rotating electric machinery, switchgear, and transformers, as well as residential and commercial appliances. Any good business will recognise that it is in their interest to work together with a professional pest control company for maximum benefit. Any increase in heat generation or any heat transfer reduction results in higher winding temperatures and shorter insulation life. One last issue causing the same consequence happens if the upper butterfly valves to the radiators are turned off during maintenance and not turned back on which prevents oil flow.
Many times during maintenance a gage is found to be stuck and does not truly indicate flow. This causes large deposits of metal filings to be deposited in the transformer windings and eventually causes insulation failure as they vibrate at operating frequency and wear in. These temperatures can only be maintained if the transformer operating conditions do not exceed the design limitations. Fortunately, having been around for so long, the peculiarities of the design are pretty well known.3-1 BASIC OPERATIONThe design uses a single direction motor, with solenoids to engage and disengage the agitate and spin cycles and pump.
The cam bar moves towards the front of the washer, pushing the clutch bar and yoke upwards. Also check to see that the switch striker is not broken off. If this doesn't solve the problem, test for power at the left (spin) wigwag solenoid when in the spin cycle.
The easiest way to do this is to unplug the washer and switch the red and yellow wigwag leads as shown in figure W-6. Test the switch as described in sections 3-4 and 2-6(b). Often one of the wigwag wires will break, usually very near the wigwag itself.
Test for continuity through the spin solenoid circuit of the timer as described in section 2-6(c). If the motor turns with no load, check the drive pulley and pump pulley to see which is locked.
See section 3-15. If the centerpost (spin tube) bearings are worn, replacing the basket drive will not solve your noise problem. You will need to call a qualified service technician to replace the bearings, or simply junk the washer. If the machine is making a squealing or groaning noise, the problem is more likely to be the basket drive. If it is more like a rattling sound, the centerpost bearings are probably worn out.A secondary check is to look at the clutch lining. However, most intermittent problems with these machines come from mechanical causes.For example, if the belt is loose, the machine may not spin sometimes, may not pump out at other times, and still other times it may not agitate.
The solution is obviously to tighten the belt (or replace it if it is badly worn.) Another aggravating and difficult to diagnose symptom is caused by worn cam bars. The bolt can be replaced without removing the transmission, but it's a real bear of a job.3-4 WATER LEVEL SWITCHThe water level switch is located in the control panel on top of the cabinet. If you have a standard frame timer, mark the timer wires before removing them, so you can get them on the correct terminals of the new timer.


Sometimes, the switch may burn out altogether and it will seem as if the machine isn't getting any power at all. To remove the threaded cap or nut, hold the agitator (this will keep the driveshaft from turning) and unscrew. Figure W-13: Agitator Mounting Stud AccessBut what if the agitator splines are stripped?
You can hold the agitator all you want, and the shaft will keep turning with the nut or the threaded cap. Here's a good confirmation of a stripped spline.
The nut will back off with each sweep of the agitator shaft. If you have a threaded cap, you can do the same thing by hand.
Simply twist the ring counterclockwise to remove. The air dome is the fitting that attaches the water pressure switch hose to the tub. Loosen the motor mounting bolts and remove tension from the belt. Lean the washer back against the wall, following the safety tips in section 1-4. Rocking the pump away from the drive belt will help disengage the belt, and also the pump lever from the cam bar. DO NOT MOVE THE PUMP LEVER YET.Check the belt for wear as described in section 2-5(a), especially for burned or glazed spots where it rode over the locked pump pulley or motor drive pulley. Replace the belt if it is worn, following the instructions in section 3-13. INSTALLATIONSet the pump lever in the same position as the pump that came out. Make sure the pump lever goes into the slot in the agitate cam bar, and install the mounting bolts.
Tension the belt as described in section 3-13. 3-11 WIGWAG AND CAM BARSThe wigwag is located inside the back panel of the machine. Replace the setscrew, making sure it goes in the hole on the wigwag drive shaft, and tighten securely. Normally, you will not need to replace the plungers, even when you replace the wigwag.
If you see that one is bent or the pin is badly worn, replace the plunger. The plungers can be quite difficult to replace. The pins that connect them to the cam bars are hardened and thus difficult to cut through. The first step is to remove power from the machine and cut through the pin. Sometimes it's easier to hacksaw through the body of the yoke than to cut the pin. Once you've cut through the pin, remove the wigwag as described above and replace the plunger, using the instructions that come with the new plunger. It keeps the machine quieter. To replace the spin cam bar, you must drop the transmission slightly as described in section 3-13. To replace the agitate cam bar, you must remove the transmission as described in section 3-14.3-12 DRIVE MOTORSingle speed, two-speed and three-speed motors were used at different times in these washers.
This may be the cause of the belt breaking.REPLACING THE BELTUnfortunately, the belt is not easy to replace on this machine. To get the belt past the clutch shaft, you actually have to drop the transmission out slightly, and sometimes the transmission needs to be realigned afterwards.
Hold the wigwag's "spin" plunger up and tap the spin cam bar towards the back of the machine.
Then pull the transmission straight out until it stops against the bolts. 7) Remove the belt. The transmission should be just slightly loose, and all three bolts must be backed out the same amount. Set your washer upright and level.
Make sure there is no water or clothes in the basket, and START THE WASHER IN THE SPIN CYCLE.
Without moving the washer, tighten the three transmission mounting bolts beneath it as evenly as possible. They are pretty standard items; most appliance parts dealers carry rebuilt Whirlpool transmissions in stock.
If you wish, you can replace the cam bars, T-bearing and ball as insurance against future problems. Two points to remember in exchanging the parts: 1) The drive pulley is originally assembled with a drop of glue on the setscrew threads. You may need to heat the hub of the drive pulley with a torch to get the setscrew out. 2) To get the agitator cam bar out, you will need to lift the agitator shaft.
The easiest way to do this is to remove the "T"-bearing ball and pry the shaft upwards with a screwdriver, as shown in Figure W-22. Installation is basically the opposite of removal. Sometimes, the switch may burn out altogether and it will seem as if the machine isn't getting any power at all.



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