The WHO African Region continues to be challenged by frequent natural and man-made emergencies causing injury, death, population displacement, destruction of health facilities and disruption of services, often leading to disasters.
The frequency and magnitude of emergencies and disasters have increased since the adoption, in 1997, of the Regional Strategy on Emergency Preparedness and Response. WHO has recognized the need for Member States to formulate policies and legislation, and develop capacities in order to institutionalize DRM in the health sector. Les pays de la Region africaine de l’OMS restent confrontes a de frequentes urgences d’origine naturelle ou humaine qui provoquent dommages, deces, deplacements de populations, destruction et desorganisation des infrastructures et services sanitaires culminant souvent en catastrophes. La frequence et l’ampleur des urgences et des catastrophes se sont accrues depuis 1997, date de l’adoption de la Strategie regionale sur la preparation et la riposte aux urgences. L’OMS a reconnu la necessite pour ses Etats membres de formuler les politiques d’orientation et les outils legislatifs d’application destines a institutionnaliser la Gestion du risque de catastrophes dans leur secteur de la sante.
Il est propose, par cette Strategie regionale, que les Etats membres ameliorent la Gestion du risque de catastrophes (DRM) en elaborant une legislation et des politiques appropriees, en developpant les capacites requises au sein des ministeres de la Sante, en evaluant et en cartographiant les risques sous l’angle du secteur de la sante, en evaluant le niveau de securite des hopitaux et autres centres de sante qui doivent se conformer a des standards, en renforcant la resilience des communautes concernees ainsi que le niveau de preparation generale, en developpant des normes nationales pour les reponses a apporter aux urgences et catastrophes, et en consolidant la gestion de la collecte des donnees et des connaissances.
A Regiao Africana da OMS continua a ter de enfrentar frequentes emergencias naturais e causadas pelo homem, tais como traumatismos, morte, deslocacao de populacoes, destruicao de instalacoes de saude e perturbacao dos servicos, que muitas vezes estao na base das catastrofes que ocorrem. A frequencia e dimensao das emergencias e catastrofes tem aumentado desde a adopcao, em 1997, da Estrategia Regional de Preparacao e Resposta as Emergencias. A OMS reconheceu a necessidade de os Estados-Membros formularem politicas e legislacao e desenvolverem capacidades, com vista a institucionalizarem a DRM no sector da saude. The African Region is struck, year after year, by natural and man-made disasters, with direct and indirect impact on mortality, the disease burden and health care delivery, needless to mention the adverse implications for economic growth and attainment of most national development goals. Despite the prevalence of emergencies and disasters, and their negative health and economic impact, baseline assessment of an enabling environment and the capacity for DRM, conducted in 32 countries in the Region in 2011 showed that the health sector in the assessed countries lacks relevant policies and capacities for DRM.
All countries have yet to establish health facility resilience building programmes based on assessment results, using the hospital safety index.15 Community-based activities related to DRM, often implemented through NGOs, are not coordinated and structured according to community-specific risk assessment. The capacity to enforce national standards during response to an emergency or disaster remains inadequate. The previous regional strategy, adopted in 1997, focused mainly on emergency preparedness and response.
The aim of the current ten-year DRM strategy is to contribute to human security and development through improving the health sector’s management of disaster risks, including providing a comprehensive health response to emergencies and disasters. Strengthen the use of evidence for emergency and disaster early warning, preparedness and response. By the end of 2022 all Member States in the African Region will be fully implementing all the interventions of the regional strategy.
Gender and human rights principles that ensure incorporation of gender equity and human rights perspectives into policies and programmes as well as neutrality and impartiality in humanitarian response. Country ownership, with governments coordinating and ensuring that all interventions by partners are in line with relevant national guidelines. Strengthening partnerships within the health sector, using the humanitarian reform principles. The interventions proposed below are the minimum required by each country in order to establish the necessary enabling environment and capacities to manage disaster risks. Disaster management is a continuous process with different but complementary interventions in the different phases of the cycle. The Regional Office for Africa of WHO has developed a set of tools and guidelines that focus on interventions at all levels of DRM in order to guide countries in tailoring strategies and plans to their individual needs. The CCA user guide is the master document used to develop road maps for strengthening DRM capacity at the country level. The purpose of the user guide is to describe the steps involved in conducting DRM capacity assessments and developing capacity strengthening road maps.
The guideline provides practical guidance on how to conduct VRAM within the health sector of African countries. It may be used as training material for staff of MoH who want to undertake VRAM, as a step-by-step guide for conducting VRAM within the health sector and also as an advocacy tool to sensitize policy-makers on health sector disaster risk reduction (DRR).
The document begins by defining the key disaster and VRAM terminologies and describing the key challenges, objectives and guiding principles for health sector VRAM.
Standard operating procedures are practical field-oriented procedures based on minimal essential standards and best practices to manage response to emergencies and disasters. This document provides guidance for the preparation of national SOPs for health response to emergencies and disasters, and not the SOPs themselves. It may be used for capacity building purposes (training of health workers on health system recovery), as a reference material during the post-disaster phase, as background information for DRM planning and implementation, and as an advocacy tool to sensitize policy-makers. Core competencies guide is a multidisciplinary tool that can be used by the national health authorities to develop in-service, pre-service and specialized training courses in in public health DRM. Literature and experience regarding the cost of establishing DRM are scarce, considering that the approach is relatively new. Some of the proposed interventions in this strategy, including updating the legal, policy and strategic documents, could be covered by routine administrative costs, and may not require large capital investments. Progress towards the attainment of the targets set in this strategy will be evaluated in the medium term in 2017, and after ten years, in 2022.
Countries will be monitoring key indicators for DRM interventions at national and district levels, by using data from health information and surveillance systems, satellite forecasts, rapid health assessments and surveys.
Countries in the African Region continue to be affected by emergencies, resulting in disasters with avoidable loss of life and significant socioeconomic costs. The strategy was reviewed and adopted at the Sixty-second session of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa.
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Financial Tracking Service of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA). Angola, Burkina Faso, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, South Africa, Togo and Uganda.
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa, Togo and Uganda.
In addition to WHO guidelines, there are several others developed or under development by the UN Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (ICRC), Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), etc. These include nomads, economic migrants, seasonal farmers that migrate to water sources and migrant fishermen. Cape Verde Declaration by Ministers of Health of Small Island Developing States of the African Region, Praia, 19 March 2009. There is a common misunderstanding that Disaster Management is the same as Disaster Relief. There is a common misunderstanding that Disaster Management is the same as Disaster Relief or Humanitarian Relief. One can also see that disaster Response and Relief are only part of the whole cycle- these actions follow immediately after a disaster has occurred. About UsThis site investigates all facets of disaster management, from analysing disasters, to human response to catastrophic incidents , examining case studies and advice for providing effective disaster relief.
Contact UsIf you have any queries or comments, please feel free to contact us – we would love to hear from you! Etymologically the word disaster is derived from two Greek words - ‘dis’ meaning “bad” and ‘astor’ meaning “star” - thus suggesting that disasters are destined to happen.
In contemporary academia disaster is defined as the consequence of inappropriately managed risks.
C = Capacities which signify the strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster. In this framework disasters are seen as ‘the consequences of unattended risks that is neither prevented nor mitigated and for which the countries and communities are not prepared’. Disasters produce a range of impacts; these include direct, secondary and indirect effects. In the recent decades there has been a paradigm shift in disaster management – from managing an event of disaster to managing the risks of disasters. Mitigation: The lessening or limitation of the adverse impacts of hazards and related disasters.
Preparedness: The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions.


Response: The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduces health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. Relief: Immediate shelter, food, water, sanitation and other humanitarian assistance to men, women and children affected by disasters.
Reconstruction: The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors. Natural Hazards, Unnatural Disasters: Economics of Effective Prevention, The World Bank, 2010. No prob - put them up for those of us who may not be too familiar with the lay of the land there . Oh i have no doubt they would do this and i am very familiar with HAARP - they could shift this away - they could have shifted katrina away but they didnt. In addition several global initiatives developed since 2005, including the World Health Assembly resolution WHA64.10 (Strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems) adopted in 2011, have focused on disaster risk management (DRM) as the approach to containing and minimizing the impact of emergencies. An assessment conducted in 2011 revealed that most countries in the Region lack these policies, capacities and legislation. This will ensure that the health system has been prepared and will be able to provide adequate health sector response to emergencies and reduce their likelihood of becoming disasters. Et depuis 2005, plusieurs initiatives de portee mondiale, notamment la Resolution WHA 64.10 de l’Assemblee de l’OMS (Renforcement des capacites et de la resilience des systemes de sante nationaux en matiere d’urgences et de catastrophes) adoptee en 2005, ont ete elaborees sur la base de l’approche DRM (Gestion du risque de catastrophes) comme methodologie permettant de contenir et minimiser les effets des situations d’urgence. L’evaluation menee en 2011 a revele que les politiques, les capacites et les outils legislatifs manquent dans la plupart des pays de la Region africaine.
L’ensemble de ces demarches fera des systemes de sante des organisations preparees capables de reagir convenablement aux urgences et crises et de reduire la probabilite qu’elles se transforment en catastrophes.
Por outro lado, varias iniciativas mundiais desenvolvidas desde 2005, incluindo a resolucao WHA64.10 da Assembleia Mundial da Saude (Reforco das capacidades nacionais da saude para a gestao das emergencias e catastrofes e da resiliencia dos sistemas de saude) adoptada em 2011, tem-se centrado na gestao dos riscos de catastrofes (DRM) como a abordagem mais indicada para conter e minimizar o impacto das emergencias. Uma avaliacao realizada em 2011 revelaram que a maioria dos paises da Regiao nao possui essas politicas, capacidades e legislacao. Isso significara que o sistema de saude esta preparado e sera capaz de fornecer uma resposta adequada as emergencias e reduzir a possibilidade de estas se transformarem em catastrofes. Some of the most significant events included the Sahel food crisis (involving nine countries in West Africa), floods in Nigeria, Cameroon, Comoros, Mozambique and Congo, cholera outbreaks in Uganda, Congo, Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of Congo (totalling 95 000 cases), Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, the Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Uganda and dengue fever (Seychelles). The health sector roles outlined in multisectoral national disaster acts and policies have not been adequately translated into health-specific policies and practice. There are several humanitarian actors operating in the field, each employing different strategies and technical guidelines that, in many cases, are not in line with national standards.19 Member States’ allocation of resources for emergencies remains inadequate, and most countries rely mainly on donor funding which is largely focused on acute response.
However, recent developments within and outside WHO at the global level following recurrent major disasters have created a paradigm shift towards disaster risk management.
The strategic approach is to consider all potential hazards and all potential contributing factors that may affect health including: health determinants, climate change adaptation interventions, and action involving all MoH departments.
This would involve updating the existing health legislation, national health policies and health sector strategic plans to incorporate provisions on prevention, preparedness and readiness, as well as response to the health impact of all potential hazards in the country. The MoH should be given responsibility and adequate authority, capacity and resources to coordinate all health actions before, during and after emergencies and disasters.
Vulnerabilities and capacities of the health sector should be assessed in conjunction with other sectors in order to measure and map the risks to health and health care delivery. This will imply designing the structural, non-structural and functional requirements of new health facilities to enable them to with stand the impact of hazards, and be functional in emergencies.
Preparedness should be strengthened by developing, evaluating and revising response plans based on comprehensive risk analysis taking into account all prevalent hazards. Information on the projected and actual health consequences of natural and man-made disasters including event-based surveillance should be generated and monitored, using appropriate indicators, through the national surveillance system. As highlighted in the strategy document the major shift involves addressing the root causes of a disaster.
The document is divided into two main parts: Part 1 describes the methodology for conducting the capacity assessments including the key activities which need to be implemented during the preparatory, data collection, analysis, reporting and road map development phases.
It summarizes the key steps involved in planning, implementing, coordinating, supervising, monitoring and using the outcomes of health sector VRAM to build health system and community resilience to the public health impact of disasters. It outlines the conceptual framework for VRAM in the health sector and goes on to give broad orientations on how to conduct hazard analysis and mapping, health vulnerability and capacity assessments and health risk analysis. The document is designed for use by staff at all levels of the MoH and partners in the health sector.
It summarizes the key principles and processes involved in planning, implementing, coordinating, supervising, monitoring and evaluating transition and recovery activities within the health sector. Most of the activities and challenges described in this document are based on lessons learned from practical field experience in African countries in transition from emergency to development. Further, the core competencies can be used to develop interview guides and job descriptions for professionals enrolling in DRM careers.
The resources required for the implementation of the new strategy will depend on the context and specificities of individual countries, in terms of size, prevalence of hazards and existing capacities to manage disaster risks.
According to the Financial Tracking Service of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA), the countries in the Region required an average of over US$ 3.2 billion annually from 2007 to 2011 to respond to emergencies and disasters, about 9% (US$ 288 million) of which was for the health sector response. Data will be collected through surveys to monitor progress and identify constraints that hamper achievement of set targets.
Disaggregation of data to capture age, sex, social status and geographical differences will be emphasized.
The African Strategy on Emergency Preparedness and Response, adopted in 1997, focused on emergency preparedness and response. This would ensure a prepared health system capable of providing adequate health sector response, and decrease the likelihood of emergencies turning into disasters.
While they are necessary and crucial interventions, it is vitally important not to overlook the actions that need to be taken before a disaster occurs- this is called risk prevention or disaster risk reduction. Disaster management is absolutely essential in South Africa and there is a growing recognition of this need. If you would like further information on our BBA Disaster Management Degree, our helpful staff is always on hand to answer all your questions. This sense of fatalism in fact remained the dominant philosophy of disasters for centuries and still influences the perception of many people around the world.
There is a growing argument by the researchers that most disasters are man-made, their argument is that the human action before hazards strike can prevent them developing into disasters. The disaster management cycle includes both the pre disaster phases of prevention, mitigation and preparedness which enhance the capacities of nations and communities and post disaster phases of response, relief, recovery and reconstruction. Michael Smith appeared together on KUSI TV [Video] to discuss the Climategate -- American Style scandal they had discovered. Gates recently gave a TED talk in which he pushed a vision of a world in which population and wealth have increased, even as carbon emissions drop to zero.
Armed conflicts affected Mali and the Central African Republic and have remained protracted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, recent major disasters, including the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004 and the Pakistan and Haiti earthquakes have increasingly emphasized the importance of addressing disaster risk, as defined in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015.4 Lessons learnt from the 2011 Horn of Africa crisis show that the scale of deaths and suffering, and the financial costs, could have been reduced had a risk management approach been applied. In addition to these however, DRM encompasses an element of prevention by enhancing the ability of the health system, community or society exposed to hazard to resist or absorb the effects of a hazard through interventions based on risk analysis. This underscores the need to develop a regional strategy that comprehensively addresses DRM.
National health acts and policies cover DRM issues in only seven12 and ten13  of the assessed countries respectively. Disaster prevention and preparedness, and post-disaster health system recovery remain under funded. This is articulated in World Health Assembly resolution WHA64.10 urging Member States to strengthen health emergency and disaster risk management programmes. The strategy may not require the development of new documents and structures, but an updating and strengthening of what exists. The revisions should be congruent with national multisectoral legislation, policies and plans on DRM. The health sector should participate in all decisions and actions of the national multisectoral committee on DRM, through a functional health sector subcommittee. The structural and functional capacity of existing health facilities to withstand and respond to the impact of hazards should be assessed, using the health facility safety index.22  Risk assessment and mapping should be updated regularly, based on changes in hazard and vulnerability profiles.
Existing health facilities should be retro-fitted to increase their resilience, based on the results of risk assessments. It is therefore imperative to look into the whole disaster management cycle and develop appropriate tools to facilitate and inform countries in their efforts to design or develop policies, strategies and standards for effective disaster management.


Part 2 of the document (the annexes) contains definitions of key disaster terminologies and the important tools such as indicators, benchmarks and reporting formats which are needed to analyse and document the findings of the assessments. The guidelines conclude by describing how the outcomes of VRAM can be used to strengthen health sector and community resilience and how to manage the VRAM process. At least 10% of this should be used for risk management, preparedness and recovery, in line with the African position and high-level commitment to the global platform for disaster risk reduction. Pre-disaster monitoring will include general risk trends, health risks trends and event early warning.
However, the World Health Assembly resolution WHA64.10, adopted in 2011, re-affirmed the current global focus on strengthening disaster risk management.
The diagram below shows that Disaster Management can be divided into cycles or phases from prevention to reconstruction.
Many countries today are spending more money on risk reduction as this reduces the severity of the impact of disasters on people and the environment.
Those pursuing a Stenden BBA Disaster Management Degree will find themselves highly employable, with career prospects all over the world.
The philosophy of fatalism found expression in theories of ‘anger of God’ or of ‘wrath of nature’. However, secondary disaster impacts such as releasing fire or hazardous material that is triggered by disasters.
These events can be classified as mainly related to climate change (60%), disease outbreaks (30%), armed conflicts (9%) and accidents (1%) and have a huge potential in disrupting the socioeconomic development in the region beside the losses in human lives.
Clear gaps in the health sector’s capacity to perform intrasectoral and intersectoral coordination have also been identified.
The following are the proposed interventions, the prioritization of which would depend on country context and specificities.
Resources should be allocated “from the national budget to fund DRM activities in the health sector”. The following diagram depicts the whole cycle and the various components of disaster management. The continuous monitoring and evaluation of the DRM interventions should be mandatory to improve or strengthen disaster management skills using lessons and best practices from the previous disaster. Introducing hazard-resistant design measures in constructing new health facilities, and retro-fitting old facilities, are some of the main resource-intensive components and should be incorporated into the health sector capital development budget. The monitoring before disaster will capture details on the accessibility, quality, readiness and safety of health services.
South Africa has a very forward thinking National Disaster Management Act which places much emphasis on proactive risk reduction, rather than purely reactive response and relief. Finally, impacts include ripple effect resulting from the flow of goods, services, unemployment etc. In the patent filings, there are a few proposals on how an endeavor like this one could be financed—including selling insurance policies in areas that are prone to major storms. Only 14 of the 32 surveyed countries have a unit in the ministry of health (MoH) with responsibilities for DRM.
This new regional strategy therefore has to focus not only on response to emergencies and disasters, and mitigation of their consequences, but also on preventing them through strengthening risk management in accordance with the above resolution.
Education and training programmes at undergraduate and graduate levels as well as continuing professional education and research on DRM should be developed and funded. Community leaders and health workers at the community level should be engaged in risk assessment, planning and preparedness to build on local knowledge, experience and capacity.
Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for health response and recovery operations should be developed to determine what needs to be done, by whom and how, before, during and after emergencies and disasters, in order to minimize related casualties. Operational research should be conducted on changing risk patterns for various communities, including highly vulnerable groups such as migrant populations and persons living in Small Island Developing States.
This would increase construction costs by 5–24% which, compared with the cost of reconstruction or damage repair after a disaster, is significantly lower. During response and recovery there is a need to monitor health outcomes focusing on the coverage of essential health services and interventions to mitigate diseases and behaviours that lead to poor health, such as antenatal care coverage. When you consider the cost of disasters worldwide, then it makes sense to try to prevent and mitigate their impacts, as this potentially could save many lives and reduce costs substantially. While I seriously doubt the plausibility of such a scheme, if anyone can pull it off it would be Bill Gates. The interventions of DRM for the health sector are targeted at the components of the health system including leadership and governance, building resilience of health facilities as well as preparedness in line with the six components. Community members should also play decisive roles in the execution, monitoring and evaluation of DRM intervention at community level. Post-disaster needs assessment should be conducted to foster continuity of service, and rebuild public health services, as part of updated national health strategic plans. Other indicators to be monitored are severity of disaster, epidemic onset and evolution, and nutrition indicators.
Interestingly, Australia and New Zealand were pioneers in this new conceptualization of Disaster Management and in fact now use the term Disaster Risk Management as a standard in the industry. Patent and Trade Office patent applications, made public on July 9, propose slowing hurricanes by pumping cold, deep-ocean water in their paths from barges. Besides, even if this doesn’t work out he always has his important work with high tech kegs to fall back on. They blew up the rig (no one ow denies this either - even the MSM is saying it) right before hurricane seson.
A strengthened health system will not only be able to provide an adequate health sector response during emergencies, but will also have beneficial effects outside emergency periods.
Rational regulatory frameworkThis is a fairly standard list of environmental policy objectives. You really think they did not plan that?But do your own research, start with that 1996 USAF document. There is no evidence of CO2 driven global warming in any of the US temp data - even though we are accused of being the CO2 generating capitol of the world.
The patents describe a system for strategically placing turbine-equipped barges in the path of storms to chill sea surfaces with cold water pumped from the depths.
So why the hype?On the praise side of the ledger, Alex Steffen calls the talk the most important climate speech of the year.
What's more, they do not expect to see any evidence of AGW in the US for 2-4 more decades! According to Steffen, the talk marks the first time such a radical goal (zero emissions) has been delivered by a figure of such mainstream credibility. I think we could afford to wait a little longer to see if this theory holds up.And yet, without ANY evidence of AGW active in the US, Americans are supposed to cripple our economy and shell out billions in tax dollars?
Environmentalists can talk about energy transformation until we’re blue in the face, but Bill Gates is, well, Bill Gates, a figure virtually synonymous with both innovation and wealth creation. How could AGW be evident everywhere else but not here in the great CO2 producing center of all human kind? According to Romm, Gates’ proposals are a prescription for suicide, and the man himself is a huge hypocrite.
Cutting sea surface temperature by 4.5 degrees under the eye of a hurricane would actually kill a storm, he adds. It is indeed absolutely fantastic for this goal to win such a strong endorsement from an influential and respected figure not normally associated with environmental causes.
The patents envision sail-maneuvered barges, with conduits 500 feet long, pumping warm water down to the depths and bringing cold water up. Over the past century, the annual cost of hurricanes to the USA has averaged about $10 billion, according to a 2008 Natural Hazards Review study. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina killed at least 1,800 people and caused at least $81 billion in damage. I doubt that Bill Gates would disagree very much with this point, and it would be great to have a powerful voice take up this cause.




Emf shielding smart meters work
Disaster risk reduction work plan

Rubric: How To Survive Emp



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