When community evacuations become necessary, local officials provide information to the public through the media. Although seniors have great strength from life experience, planning ahead can help decrease the risk of harm in an emergency.
Stage I -Preparing for a disaster Disaster preparedness includes all of the activities that need to be carried out prior to a disaster to ensure that disaster response activities run as smoothly as possible. Disaster Recovery is the coordinated process of restoring systems, infrastructure and basic services required to support the community.
In any disaster event, volunteers are needed Before disaster happens- to help with mitigation and disaster preparedness education. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
This pandemic signifies a turning point for society in response to peak oil, highlighting the problem of globalization for a planet of 7 billion people.
Media pundits have labeled recent world events with the words “perfect storm.” The use of this term suggests a rare and unusual event that comes once in a lifetime. Public health has gotten a free ride in the fossil fuel era, as everyone’s socioeconomic status, including sanitation, clean water, and healthy, safe food improved. Pandemic factors related to the agent, the virus, include the relative infectivity, in terms of the R0 (R-zero or R-nought) and Case Fatality Rate (CFR). Host and environmental  factors that might speed transmission in first world countries are related to a high-transformity system that loses control. Host and environmental factors in first world countries that might slow transmission include less density in housing such as nuclear families, better public health, sanitation, water, and nutrition, more healthcare providers, and better handwashing. In a low-resource system, waste is minimal, with infectious mattresses as one of the most complicated waste disposal problems.
In a high resource setting, how many more changes of disposable PPE would be required in order to comply with standards and maintain safety for this one task alone, for the multiple specialties involved?
EVD introduction to the US is probably more likely by plane than by boat, as a boat allows time for the disease to emerge. Host and environmental factors that impact fitness include genetic, cultural, systemic, and behavioral factors. A thermodynamic principle explains the quandary—a proposed 5th thermodynamic law of Transformity states that “You shorten the cumulative length of the game the more you steal.” We  build hierarchies of complexity if there is surplus energy available.
TR Frieden April 2010, 100 (4) AJPH Genetics is at the top of the pyramid, while environmental medicine is at the bottom. Political leaders are already talking about global health teams, more funding for vaccine research, and what we will do when the next pandemic hits. With waning fossil fuels, the answers to resilience in general lie in relocalization and simplification.
In addition to basic personal preps, including gloves, masks, and bleach, my global action is to give to MSF, as I cannot bear to see caregivers without gloves.
The answer lies in a smaller society, with simpler, basic healthcare for everyone—less healthcare, but we can hope that everybody gets some, resulting in healthier communities and society. Didier Pittet, an expert on handwashing, at TedX, on the multi-cultural complexity of changing handwashing behaviors, which requires a “multimodal behavior change strategy. We are working with public and private organizations, as well as individuals dedicated to animal care in local communities, to assist concerned pet owners during disasters. PREPAREDNESS This stage of planning includes the drafting of plans and forms needed in the event of a disaster.
RESPONSE This stage refers to events that take place directly preceding or following a disaster, including the evacuation, sheltering, feeding and caring for disaster victims.
This typically means that disaster and business continuity plans are in place, understood and ready to be used. The recovery period has two stages: The first stage is to provide immediate relief to survivors. The last time we had a plague that was this deadly was the Black Death in the 14th century, when there were only 450 million people in the world. We have lost control of a deadly outbreak, and our responses to its exponential growth are linear at best, ensuring that this plague will most likely spread further. That process of rising socioeconomic status during the last 200 years occurred because of fossil fuels, but because fossil fuels have been ubiquitous, we did not see it.


Maintaining public health in local communities will need more effort and resources, especially in response to disasters from the larger scale.
The future of this epidemic will be dependent on the different environments that it travels to, as well as host factors in different countries, and agent factors as the virus mutates. The case for handwashing as protection in first world countries is arguable—we have the means, but do we do it?
The two imported EVD patients at Emory Hospital reportedly created 40 bags of medical waste per day. Contrast the 40 bags of waste per patient day in a hospital in Atlanta with the low-resource system for personal protection devised by Fatu Kekula, a nursing student of Liberia who made her own PPE with trash bags and kept her family alive. A recent model suggested that an 80% reduction in air travel would slow the introduction of EVD to the US, but not stop it. In another run of the same model, the US had similar risk of introduction as Nigeria, most likely based on the assumption of direct flights creating virtual neighbors. Genetic fitness of the population is enhanced when there is less medical rescue, and less high-tech medicine resulting in patient sub-populations with immunosuppression or other genetic vulnerabilities.
In this painting, Bruegel depicted the transformation of nature into an urban hierarchy through the hubris of man, which was then destroyed by God. Those hierarchies of complexity include high-transformity items like computerized heart rate monitors for Americans’ PPE.
Or people worry about eating imported bushmeat, when they only have to look as far as the next Delta flight for the source of contagion.
We need to ask ourselves, “Does my action further new relocalized society or does it further the old growth regime? But mostly my actions will go towards volunteering at the local community level to strengthen local community preparedness, since I believe in relocalization. Nature will take care of the smaller society, as wars beget famine and pestilence which beget wars.
Interestingly, Breugel painted the Tower of Babel a year before he painted Triumph of Death.
Advance planning and preparations help minimize the potential damages, loss of lives and properties. Response efforts are controlled and directed by government officials, often with assistance from nonprofit response organizations like the Red Cross and Salvation Army. This includes both the physical reconstruction of the community and the psychological, financial and emotional support needed to heal a community in the wake of a disaster. Special paperwork needed in a disaster is approved and printed, and conversations take place between parties needing to work together in a disaster relief scenario. The Second stage of recovery is long term recovery, which may take weeks, months and sometimes years. That pandemic killed 30% to 70% of the population. There is no benchmark for EVD, which kills 3 out of 4 people it touches, and is emerging into a global population of 7 billion. Rosling’s video from Gapminder on 200 Years That Changed the World identifies the trend, but misses the cause. But Americans in particular will no longer have the resources to act as the world’s healthcare provider or police officer. The CFR is somewhere between 70 to 80%, which is twenty-fold greater than the death rate of flu.
A high-transformity system could potentially create a larger R0, since there is a larger ecological footprint, with highly mobile imports and exports, reliance on services, and a 3-day shelf-life for goods. Logistics of caring for patients with a deadly illness would snarl routine care in unimaginable ways–probably one reason sick healthcare providers are returning to different flagship hospitals experienced in infection control, for trial runs with the process. Kenyan and Malian hospital workers have made their own local alcohol handrubs from sugar cane. What additional disinfection requirements would be needed with those, and how much equipment would simply have to be discarded (and where)?
The volume of infection in other countries eventually makes its way everywhere, through the wonders of modern air travel.
There is also the issue of increased background radiation as the result of various nuclear accidents. Is the answer global health teams to rescue impoverished societies, more high-tech healthcare for everyone, or high-tech vaccines for every mutating strain of virus and new antibiotics for bacterial infections? By doing so, however, and contributing to increasing inequities, we shorten the length of the game by exposing the hierarchy to instabilities such as plagues.


This rush to speak about Ebola in the past tense is a leap in thinking past the crisis at hand, which seems to be a form of denial and displacement anxiety.
Does my action work to improve socioeconomic status at the bottom of the pyramid, or serve to make inequities worse through a taller pyramid?” Actions now during a time of social destabilization could be particularly effective.
I signed up for the American Red Cross this week, in response to a comment by Sally Sellers, RN, in an earlier post. Pre-disaster activities may include interactions with community organizations, internal meetings, the drafting of special disaster procedures and other activities that help to ensure that the foundation and community are adequately prepared for a disaster.
Long Term Recovery is needed when survivors do not have the sufficient resources to meet their needs. How might transmission of EVD change as it moves from a low-resource or low-transformity setting in West Africa to resource-rich (high-transformity) countries?
His plots could be better expressed by plotting life expectancy against global per capita fossil fuel use. The world’s population growth has created a situation where top-down control during a crisis is not possible. What might be different in a high-resource (high-transformity) system which might make combatting this disease easier or harder?
Though epidemiologists claim that this disease is not very infectious, we have my heroes and heroines, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) walking around in cobbled-together moonsuits with no exposed skin, but who are still getting infected, either in hospital settings directly, or indirectly through the community. The chain of infection involves six different steps which all need to be attended to, and in a high transformity environment, those issues expand. In a low-resource system, adaptation to a disordering pulse may be easier as people are more likely to be inventive, independent generalists, not as psychologically or physically reliant on a highly specialized hierarchy of goods and services. EVD in a high-transformity setting quickly slides down a rabbit hole of receding compliance and expanding demands on resources.
The Black Death took 8 years to spread to Europe through eastern trade routes–camels are slower than airplanes. The radiation background in many countries has increased in the last 65 years, especially post-Fukushima.
No—we cannot continue with more growth and high-transformity globalization of society in the face of waning oil production, not in a world of 7 billion, especially when a deadly plague is spread globally for lack of vinyl gloves. Are urban centers, which were created by surplus fossil fuels, more dangerous in plagues, especially in descent?
Americans similarly protect their psyches when they focus farsightedly on climate change as our biggest threat. Our first world exceptionalism is a function of fossil fuels and the hierarchy of complexity and not some special character trait. High-transformity healthcare systems will need to adopt lower-transformity methods such as reusable or resterilizable equipment fairly quickly in order to keep up with this epidemic over the longer term. I am getting a good geography lesson as I watch the news and see suspected EVD patients popping up in obscure parts of the world.
A call for high-tech PPE to cool or monitor healthcare providers illustrates this conundrum.
We deny and displace our broader worries about society today with competing narratives of safe threat that could occur in the relatively distant future.
In an era of a shrinking emergy basis, especially in complex hierarchies such as hospitals or cities, a sudden pulse of disorder from the larger scale such as a pandemic may create just as much chaos, if not more, as it does in a low-resource system. When privileged westerners have air-conditioned PPEs and computerized heart rate monitors, or are evacuated to safety when they fall ill, but the community cares for victims without gloves, the inequities continue to accumulate in the war against a plague. Over-protection in one corner of the system does not make us safe from gaps in the chain of infection in other segments of the situation where less control exists. Even if we are assiduous in hospital settings, once EVD lands by air and gains a foothold, transmission might occur in other concentrated community settings where infections spread, such as cities, schools, prisons, and military operations. We are in uncharted territory here, and how this plague unfolds in other countries remains to be seen. Our media and leadership actions so far don’t suggest that a candid, direct public health perspective is in the forefront.



National geographic lonely planet
Earthquake preparation case study

Rubric: How To Survive Emp



Comments

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