Nersa will now request a copy of the council resolution authorising the application, a resolution that Middelberg claims doesn’t exist.
In a conflicting statement, however, Ndivhuwo Lithole, Tshwane deputy director for rates and revenue protection, said during his presentation at Nersa that the City was applying for an increase of 9.2% in order to pay salaries, do repairs and maintenance and to pay for its bulk purchases from Eskom.
Nersa regulator member for electricity, Thembani Bukula, who chaired the hearings, asked Lithole why Tshwane needed an increase above the guideline, as it was showing a surplus. Lithole responded that there was a mistake in the application and the City actually showed a deficit, as it did in the previous year. He said that industrial customers would have to pay between 13% and 16% more for electricity. Middelberg quoted from Ramakgopa’s State of the City address earlier this year when he stated the City was exceeding its budgeted revenue from electricity sales by R50 million a month, due to the installation of smart meters to 332 large power users. He also said the City was budgeting for a surplus of R1 billion in the new financial year and it would therefore be unfair to punish consumers with high tariff increases. Hendrik Barnard, managing director of Elexpert, which assists municipalities with their pricing strategies, is of the opinion that the controversy, as well as Tshwane’s high distribution losses, will carry a lot of weight with Nersa. He said if Nersa grants only 7.39% as per the guideline, Tshwane will have to adjust its budget. Tshwane will however have to cut costs, improve collections and decrease its distribution losses to ensure that the budget balances in spite of the lower electricity revenue, he said. The City of Tshwane is considering selling its two power stations due to high maintenance costs.
The strategic director for the department of infrastructure in the city, Tom Mutshidza, confirmed to The Citizen yesterday that they have called on prospective investors to submit proposals for the Rooiwal and Pretoria West power stations. Mutshidza said they received 36 proposals and their legal teams as well as technical specialists are assessing those.
Mutshidza said both power stations are not producing anywhere close to its maximum electricity output. He added that the department continuously experience difficulty with the five boilers at the Rooiwal power station and that operational cost at the two plants are too high for the city to subsidise.
Rooiwal power station has the capacity to produce 600MW which is enough to power 360 000 houses per year. The selling of the two power stations would not mean the consumer would pay more for electricity in Tshwane as all energy prices are determined by the National Energy Regulator (Nersa).
He explained that it is difficult for the city to run the costs of providing the electricity but then wait more than a month to get paid. In 2013 the City of Tshwane entered into a 10-year contract worth R27 billion with PEU Capital to outfit the nation’s capital with 800 000 smart electricity meters.
The company was contracted to install almost a million smart meters across the city, but the City has revealed that only 12 930 meters have been installed so far. The reason why the City cancelled the project is a little bit murky, but it stems from a court battle launched by Solidarity-subsidiary AfriSake about the awarding of the contract to PEU Capital. The City wasn’t funding the smart meters themselves and only paying PEU for meters already installed, as raising funds for the actual installation was up to PEU. And with the pending court case, Tshwane’s executive director of strategic communication, Selby Bokaba explained to 702 Talk Radio that no institution or company was willing to further fund PEU.
Bokaba explained to 702 that a new tender will be opened in due time to finish the installation of the remaining meters. Get our daily newsletter!An exclusive worldwide wrap of tech news in your inbox every morning, plus exclusive offers and more! Email addresses collected for competition entries or discussion accounts are stored purely for that purpose and kept in a POPI compliant manner.
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Unlike many news sites, we don’t necessarily proclaim that our reporting will always be unbiased, although we do maintain that most of the time it is. If you would like to contact us regarding a story which you feel is incorrect, unrepresentative or out and out defamatory, please contact us using the email address [email protected]. You can contact us via this form, and we’ll be updating with PGP and secure details soon. At the hearing, DA councillor Lex Middelberg objected to the Tshwane application, which he said was unauthorised. Bukula was referring to information from the official application Tshwane earlier submitted to Nersa. Bukula questioned this and said the highest increase per customer category Tshwane applied for was 12%. Middelberg argued that the benefit the City enjoyed from October when the installations commenced, should increase as the roll-out continues. He said it would be possible to implement the lower electricity tariff increase on July 1 without repeating the obligatory public participation process, because there are rarely objections to lower tariffs.
Pretoria West has the capacity to produce 190MW or enough to power 114 000 households per year. But it has come to light that the City has now decided to terminate the contract with PEU Capital – effectively wasting R830 million it has already provided.
The organisation claims that proper procedure was not followed when the tender was awarded.
The neat thing about these are that you can opt out yourself over at Google’s HQ, if you read through these pages on the DoubleClick cookie in particular. We will never share or sell these on, except in the rare incidence of a competition in which our promo partner insists on getting access to entries.
We do, however, take every effort to ensure that our reporting is accurate and fair to all sides in a story. We’re happy to discuss story details with you and, where appropriate, publish valid corrections as soon as possible. We cover far more of the latter than the former, in fact, and aim to make this the number one community for genuinely interesting stuff that’s coming from South Africa and the rest of the continent.
We believe that all across the continent, tech is making a difference to people’s lives in ways that are revolutionising living and working. The residual pressure head at the receiving reservoir is then dissipated through control valves (mechanically or hydraulically actuated), sometimes augmented by orifice plates where there is a propensity for cavitation.


We cannot run it as emissions are too high and we want to stick to other objectives (like low carbon emissions),” he said.
Other advertising partners (such as AdClick Africa) may also drop a cookie on your machine. In this case, it will be made very clear in the T&Cs for that compo that this will happen. The rest of the time we sell to the public but it is better for us if Eskom sells to them,” he said. No negative environmental or social effects require mitigation, and the anticipated lead times should be short. Water is distributed through a large water system that includes 160 reservoirs, 42 water towers, 10 677 km of pipes and more than 260 pressure reducing stations (PRS) that operate at pressures of up to 250 m. The identifying and development of these sites in Tshwane to convert water pressure to electricity is ongoing and exploited further. Because conduit-hydropower systems can be housed completely inside chambers, vandalism and theft can be mitigated. The capacity of hydroelectric installations can vary to suit the application for the amount of power needed or to be generated.
The current status of global energy shortages and the emphasis to reduce CO2emissions stimulate the development of alternative electricity generation methods at all levels of the South African economy.
The demand for energy is increasing continuously, primarily due to changing lifestyles and the increase in population.
They can be satisfied by developing alternative, particularly renewable, energy resources using well-researched technologies.
Renewable energy technologies will have to be exploited to effectively support future economic development and satisfy energy demands. Among targeted renewable energy sources available for energy generation in South Africa are solar radiation, biomass, wind and also (rather underrated) hydropower (DoE 2011). Hydropower contributes only 3% of global energy consumption, which is only a fraction of its potential. Africa is the most underdeveloped continent with regard to hydropower generation, with only 6% of the estimated potential exploited.
Although South Africa has below-average conventional hydropower potential, large quantities of raw and potable water are conveyed daily under either pumped or gravity conditions over large distances and high elevations.
The water is supplied typically to residential, industrial and irrigation areas, commonly requiring high security of supply. These water transport systems have to be operated under sustainable water supply regimes, which is a very important aspect in the operation of any hydropower generation system. At water treatment works (raw water) -the bulk pipeline from the water source can be tapped. Distribution network - in the distribution network itself where residual energy is dissipated (typically with pressure reducing valves (PRV)). A low budget pilot hydro-power generation installation was erected at Queenswood Reservoir. Although this installation was not optimised, the initial trial runs reflected the benefit and expected return from such an investment (Van Vuuren 2010). The results from this scoping study highlighted the untapped hydropower-gen-erating potential from pressurised conduits, specifically in the City of Tshwane WDS. This document set a 2013 target of 10 000 GWh to be generated annually from renewable sources.
Among targeted renewable energy sources available for energy generation in South Africa are solar radiation, biomass, wind and also, rather underrated, hydropower (DoE 2011). The emissions level from all sources in South Africa is currently estimated at about 500 000 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CCy) per annum.
Accordingly, South Africa has committed itself to an emissions trajectory that peaks at 34% below a "Business as Usual" trajectory in 2020 and 40% in 2025, remaining stable for around a decade, and declining thereafter in absolute terms. To provide a suitable enabling environment for emissions reduction and reliable energy supply for the South African economy, the Department of Energy (DoE), with endorsement from the National Energy Regulator of SA (NERSA), introduced the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) for electricity in South Africa 2010-2030. The hydropower sector has been allocated overall capacity of 75 MW to be commercially operational by June 2014. Cne of the critical qualification requirements is that only small-scale hydropower installations above 1 MW are to be included in the forthcoming selection process.
Because conduit-hydropower systems can be housed completely inside chambers, vandalism and theft can be mitigated.
The capacity of hydroelectric installations can vary to suit the application for the amount of power to be generated or needed.
There are a few technical issues to be borne in mind when developing conduit-hydropower: 1.
The head fluctuation within the service reservoir and the system head losses dictate the operating head of the turbine installation. A turbine by-pass piping system might need to be installed to allow for excess water flows to be diverted directly into the reservoir. The systems identified to date are mainly under corporate administration of Eskom and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) and include: Assegaai to Vaal (Kwazulu-Natal to Mpumalanga), Vaal River Eastern Subsystem Augmentation Project (VRESAP), and the Orange-Fish Tunnel WTS. Eskom is currently conducting feasibility studies to install hydropower capacity in the latter. It has subsequently been estimated that a further 50 MW of capacity is hidden within the utility's water supply and distribution systems.
A tender recently closed where this type of energy generation is planned at four locations, totalling almost 13 MW.
This was followed up with a 15 kW installation at the Pierre van Ryneveld Reservoir that was completed in October 2011. A system of flow diagrams and tools has been compiled to identify and develop conduit-hydropower sites. The output in this section includes the theoretically available power and the ratio of the energy demand vs available energy, in the case of on-site or islanded systems. The output from this section includes initial estimates of the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of the proposed project.
Specifically, a complete flow and head data set, all costs and income expected in the life cycle of the project, and criteria for when the system should be functional, are needed.


This phase also requires detail design of all civil and electro-mechanical components and infrastructure.
Some of the aspects of the study will occur in two or more of the phases, but are dealt with in increasing detail as the project progresses. A fourth phase, dealing with operation and maintenance aspects, falls outside the scope of this system, but is also an important phase to consider when designing a conduit-hydropower facility. The use of the potential energy stored in the pressurised closed conduit water systems in Tshwane is, however, not limited to the 10 larger sites as listed in Table 2. The scope of using all available pressurised water systems in Tshwane to convert potential water energy to electricity is still to be investigated and exploited further. An example may be the necessity to have communication with reservoirs in isolated areas due to various operation, maintenance and infrastructure management reasons. It is not practical to have personnel driving hundreds of kilometres at high costs to inspect installations and monitor water levels in these isolated areas on a daily basis, while the potential for hydro energy is available. The City of Tshwane experiences frequent vandalism and break-ins in all of its isolated infrastructure (removal of solar panels, batteries, electronic equipment and precious metal components). It should be noted that, because the pump was operated as a turbine, the inlet of the pump became the outlet and vice versa.
An approximation of the operational characteristics of a pump, operating as a turbine in comparison to the original BEP (best efficiency point), is that the required flow rate and head would have to be increased by about 30% to obtain similar hydropower. Alstom donated a 37 kW, four-pole induction motor to the University of Pretoria to be used for this research project.
A load has to be connected in order to be able to measure the current and the voltage produced so that the power output can be calculated.
The ballast load used was six 4 kW geyser elements connected to the generator in pairs (in series) as shown in Figure 5. The geyser elements were placed in a tank with water, therefore consuming the electricity generated. The generator output is an alternating current (AC), but because of the fluctuations in turbine operating conditions, the output of the generator also f luctu-ates and a variable frequency and voltage output is produced. For on-site generation the generator would have to be connected to a rectifier which converts the current into direct current (DC), and then connected to an inverter which converts the current back into AC but regulates the frequency to a constant and stable 50 Hz.
Although the site is not one of the top ten favourites listed in Table 2, the site was selected due to the construction of a new 15 ML reservoir near the existing reservoir.
This provided the opportunity to construct the second conduit-hydropower pilot plant on the existing reservoir in the Country Lane Estate. The home owners association of the Country Lane Estate has also indicated that they would like to utilise the power for street lighting. The results of testing also indicated that small pressure surges occur in the system; this will be used as a benchmark to ensure that the hydropower plant does not become an increased risk for the pipe system. The maximum capacity is ± 15 kW of renewable, zero-emissions electricity, but depends on the flow and head pressure conditions at any given time.
This would require operational changes to the supply and reservoir system to provide a more stable flow and pressure range. There is great disparity (factor of four) between purchase costs of turbines from different manufacturers across the world, with some developing countries supplying turbines at a much lower cost (although the durability of some of these machines could be questionable) (Van Vuuren et al 2011).
Various companies produce purpose-made PATs that can run at efficiencies of as high as 90% (Sanjay & Patel 2014), but in principle the impeller of a centrifugal pump can be turned around to produce a PAT with efficiency of around 30%. Therefore the long-term cost must be considered examining the relationship between the value of money and time.
Life cycle costing (LCC) includes all costs associated with a system (or component) as applied over the defined life cycle. However, as a first order analysis, the expected payback period of capital cost could be calculated to provide an indication of feasibility.
If a turbine is sought that follows the fluctuating supply patterns, a larger system will be required, which could increase the costs. A number of water utilities have started taking the initiative in developing this type of hydropower and it is believed that there is significant potential in South Africa. Depending on the generating potential of the installation, local domestic energy clusters could also benefit.
The City of Tshwane is in the advantageous situation that excess energy is currently being dissipated, and this could be utilised to generate clean sustainable energy instead. Paper presented at the ASCE World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2012, Albuquerque, NM. In January 2008 she started working at Aurecon (then Africon) as a Design Engineer, specialising in water and stormwater projects. From September 2010 to March 2012 she worked as an Assistant Resident Engineerona wastewatertreatmener's degree in Water Engineering, specialising in hydropower generation in distribution systems. He then joined the Department of Civil Engineering at UP as a lecturer and is a Principal Researcher forWater Research Commission research projects.
In 2003 he obtained an MEng degree in Water Resource Engineering, and presently he is studying towards his PhD. He is actively involved in research and has compiled numerous technical reports and journal publications.
His responsibilities cover the management of water supply and wastewater in the domestic, mining and industrial sectors.
He Is a qualified civil engineer, with a Master's degree In Tropical Public Health Engineering and a graduate diploma in Municipal Engineering.
He has held key advisory positions, such as president ofthe Water Institute of Southern Africa, and chairperson ofthe Water Advisory Committee ofthe Minister ofWater Affairs and Forestry, as well as several international advisory positions.
He started his career at the City ofTshwane in 2005 in the Water and Sanitation Departmen before he graduated with a BEng (Civil) degree from the Universltyof Pretoria, He Is currently Involved with water reticulation network designs and optimisation, the design of pump stations, and othe water-related infrastructure. He is the project manager for the Infrastructure Asset Management Query System, an on-going project to compile a compliant Infrastructure Asset Register. He is also part ofthe research team that investigates the implementation of hydro-electrical power plants in the water and sanitation infrastructure of the City ofTshwane.



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