The approach revealed a plan that researchers say could have evacuated New Orleans 37 percent faster in the days before Katrina. The plan used to evacuate New Orleans was state-of-the-art for 2005; it was one of the first major evacuations to use what's called "contra-flow traffic routing" that turns major roads into one-way routes out of the city.
The approach then generates a complete evacuation plan, dividing the city into intricate zones and planning a detailed route out for each zone. As a test case, Van Hentenryck applied the approach to a hypothetical repeat of Hurricane Katrina, essentially turning it into a city-sized math problem.
Once evacuees are on the road, they'd follow optimized paths that are mapped out by a computer using what's called "convergent routing." This minimizes forks and intersections and funnels traffic into a single smooth flow.
Van Hentenryck says his team's methods could be applied in any city to virtually any large-scale incidents, including wildfires, floods, earthquakes and industrial hazards. Recent findings from the team are detailed in a paper that's been accepted in Transportation Research: Part B. From flooding to earthquakes, hurricanes to wild fires and tornadoes – natural disasters are a fact of life in many parts of the country. If you've recently moved to a new locale or have been fortunate enough to not experience any natural disasters, contact the local emergency management office or an American Red Cross chapter to determine the natural or human-caused emergencies most common in your area.
Depending on your childrens' ages, you may want to include the whole family in the planning. There are a variety of natural disasters and emergencies, each requiring different means for survival. After a disaster, long-distance calls often stand a better chance of getting through than local calls. Set up at least two places family members can meet in case of emergency: one right outside your home in case of fire or other sudden emergency, and one outside your neighborhood if you must evacuate or are away from home when disaster strikes. Periodically review and practice your natural disaster and emergency plans; this can help keep your family calm and ready to act when an emergency occurs and mere minutes count. During an emergency, it is not unusual for horses to be unwilling to leave their stalls or corrals. Be sure you have a fully charged and working fire extinguisher and keep flammable materials away from the horse barn’s breezeways. Take a picture of your horse with yourself or family member standing near as more proof of ownership and keep it with your ownership information. Bring a three-day supply of food and water to be loaded into your horse trailer in case of a longer evacuation or temporary stay at a park etc. Your disaster plan should be in writing and your neighbors and extended family should have a copy. Look for sharp objects and dangerous obstacles before you release your horses into their homes.
The best way to protect yourself and family members against severe weather disasters and emergency situations is to be prepared. For large volume orders, feel free to contact us for possible discounts or better shipping rates!
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The Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan is a supporting plan to the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP). For more information on the legislative framework and authorities, see the PERP available on the EMO website. This plan supports the agreement between the Governments of Ontario and Canada (through the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada) to provide emergency response support to First Nation communities in the province. An EMO planning team in consultation with non-governmental organizations, provincial and federal partners developed the plan. This plan is meant to be used to respond to a request for a partial or complete evacuation from one or more communities to one or more host communities.
Provincial coordination will involve the evacuating community, host communities, relevant Ontario ministries, federal departments, non-governmental organizations, and others, as required. This plan is for Ontario’s far north, encompassing municipalities, unorganized territories2 and First Nation communities.
This is an overarching plan for carrying out mass evacuations and as such, many aspects are general in nature4. The Far North of Ontario spans the width of the province, from Manitoba in the west, to James Bay and Quebec in the east.
The far north is subject to several hazards covered under Ontario’s Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. The geography of the far north may complicate evacuations or efforts to manage or suppress the hazard. Maintain family and community unity, which is integral to maintaining community cohesion and supports. Potential threats to the communities and emergency responders are critical in determining the urgency of the evacuation and for planning resource mobilization.
Real-time threat assessment should be ongoing and coordinated among partners, particularly ministries with relevant OIC responsibilities and the community(ies) at risk. An OIC ministry or the PEOC may recommend evacuation, or that it is safe to return, based on a real-time threat assessment. The availability, duration, type, and location of host community facilities affect planning for the evacuation.
Consideration should be given to maintaining the readiness of host communities for future hosting.
Evacuating communities should identify Community Evacuation Liaisons for each host community. The decision to deploy is typically based on requests from impacted communities, the mandate of the organization deploying staff, and staff member’s level of expertise. Depending on the scale and complexity of the operation, a senior provincial official may be deployed to coordinate the provincial response and to liaise with community and other deployed officials. Situational awareness requires continuous coordination to help collect, collate, evaluate, and disseminate information. When planning for the return of evacuees, the number and location of host communities, and the distance to evacuated communities are key planning considerations. Roles and responsibilities may pertain to transportation hubs, host communities, support from ministries or the federal government, or responsibilities of evacuating communities. Determine the financial and legislative roles and responsibilities for the evacuation and comply with applicable policies, agreements, procedures, etc. Emergency information needs to be coordinated among the affected communities, province, and federal government. Once it has been decided that a community needs complete or partial evacuation, the parties involved must establish who the evacuees are, where the host locations are, and what the means of evacuation will be. Following the judgement of the authorized entity that it is safe for evacuees to return, the order of return and the methods of transportation must be established using an inclusive planning process that involves affected communities, provincial and federal partners, and other partners (i.e.
Real-time threat assessment is a critical component of evacuation operations and should be ongoing. All responders involved in managing the hazard or participating in the evacuation must regularly communicate situational awareness information to those conducting real-time threat assessments and must report a changing situation as soon as feasible.
OIC ministries are responsible for assessing the threat for the types of emergencies they have been assigned. EMO is responsible for real-time threat assessments for hazards that have not been assigned to an OIC ministry. The PEOC is responsible for assessing the threat based on the real-time threat assessment and characteristics of the community(ies) or region under threat.
During routine monitoring, the PEOC duty officer performs the function of real-time threat assessment. OIC ministries routinely monitor conditions in the province according to their assigned type of emergency.
Uncertainty in real-time threat assessment is unavoidable, which is why persons with appropriate knowledge of the threat causing the emergency should be involved in the assessment. During emergencies, the PEOC links with the local community and the OIC ministry acting as provincial lead to coordinate real-time threat assessment information.
Emergency managers must understand the makeup of the population who are to be evacuated before they can make key decisions about transportation modes, route selections, hosting destinations, and the many other elements of an evacuation.
Medevac is used for those individuals receiving home care or residing in a health-care facility in the evacuating community that qualify for medical transfer as per the Ambulance Act (evacuation by emergency medical services (EMS) or Ornge). This stage is typically orchestrated through the existing health procedures used in the community. This includes persons with disabilities, seniors, children, pregnant women, and those with medical conditions.
Among these, some require attendant care, which means both the caregiver and the Stage 1 evacuee they care for should be on the Stage 1 evacuation list. The designation of evacuees into the different stages will be determined by the First Nation Chief and Council, Head of Council, or appointed person, with the assistance of the on-site health care organization. Different types of hazards may dictate variations in the criteria for these categories (e.g. The decision to evacuate a community is the responsibility of the First Nation Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person. For First Nations communities, AANDC and PS approve federal assistance to support an evacuation. The urgency of an evacuation is determined based on the immediacy of the threat to the community (life, safety, health, and welfare), the resilience of the community, and (depending on the nature of the threat) the availability of resources for evacuation or shelter-in-place10.
Evacuations may take place prior to (pre-emptive), during, or after an incident has occurred.
Given adequate warning about a hazard, adequate resources, and the likelihood of the threat actually impacting a community, it is advisable to conduct pre-emptive evacuations.
If adequate resources are not available to conduct a pre-emptive evacuation, it may still be possible and necessary to carry out an evacuation even while a threat is already affecting a community. If recommending enhanced monitoring or activation of the PEOC, consider what positions must be staffed to conduct the evacuation. Alert PS of the situation and advise them if Government of Canada support may be required to assist. Establish a regular information cycle and contact for evacuating communities, host communities, and other parties assisting with the evacuation. Consider requesting additional host communities stand-by to receive evacuees if the situation appears likely to escalate rapidly.
Establish the PEOC Command, and if it is an area or unified command, consider including additional organizations in the command meetings to better inform and coordinate the response.
Determine financial accountabilities in consultation with partners and communicate the information.
Determine at the outset of the operations which organization will be responsible for information management and the manner in which information will be shared.
Initiating media contacts or directing the appropriate position to do this according to established plans and procedures (e.g. Adopting an extended operational cycle in which extra positions are staffed beyond the normal working day. Alerting other emergency responders in the province, including non-governmental organizations, that they may be requested to provide assistance. Marshalling transportation resources, including the recall of deployed resources in preparation for redeployment.
Collecting and analyzing the data necessary to fully understand the potential impact and threat.
Weather, resource availability, and the scale of an incident can significantly affect the time required to mobilize resources.
Emergency information is primarily the community’s responsibility, but may be supplemented by the province according to the provisions of the Provincial Emergency Information Plan. Communications between the field and the PEOC, between the PEOC and partners, and within the PEOC is critical. The PEOC (or other EOC) may request deployments to fulfil specific incident management functions, as needed (e.g. Where the scale of the incident, evacuation timeline, or availability of staff prevents the physical deployment of staff, relevant incident management functions may be performed remotely using available technology. Information technology in the far north is not universally accessible and may be further compromised by the nature of the emergency. All partners (but with specific reference to PEOC) should recognize the potential limitations to information technology in these regions of the province.
The priorities for evacuation will be determined by the Chief and Council (for a First Nation), the Head of Council (for a municipality), or an authorized entity. Transportation planning for the evacuation will be undertaken by a joint planning team as described in Annex 7. The evacuating community should identify community evacuation liaisons at each of the host community sites to support evacuees. If an evacuation involves a First Nation community, the JEMS Service Level Evacuation Standards provides a sample flight manifest.
Service Level Evacuation Standards11 are in place for hosting First Nations community members in the event of an evacuation. Through the PEOC, EMO works with the evacuating First Nation to identify a host community or communities for its evacuees. The selection and preparation of host facilities should be driven by the needs of the evacuees. Another key consideration is the availability of personnel and other resources to support the host facilities. Potential conflicts with the longer-term use of accommodations in the host community should be considered and mitigated if possible (e.g.
The PEOC should begin contingency planning with partners for longer-term evacuations if it appears likely that evacuees will be displaced from their community for longer than the period discussed below.
When evacuees are members of a First Nation, the use of any facility that was used as, or could evoke comparisons to, residential schools should be avoided.
Communities considering acting as a host community during an evacuation should identify emergency shelter facilities. Short-Term Basic Shelter Services: for a period of 1-14 days, in arenas, gymnasiums, recreation halls, etc. Special Accommodations: to address the requirements of medically vulnerable individuals or those with special needs.
Host communities may be limited in the types of accommodations that they are able to provide. Planning for hosting evacuees builds on information already available (typically from the manifest).
Host communities are responsible for registering evacuees that are entering into their care. Registration records should only be shared with organizations providing services to the evacuees (e.g. Before the return of evacuees, the evacuated community should be in a safe and ready state.
Services have resumed and are sufficient to support returning evacuees – for example, power, water, sanitation, security, food and essential supplies, and medical services. If a community was completely evacuated it may be advisable to begin the return of evacuees with essential workers to restart systems and assess the readiness of the community to receive other returning evacuees.
Once approval has been given for all or a part of the population to return home, community leaders, working with community evacuation liaisons, will develop priorities and manifests for the return flights.
Ground transportation arrangements may be made by the host community or the provincial government.
The evacuated community will take the lead for communicating re-entry procedures, with assistance from partners as required. What media sources can evacuees use for the most up-to-date information on re-entry procedures? Following a regional evacuation, multiple communities may decide at the same time that they are ready to return evacuees. The PEOC and partners will commence demobilization as host communities are cleared of evacuees.
The Quick Reference Guide is a condensed version of the Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan Part 1: Far North.
Asia’s rapid urban transition is adding a new level of governance below the level of the nation-state as cities are fast becoming the locus of public decision making over a broad array of concerns about human well-being and livelihoods, environmental sustainability, and social life.


Mike Douglass is Professor and Leader of the Asian Urbanisms Cluster at the Asia Research Institute ?and Professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, where he teaches and does research on cities in Asia.
This workshop is jointly organized by the Science Technology and Society Cluster, and Asian UrbanismsCluster at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Asia’s urban transition has radically transformed the region’s societies and its ecologies. For individuals and communities living in Asia’s burgeoning mega-cities, growing provincial centers, and changing hinterlands, social and environmental rupture has become constant and routine, its logic embedded in everyday practices and emerging policies. The Quotidian Anthropocene: Reconfiguring Environments in Urbanizing Asia explores the quotidian processes associated with Asia’s changing environments by bringing together scholars from the Social Sciences and Humanities at a multi-disciplinary workshop. Please click here for the Program & Abstracts and do visit the link periodically for updates.
The city’s rapid economic growth and development has translated into a city of high-rise buildings, casinos, theme parks, theaters, high-end shopping malls, and restaurants. According to Lim, Singapore’s economic growth and development seems to have mostly benefited “the more affluent class. This made me wonder: is Singapore’s vibrancy and growth mainly for affluent, high-income groups and tourists? In the recent past, there have been various developments in the Singapore’s public transport system that have had broad benefits, such as added bus and MRT services, wheelchair accessible buses, etc. Apart from these financial burdens, fuel leaks and carbon emissions add environmental pollution and health hazards to the list of broader impacts of transportation on the city’s livability.
However, if cycling is to become an alternative transport mode, it needs to be brought into the planning process in order to implement the necessary steps and to provide proper facilities. Lim mentioned that this would mean that “your office must have parking space for bicycles and you must have shower places for people to change. Having said all this, there are also various challenges in setting up a whole new alternative approach to transport. Nonetheless, Lim believes that many developed countries would not have adopted this transport mode if it was not worth the effort. In so doing, it ensures greater inclusivity of urban development processes that would result in improved productivity, development and sustainability. Our friends at Oxfam alerted us to their Asia Development Dialogue website, which is a collaboration with Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (Singapore). In Radical Cities, Justin McGuirk travels across Latin America in search of activist architects, politicians and radical communities. I just came back from having done fieldwork in two small towns outside Metro Manila, Philippines. The Spanish missionaries who discovered Paete in 1580 named the town after the Tagalog word for chisel (paet). Their skill was the result of apprenticeship, often informal, of sitting at the feet of masters, literally, because these were their fathers and uncles. The great skill of its carvers begs the question of why, despite being a hub of globally renowned talent, Paete has remained poor.  In the 1950s the production of wooden clogs was an important source of Paete’s revenue, in the 1960s and 1970s wood handicrafts, in the 1980s and 1990s papier mache and resin products, and currently Paetenians working aboard cruise ships sculpting ice and vegetables.
A full explanation is beyond my reach; rather, I want to pursue one thread of an explanation—global competition—as a way of lamenting the commodification of skill.
The surge of protests and mass movements we witness across the globe are intricately connected and facilitated by the Internet, but often also occupy politically potent spaces in the city where they gain political leverage for pursuing reform. Our conference theme thus emerged to conceptualize the connection between the cyber and the urban.
Keynote speaker Merlyna Lim (currently a Visiting Research Scholar at Princeton University) opened the conference by mapping out the spatial dynamics of contemporary social movements. Together, we have gone far beyond the questions posited at the outset, and have come away with a strong desire to further deepen our understandings of both the origins (roots) and processes (routes) that precede or lead to highly visible urban protests. In recent years, large eruptions from Indonesia’s most active stratovolcano, Mount Merapi (Gunung Merapi; Fire Mountain) on the island of Java, have led to realignments in rural-urban migration flows and shifts in the livelihoods and aspirations of thousands of affected residents.
This traditional knowledge system has been both unsettled and reinforced by fundamental changes to Indonesia’s governance framework.
Violent Merapi eruptions in 2006 and 2010 have highlighted the complexities of this convergence of centralised and decentralized governmental authority.
On the one hand, unresolved tensions and intersections between centralized and decentralized governmental authorities have compromised the efficacy of disaster response and recovery programs in the Merapi area. On the other hand, Indonesia’s democratic decentralization process has empowered non-governmental organisations and civil society actors to mobilise in innovative new ways in disaster preparedness, response and recovery programs. Importantly, democratic decentralization has pressured local governments in the Merapi area to become increasingly responsive to the voices of disaffected residents. This raises questions, then, about the extent to which democratic decentralization can facilitate greater mutual learning opportunities between official discourses and local knowledge. And today, some coastal cities use even more advanced techniques to plan evacuations, including zone-based approaches that divide cities up and signal those closest to the storm to leave first.
It crunches a staggering number of variables, from population density to infrastructure and even the projected behavior of evacuees. It also calculates the ideal time for each zone to evacuate, maximizing the number of cars on the road but avoiding congestion. He acknowledges that such an approach would require more detailed on-the-ground planning and communication than conventional evacuation tactics. The next step is to move the system beyond one-off optimizations and ultimately develop a comprehensive and integrated software tool that cities could use to optimize their own evacuation plans and make more informed decisions about disaster planning. If you happen to live where you don’t need to prepare for a tornado or hurricane, you may still find yourself facing a fire or a chemical emergency. If your family gets separated after the disaster and can't reach each other, they should call the designated emergency contact to let that person know their location. For both, map out routes to get out of the home as well as evacuation routes out of the area in case main roads are blocked or closed. Compile a list of boarding kennels, vets, hotels and other places your pets will be welcome if you need to evacuate. Being prepared by creating a family disaster plan will give you peace of mind should you ever be faced with an emergency.
Your horse trailer and truck will not survive the power of a hurricane and you are not going to outrun a firestorm. Always have at least 3 days grain and hay on hand.Fire is the single greatest threat to horses in barns and corrals. You can secure your horse almost anywhere if you have a portable stall or fence , and a horse trailer with your hay and water. Your truck and trailer should be full of gas and well maintained before you make an attempt to leave.
In addition, this plan references the Service Level Evacuation Standards1 developed by the Joint Emergency Management Steering (JEMS) Committee. Updates to the plan will be undertaken as required based on lessons learned from exercises and incident responses. It is a provincial coordination plan outlining how Ontario would coordinate its response and collaborate with federal and municipal governments, First Nations, non-governmental organizations, and ministry partners. It is not intended for internal evacuations of one part of a community to another part of the same community. This plan does not replace a community’s own emergency response plans, which should contain provisions for evacuations if they consider evacuations likely.
A detailed action plan that addresses the specific scenario, hazard, and threat will still be required. Evacuations are most frequently caused by forest fires and flooding (most often from spring break-up along the James Bay coast).
Communities in the far north may be located significant distances from communities with road access or from regional centres where services may be available (e.g. Damage to property or the environment may also trigger an evacuation if it poses a risk to the safety, health, and welfare of people. It also dictates what level of activation, and how many and what type of resources will be required for the evacuation.
If the evacuation is for one or a few communities, planning may be restricted to movements within the same general geographic area.
Therefore, planning should include post-hosting needs, such as financial reconciliation, demobilization support, and reports on issues to be resolved before hosting evacuees in the future. This allows the incident management team, and all partners, to take informed, effective and consistent actions in a timely manner. However, as the level of activation increases, the PEOC duty officer transfers this function to a technical specialist or team, if available.
These ministries have processes in place for transferring the responsibility for real-time threat assessment to specialists within their ministry when required. All activities and efforts should be focused on moving these people from the at-risk area to places of safety in a timely manner. This list should contain the names of persons needed to restart systems that must be in place before evacuees can return home (e.g. If an authorized entity decides on a partial or complete community evacuation, the community should declare an emergency. A pre-emptive evacuation may be undertaken when it is clear that if delayed, conditions (weather or other hazard) would impede evacuation.
Evacuations of this nature are done when life safety is at extreme risk and a rescue becomes essential. For example, evacuations of large populations to one or more host communities may require logistics support to secure modes of transportation from a receiving aerodrome or transportation hub to the host community. Communities are encouraged to make the decision to evacuate as soon as a significant or imminent threat is identified. In widespread evacuations, emergency information may need to be coordinated amongst all involved partners. To assist with streamlining communications, an operational cycle should be established and communicated by the PEOC to partners so they know when they are expected to provide updates on the situation from their perspective. Partners should have back-up technologies available, particularly for their deployed staff. It is preferable to host community members together, even if it means hosting them farther away from their home community.
Evacuation liaisons represent the needs of evacuees when attending meetings with the host community and other agencies. If the information is not collected on the manifest, registration services can collect and provide this more detailed information. Depending on the scale of the incident, and the numbers and locations of persons to be evacuated, the needs may exceed the capacity of available resources.
The Standards provide guidance on allowable expenditures, hosting arrangements, health services, emergency social services, etc. If requested, the PEOC could assist other communities in identifying potential host communities. It is worth noting that community health services and hospitals in the host community may experience an increased demand for their services.
Representatives from provincial (through the PEOC) and federal organizations may be available to assist a host community in providing services to evacuees. It is generally understood that time of year may affect the host community’s ability to provide accommodations during an evacuation. This allows the host community to better coordinate services and seek reimbursement for expenses incurred due to hosting. The recommendation and the decision to return should be based on the results of the ongoing real-time threat assessment, plus a determination that the home community is ready to support the returning evacuees.
This may involve the coordination of an advance team that is given sufficient time and other resources to return the community to a pre-evacuation state.
It is critical that at the end of an evacuation, there is a full accounting of the operation in the form of after-action and financial reports. Cities are also becoming more socially and culturally diverse, magnifying issues of inclusion in a global age of rising inequalities and high levels of economic and political turbulence.
He is Emeritus Professor of Urban Planning and former Director of the Globalization Research Center, University of Hawaii. For the third time, the CityPossible Film Festival brings together a collection of short films that allows us to imagine the breadth of possibilities to make better cities, showcasing stories of people who have joined together to resist the loss of their life-spaces and to remake the city through their own visions of what could be. In exploring such topics together, we offer a window into the production and re-ordering of local, regional, and global ecologies.
This would mean reimagining our existing roads and rearranging them to be shared with motorists and cyclists. Therefore, the best outcome might be to involve the public in urban development plans so as to identify potential issues and find solutions to them.
I think the government is slowly changing their position to include some in the government, some in the civil service and some in the academic circle. The site has plenty of resources and an interesting blog with discussion about urban issues across Asia.
From Chile to Brazil, and from Mexico to Argentina, McGuirk discovers people who have begun rebuilding and redesigning their environments in radically new ways. In my dissertation research, I had identified an acute class consciousness among Metro Manila’s urban poor.
The skill of its carvers was such that Europe soon began to import toys, furniture, and religious images made in Paete (one such toy was the yo-yo). It came from simply being exposed to the craft as an everyday practice—a natural act—such that one mostly “absorbed” how it was done. Paete’s dismal economic fortunes have a lot to do with the vicissitudes of global demand, of course, and with restrictions on logging, as well as insufficient government support and probably also with a lack of organization among local businesses.
The skill of Paete’s carvers was recognized and a market emerged for its products, but this market came to be dominated by countries that could mass produce these products. As individuals live in a networked society, with one foot in the virtual and the other in the material world, an understanding of the changes and transformations in society ought to include an interrogation of the interdependencies between online and offline domains. Vibrant discussions have yielded many insights, on the specificities and commonalities of case studies in various countries in Asia (including but not limited to China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines and Singapore) and the Middle East (including Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Morocco and Tunisia), but also on how to better conceptualize cyber-urban connections. The first day of the conference was loosely based on paper presentations that speak to the social movement literature, while the second day focused on other cyber-urban connections. Living with threat and vulnerability is not new to the communities that call the slopes of Mount Merapi home.
The initiation of a nationwide democratic decentralization program in 2001 devolved key areas of central state authority and resources to the sub-national scale.
Some 11,000 people were made homeless by a significant eruption shortly before the devastating tectonic earthquake of May 2006 in Yogyakarta. Decentralization has also paved the way for interactive learning possibilities between state and civil society actors in developing more inclusive disaster governance agendas in urban and rural contexts. After the 2010 eruption, more than 4,000 people chose to return to their rural homes in designated danger zones on the slopes of Merapi rather than participate in the government’s mandatory permanent resettlement program in nearby towns.
Can the gap be bridged between the state’s emphasis on the moment of the hazard of the volcanic eruption and community-based approaches that rely more on the longer periods in between eruptions? The method is the first to incorporate such a wide variety of variables into a single model. But he believes that simple, inexpensive tools could be used to make an optimized New Orleans evacuation go smoothly. So the algorithm plans a route that eliminates these choices whenever possible, enabling a given stretch of road to handle many more cars.
Her work has appeared online and in print publications ranging from Mothers & More Forum to Horse Journal.
In addition, know the emergency plans at your workplace and your childrens' schools or child care centers, and go over them with your family. If evacuation isn't possible, designate safe places in your home for each possible disaster.
As many of the communities in the far north are First Nations, coordination with the federal government is crucial. Two communities falling within the focus area have road access (Mishkeegogamang and Pickle Lake) and there is a rail link to one municipality (Moosonee).
However, the evacuation of multiple communities due to an area-wide emergency is likely to require out-of-area movements for hosting, particularly when the goal is to keep families and communities together.
The size and demographics of the population are significant factors in determining how to conduct an evacuation.
This would include: scheduling such that staff do not become overly fatigued by the operation and providing as much advance notice of scheduling as is possible given the nature of the incident. In addition, up-to-date contact lists should be maintained by all organizations for use in an emergency.


Alternate technologies that may be utilized in an evacuation include satellite phones and amateur radio. They should also be identified to the host community as resources that may be called upon to assist evacuees. This mitigates the risk of families being separated and makes the return of evacuees less complicated. Evacuation liaisons also assist with creating manifests and determining the order of the return of evacuees in consultation with the Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person from the home community. Once a flight manifest is prepared, it should be sent to the PEOC, which can in turn forward it to other organizations that require the information. Receiving the information in advance can help ensure that needed services are delivered quickly.
In this situation, evacuations may need to be prioritized and contingency plans implemented. While the Standards provide guidance on hosting First Nations, they may also be applied to municipal or unorganized territory evacuations as they pertain to hosting arrangements.
While agreements may exist between EMO and a host community, the community retains the option of not hosting during a particular evacuation.
Emergency planners should assess proposed facilities based on location, capabilities, capacity, accessibility, and resources, as well as how they would route evacuee traffic. Municipal departments involved in the development of the host facility plan may be able to provide resources to support the set-up and operation of a host facility.
Registration involves creating a municipal record, which is covered under municipal privacy legislation.
Since the degree of damage will likely vary within the affected area, it might be beneficial to initiate a phased re-entry process. In most instances, people are returned in the reverse order of when they were evacuated (i.e.
As with the initial evacuation, numerous resources, especially personnel and transportation related resources will be required to return evacuees to their home community. It also shows the various partners likely to be involved in an evacuation, broadly reflecting the actions that fall within their jurisdiction.
In this context, even within the same national setting, local governments exhibit strikingly different capacities to contribute to human flourishing for all who reside in cities. With current urban development trajectories that encourage commercialization and unfettered capitalism pushing cities to become engines of growth rather than theatres of social life, meaningful communities are challenged to find space, time, and resources diverted to focus on lifestyle and consumption within placeless architectures. If we are indeed living in a period marked by the deep effects of humans on our environment, what many have called the Anthropocene, then such phenomena would seem to exemplify the stakes associated with these changes at their broadest levels.
Moreover, state and non-state actors strategically invoke the memory, or threat, of changing environments in order to justify their own agendas, projects, and policies.
We consider how, even as seismic ecological rearrangements occur, human actors — including experts, authorities, and citizens — produce, feel, respond, and adapt to such changes.  We interrogate these issues from situated vantage points across Asia’s urban-rural matrix as a means of considering how the Anthropocene is tied to everyday life, and how past and present struggles are shaping our environmental futures.
It is also a city with more increasing numbers of car owners and an efficient but increasingly stressed public transport system.
This is not just a Singapore case, but in all developed countries”. For the majority of people in Singapore, the aforementioned developments add vibrancy to the city but are changes that do little to help people meet their daily needs. You run the family, you pay for your mortgage, you pay for the children’s fees; so it’s not so simple to have what you need to have.
But, if you keep increasing the number of people in Singapore, the public transport is going to be difficult.” I believe the purpose of improving transport is to ensure a comfortable ride and shorter travel time and distances at an affordable price. For instance, it takes approximately 2-hours for some people to travel to work and back home via public transport. He explained that reducing the number of car lanes and adding bicycle lanes would be an effective way to use the transport system to broadly improve the city.
Most importantly, increasing the city’s bikability would enable residents to have more physical activity leading to health benefits too. It might also entail narrowing of motorists’ lanes, increasing traffic density (if not developed with careful planning), and potential conflicts between motorists and cyclists or between pedestrians and cyclists.
The public should be given a role in taking part in the urban development planning from the initial stages all the way to implementation and post-implementation processes for future developments. After decades of political and architectural failure, a new generation has returned to the problems of the city to address the poverty and inequality. I wanted to see whether or not this sense of class was distinctive to Metro Manila (resulting, I argue, from its class segregation). And yet, because of the skill of its woodcarvers, the town has had an outsize global reach—for centuries. Skill didn’t just have to do with the ability to physically transform the material; it also had to do with the capacity to imagine how the material might be transformed—to be able to discern, in other words, the possibilities it held. The many conferences aimed at understanding the role of new and social media as tools of protest tend to remain in networks of cyberspace, and urban studies have also lagged in linking urban space with cyberspace.
How does cyber-activism translate into the production of urban spaces, and, conversely, how does (lack of) access to urban spaces reflect back to online mobilizations? The two morning sessions were opening up conceptual avenues of thought, and the afternoon sessions would then provide empirical profusions.
Together with Merlyna Lim, whom we involved in selecting the papers for this conference, we thus decided to pursue an edited book with a renowned university publisher. The volcano, situated in one of the most densely populated and well-connected parts of Indonesia, has erupted more than 70 times since 1548, on average every 8 to 15 years (Mei and Lavigne, 2013, p.172). For instance, when I drove to Mount Merapi in November 2013, the evacuation road on the mountain in the Special Province of Yogyakarta was mired in potholes and impassable 5 kilometres below the volcano’s summit crater.
For example, in and around the city of Yogyakarta a form of ‘disaster theatre’ has proliferated through ‘disaster mitigation simulations’ (simulasi mitigasi bencana) that combine state resources and expertise with local knowledge and active civil society participation.
Deprived for extended periods of basic state services such as electricity, running water and even a teacher for their school, these residents felt neglected and “like criminals”. And, will decentralized disaster governance fundamentally realign the ways in which urban and rural residents prepare for, respond to and recover from Merapi eruptions? The orange shading indicates population density, with darker shading indicating greater density. It's the also the first model of its kind that can be scaled to a city the size of New Orleans. Here’s how to prepare a family disaster plan that will help you weather a natural disaster or emergency and its aftermath. Family members may also have a better chance of getting a text message through than a landline phone call. Consider the special needs of elderly or disabled family members and how you will help them.
This plan supports the activities being undertaken related to mass evacuation planning for ministry and community emergency management programs. There are two municipalities that fall within the focus area (Moosonee and Pickle Lake) plus more than 30 First Nation communities. This is facilitated through liaison that may be in place between OIC ministries and federal departments - for example, between the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Health Canada and Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN). Alternatively, the Chief of the First Nation, Head of Council, or an appointed person may decide to conduct a complete or partial evacuation based on an assessment of the threat to area residents.
This approach minimizes potentially having people in harm’s way and enables a more controlled evacuation and optimization of resources. Where possible, identify the positions, rather than individuals who may be involved in the operation.
Notwithstanding this recommended practice, a host community’s capacity may be such that it is unable to accommodate an entire community. In the event that the list of potential host communities is insufficient for the size of evacuation pending, the PEOC will solicit additional host communities. Details on the set-up and operation of the shelter should be provided in the community’s emergency response plan. Each municipality has the responsibility for managing the record in accordance with the applicable legislation and their municipal policies. The Chief of a First Nation, Head of Council of a municipality, or appointed person, will decide when to allow evacuees to return to the community. More specifically, as political reform in Asia proceeds with elected local government appearing in previously authoritarian political settings, progressive urban governments are selectively rising from political coalitions that are able to go beyond populist platforms to successfully pursue policies of redistribution, inclusion and creative engagement of residents in the life of the city. From the street corner to the metropolis, these films inspire us as we celebrate the human spirit through cinema. Yet, closer inspection reveals that such macro-level environmental changes are in fact enmeshed in micro-level social shifts, political contestations, and cultural transformations. Patterns of migration and resettlement, urban infrastructure development, capital investment, and social policy are co-produced along with these shifting environments, modifying social relations, exacerbating inequalities, and generating fierce political struggles. This workshop provides insight into how such political endeavors re-imagine the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, as well as the roles played by local and expert knowledge, in re-making the new Asian city and preparing it for life in this precarious era.
But, the question is, whether the benefits of these forms of urban growth are shared equally by everyone in Singapore? Out of many areas that Lim discussed pertaining to this question, this article looks at how cycling as an alternative urban transport mode could widen the range of people benefitting from Singapore’s growth. In some cases, they have had the opposite effect by transforming public resources into private goods and making the city more expensive.
I think the issue here is whether the increasing productivity has been translated into shorter working hours for everybody.
Shorter travel time and distances would mean that people are able to travel to and fro to work and to school easily, giving them more time to spend with family and friends. In other words, the public will eventually need to pay more cash to maintain and improve the system. Furthermore, less car parks and road networks to accommodate automobiles would make land available for other purposes. It has been done in other countries.” Lim added, “it’s not to get rid of cars, but you can give less privilege to the cars” so that the urban development process would not only include the top 10 percent but also the lower- and middle-income earners as well.
This is a generation of activists, pragmatists and social idealists, and together they are testing new ideas that the rest of the world can learn from. For example, Paetenians were hired to make molds for mass produced papier mache products and to teach Chinese workers how to carve generic products. It turned out that this made for vibrant participation and discussions throughout the two days. Addressing the reflexivity of cyber and urban spaces, both empirically and theoretically, the volume’s general focus will be on investigating the origins (roots) and processes (routes) that undergird contemporary social movements in particular and the cyber-urban in general. Over the centuries, Merapi residents have acquired local knowledge to manage this uncertainty, underpinned by a spiritual understanding of the volcano’s reciprocal nature as a destroyer and renewer of life. The Merapi area is administratively divided into two provinces (the Special Region of Yogyakarta and Central Java) and five sub-provincial jurisdictions (the city of Yogyakarta, Sleman, Gunungkidul, Kulonprogo and Bantul) that are collectively home to more than 33.8 million people. By contrast, the connecting road leading into Central Java was smoothly paved and well maintained from the beginning of the administrative border. Incentivised by the chance to borrow the city’s emergency vehicles such as ambulances and fire trucks, as well as two-way radios, neighbourhood residents can collectively simulate a disaster event (for example, by lighting a bonfire on non-residential land) and practise relocating to a given evacuation site. These disaster simulations have a carnival atmosphere about them as children and adults dress in fake blood and bandages and vie to ride in emergency vehicles to the evacuation site, where a feast is shared by community residents and local state officials.
Through a combination of media and NGO pressure as well as their own strategies of resilience and social protest, however, the Merapi residents have eventually forced a softening in local government attitudes toward them.
These are questions I hope to find answers to as I continue research in this vulnerable and incredibly resilient part of Asia.
It draws linkages to various hazard management plans and procedures developed by ministries.
The exact population at any one time is difficult to report as people who are recorded in the census may be away from the community and some who are not recorded may be in the community.
Unorganized territories, fly-in lodges and camps, and mining operations also fall into the plan area. The seasonal roads cannot be relied on for evacuation operations given the short and sometimes unpredictable length of time that they are available. Local populations often provide the best information on the threat to their community and the region. Emergency responders may require personal protective equipment, as responder safety will be critical.
Where an entire community may not be hosted together in close proximity to the home community, and if the situation allows, the community’s preference should be discussed with the Head of Council, First Nation Chief, or appointed person.
The primary reason for returning the most vulnerable people last is to help ensure that support services are in place when they return. He has been a consultant on urban policy and planning for major international development and donor agencies as well as national and local governments in Asia.
At stake in these conflicts are normative, pragmatic and theoretical questions about citizenship, about the shape and relations of the built and natural environments, about the respective roles of local and expert knowledge, and about the constitution of just and resilient communities, in an age of unprecedented transformation. Whether they have more space, have more time for friends and family- that is the issue,” added Lim. Moreover, developed roads, increase the demands placed on the city by increasing numbers of motorists, and the expansion of road infrastructure could mean that the public—including the majority of non-users—have to pay back sunk costs with their taxes or  through other fees. Hence, what other possibilities are there for the majority of public who do not own a vehicle?
This is benefit seems vital given the fact that land is already a scarce resource in Singapore. Here, in keeping with the genre of a blog, I would rather share my impressions—and pictures—of one, particularly fascinating fieldsite, Paete.
What was remarkable wasn’t that the artist had turned a lowly piece of driftwood into something else entirely, but that he had captured a process of one thing becoming something else. Sure, these products were inferior in quality to Paete handicrafts but they were cheaper and easily available. Alongside these strengthened local governments, line ministries and a centrally coordinated disaster management agency have retained considerable if sometimes ambiguous and overlapping authority at the sub-national scale in the event of disaster. The central government, too, seemed confused over how best to position itself in relation to local dynamics by pledging, for example, compensation schemes for Merapi residents without consulting local stakeholders first to find out what they needed (Sulistiyanto 2014, p.127). While local government authorities are by no means uniformly supportive of these Merapi residents who stayed on the mountain, decentralization has allowed a certain flexibility to enter into state approaches to disaster governance that could translate over time into the development of more responsive policy choices.
For example, there may be people staying at fly-in lodges that do not report year-round population. His current research focuses on three areas: the vernacular city, spaces of hope, and disaster governance in Asia. The lived experience of such contestations, the disruption that provokes them, and the practices that produce that disruption, shows how the epochal Anthropocene is found in the normal, the routine, and the quotidian.
Hence, there is an urgency to address ways of improving the city to allow people time to spend with their loved ones. Is there a possibility to retrofit infrastructure to have an inclusive urban development plan that provides everyone a freedom of travel choice? The Christ figure looked like it simply grew out of the driftwood; the grain of the wood becoming the folds of his robe and its branching his outstretched arms (I wish I took a picture!).
And so the wooden clog industry was undercut by competition from Japanese manufacturers, and then the carving and papier mache industry by Chinese manufacturers. Among local and central government authorities alike, personalised power relations and networks of patronage confounded rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts as the Merapi disaster was used by opportunists at all levels of government for political gain.
Similarly, there may be community events that draw tourist and other visitors to the community.
Given the increasing costs of public transport it would be pragmatic to look at other viable alternative modes of transportation too.  How about cycling? So, although cycling is often seen as a transport issue, building cycling into the fabric of the city would improve Singapore as a whole. Such skill was incubated in one place over a long time rather than produced by effective instruction and individual effort.
Now Paetenians are using their skills to make swans out of ice—impressive displays, to be sure, but knowing that the skill guiding the sculptor’s hand developed in so rarefied an environment—knowing how precious it is—how can we not feel a sense of waste that it’s now being used so cheaply to make products that are merely functional not beautiful, to make ornaments serving only to embellish the experience of luxury? It was learned by observing and engaging in practices that are a natural feature of Paete’s environment.
Just walking around the town you see that everywhere people are fashioning something, carving wood or making papier mache dolls, even in the squatter areas where I interviewed.
I asked one artist how he had learned his craft and he simply shrugged and said, “I just watched my father do it, and my brother, and then I started doing it myself.” Because skill consists of practices that are all but impossible to codify exactly, it can be hard to teach.
After being puzzled for a moment, his teacher finally replied, “Well, just look at your own foot!




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