FHWA Office of Operations - Coordinating Military Deployments on Roads and Highways - Chapter 4. This publication is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information.
A series of coordinated activities is triggered the moment the military receives a warning order and ends when convoys arrive at their destination. Developing a plan or a set of coordination procedures requires combining the knowledge, expertise, and information of many agencies across several jurisdictions that support military deployments during national emergencies.
Confidence and trust among agencies necessary to support military missions during emergencies. The focus for users of this guide is on developing procedures or plans that address operational issues or concerns associated with military convoy movements. The Emergency Response Coordinator at the SDOT should verify the existence of current procedures and plans for supporting military deployments; this information will provide insight into the scope and scale of the update required or the creation of new procedures if necessary.
A review of documents will highlight the current and proposed routes on which military deployment coordination is needed. Once this preliminary inventory and understanding has been developed, a process for developing or refining a plan or set of procedures can be selected using one of several approaches.
The DMC will be one of the best sources for identifying operational needs for a military deployment. Agency representatives should discuss their general preparedness to support military deployments. Confirming the ability to access key information about approved convoy movements such as existing permits, current and accurate roadway conditions, special needs, and other information. As a result of steps 1 and 2, background information and lists of military and support agency needs have been identified. Based on the needs, agency representatives should describe a concept of operations—those activities the supporting agency will perform to meet those needs.
Inventory of existing highway conditions based on the proposed routes and military needs—work zones, construction locations, weight restrictions, operational chokepoints, etc. Preparation for special needs or circumstances such as rest areas, time-of-day restrictions, etc. Monitoring of convoy movements and response to special needs of convoys-in-route (TOCs, road patrols, etc.).
Once the sequence of activities by the military and support agencies has been delineated, key interaction and interface points can be identified. Once the entire sequence and key interaction points have been defined and confirmed, a comprehensive review of the plan or set of coordination procedures should be made.
Similar levels of detail would be needed for other coordination and interaction points of the plan or set of coordination procedures. Interoperability of communication systems (800 MHz, 900 MHz, bridge circuits, common dispatch centers, etc.).
Selected ramp metering controls to maintain desirable freeway speed and facilitate time convoy movements. Prepositioning of critical assets (tow vehicles and service vehicles, for example) or service patrols in potentially vulnerable segments of the highway network. Ultimately, the coordinating agencies should assess the appropriate level of detail and document this detail in the plan or procedures (Figure 23). Once a plan or set of preliminary coordination procedures has been developed, it should be submitted for independent agency review and confirmation. Once the preliminary coordination procedures have been reviewed and revised, the final set of coordination procedures or plan should be documented. Agricultural: If chlorine is released as a gas, it is highly unlikely to contaminate agricultural products. GENERAL INFORMATION: First Responders should use a NIOSH-certified Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) with a Level A protective suit when entering an area with an unknown contaminant or when entering an area where the concentration of the contaminant is unknown. NOTE: Safe use of protective clothing and equipment requires specific skills developed through training and experience. A NIOSH-certified CBRN full-face-piece SCBA operated in a pressure-demand mode or a pressure-demand supplied air hose respirator with an auxiliary escape bottle. A Totally-Encapsulating Chemical Protective (TECP) suit that provides protection against CBRN agents.
Coveralls, long underwear, a hard hat worn under the chemical-resistant suit, and chemical-resistant disposable boot-covers worn over the chemical-resistant suit are optional items. A NIOSH-certified CBRN tight-fitting APR with a canister-type gas mask or CBRN PAPR for air levels greater than AEGL-2. Escape mask, face shield, coveralls, long underwear, a hard hat worn under the chemical-resistant suit, and chemical-resistant disposable boot-covers worn over the chemical-resistant suit are optional items.
Chlorine reacts violently with bases, many organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen, and many finely divided metals. Chlorine reacts explosively or forms explosive compounds with many common substances including, acetylene, ether, turpentine, ammonia, fuel gas, hydrogen, fluorine, and finely divided metals.
Chlorine reacts violently with many organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen, and finely divided metals, causing fire and explosion hazards. For fire involving tanks, fight the fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. For massive fire, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is impossible, withdraw from the area and let the fire burn.
Hazardous concentrations may develop quickly in enclosed, poorly-ventilated, or low-lying areas.
References are provided for the convenience of the reader and do not imply endorsement by NIOSH. TIME COURSE: Respiratory symptoms may be immediate or delayed for several hours or days after exposure to chlorine.
Mild to moderate: Burning discomfort, spasmodic blinking (blepharospasm) or involuntary closing of the eyelids, redness, inflammation of the eyea€™s membranes (conjunctivitis), and tear production (lacrimation). Severe: Severe chemical burns leading to cell death (necrosis) and tissue damage (ulceration). A solution of detergent and water (which should have a pH value of at least 8 but should not exceed a pH value of 10.5) should be available for use in decontamination procedures. Remove all clothing (at least down to their undergarments) and place the clothing in a labeled durable 6-mil polyethylene bag. Examine the moist lining of body passages and cavities (mucous membranes) for corrosive effects.
Monitor for and treat spasmodic narrowing of the large airways (bronchospasm) if it occurs. In case of frostbite, protect the injured area from further injury until sustained rewarming can be initiated.
DELAYED EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: For previously healthy individuals with an acute exposure to chlorine, pulmonary function usually returns to pre-exposure levels within 7 to 14 days.
EFFECTS OF CHRONIC OR REPEATED EXPOSURE: Chlorine is not classifiable for carcinogenic effects. Consult with the Incident Commander regarding the agent dispersed, dissemination method, level of PPE required, location, geographic complications (if any), and the approximate number of remains. Coordinate responsibilities and prepare to enter the scene as part of the evaluation team along with the FBI HazMat Technician, local law enforcement evidence technician, and other relevant personnel.
See Guidelines for Mass Fatality Management During Terrorist Incidents Involving Chemical Agents, U.S. Stop the leak if it is possible to do so without risk to personnel, and turn leaking containers so that gas rather than liquid escapes. Chlorine is not flammable, but it reacts explosively or forms explosive compounds with many common substances.
The user should verify compliance of the cards with the relevant STATE or TERRITORY legislation before use. For fire involving tanks of UN 1052, fight the fire from maximum distance or use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles. For small fires involving UN 1790, hydrofluoric acid (HF), use carbon dioxide, dry chemical, dry sand, or alcohol-resistant foam. If a tank, rail car, or tank truck is involved in a fire, isolate it for 1 mi (1600 m) in all directions; also consider initial evacuation for 1 mi (1600 m) in all directions. This agent is not included in the DOT ERG 2004 Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances.


In the DOT ERG 2004 orange-bordered section of the guidebook, there are public safety recommendations to isolate a hydrofluoric acid (Guide 125) spill or leak area immediately for at least 300 ft (100 m) in all directions. If untreated, exposure to dilute solutions can produce delayed severe burning or throbbing pain with or without redness. Spontaneous emesis, severe metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and death have occurred within 90 minutes of ingestion of a commercially available rust remover.
Mild: Rapid onset of irritation and reversible clouding (opacification) of the surface of the eye (cornea). Eye exposure to vapor may cause delayed findings of eye and mucous membrane irritation; more serious eye injury is possible following exposure to concentrated vapor. Mild: Irritation of the moist linings of the nose and throat (mucous membranes), possible burns, cough, narrowing of the large airways (bronchoconstriction), and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath (dyspnea).
Severe: Immediate narrowing and swelling of the throat, upper airway obstruction, accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), and partial or complete lung collapse.
Whole-body (systemic) effects are likely, including low blood levels of calcium and magnesium (hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia), high blood levels of potassium (hyperkalemia), low blood pressure (hypotension), abnormal or disordered heart rhythms (dysrhythmias), accumulation of acid in blood and tissues (metabolic acidosis), involuntary muscle contractions, seizures, and death. Concentrations 20-50%: Redness (erythema), pain, and serious injury (possibly delayed for 24 hours and often reported after significant tissue injury has occurred). If the victim vomits, clean up and isolate vomited material using paper towels and plastic bags.
If immersion is not practical, soaked compresses of the same iced solution should be applied to the burned area. Compresses should be changed or soaked with additional solution approximately every 2 to 4 minutes. If signs of whole-body (systemic) poisoning appear, see the Ingestion section for treatment recommendations. DELAYED EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: After severe inhalation injury, survivors may suffer residual chronic lung disease.
Some of these activities require support from various State agencies to efficiently and safely assist the military move to its destination. The current procedures may be part of an existing EHTR or may be a set of independent coordination procedures and plans. One approach involves ad hoc work groups formed on a regular basis to define and address deployment procedures. This individual works closely with the deploying military installation to identify needs, establish and track the timing of major activities, coordinate with other DMCs as needed, and act as the primary interface with other State agencies. Chapter 2 highlighted the major functions and roles—these must be confirmed among the supporting agencies and participants to ensure proper allocation of responsibilities and resources.
This can help on-site and supporting personnel become aware of their responsibilities and interagency agreements during convoy movements. These needs should be matched to the typical phases of a military deployment, namely the issuance of a warning order, followed by the notice to deploy, and the actual convoy movements. These interaction points help to further define the required information flow between and among agencies. This review step will ensure all the detailed activities have been identified and properly sequenced, the appropriate supporting agencies are identified, and agency representatives are aware of their supporting roles and responsibilities.
The TMC operators monitor the traffic conditions within their traffic networks and provide periodic updates via telephone to the DMC, if required and requested by the DMC (subject to workload and availability at the TMC). This step will ensure the proposed procedures are complete and properly sequenced, and the key coordination and interaction points have been identified. Based on the independent review, a revised plan or set of coordination procedures should be developed and documented. The documentation should include activities for keeping the plan current through reviews and updates at least annually. It is widely used as bleach in the manufacture of paper and cloth and in manufacturing solvents, pesticides, synthetic rubber, and refrigerants. Level A protection should be used until monitoring results confirm the contaminant and the concentration of the contaminant. This is the maximum protection for workers in danger of exposure to unknown chemical hazards or levels above the IDLH or greater than the AEGL-2. This is the minimum protection for workers in danger of exposure to unknown chemical hazards or levels above the IDLH or greater than AEGL-2. Determination of chlorine and bromine in rocks by alkaline fusion with ion chromatography detection. SW-846 Method 9056: [PDF Format 217 KB] Determination of inorganic anions by ion chromatography. SW-846 Method 9212: [PDF Format 69 KB] Potentiometric determination of chloride in aqueous samples with ion-selective electrode.
Determination of inorganic chlorine species in kraft mill bleach effluents by ion chromatography. Symptoms generally resolve within 6 hours after mild exposures, but may continue for several days after severe exposures.
Care should be taken during decontamination, because absorbed agent can be released from clothing and skin as a gas. Individuals who survive a single, acute exposure usually have no long-term adverse health effects, although persistent effects have been reported.
Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM), November, 2001 for detailed recommendations.
However, if you must, personnel should wear the appropriate PPE during environmental decontamination.
If the person who is poisoned cannot wake up, has a hard time breathing, or has convulsions, call 911 emergency services.
When hydrogen fluoride is combined with water it is known as hydrofluoric acid, a colorless liquid, which in low concentrations is visually indistinguishable from water.
If hydrofluoric acid (HF) is released as a gas, it is highly unlikely to contaminate agricultural products.
Determination by ion chromatography of selected organic and inorganic acids in rainwater at Maracaibo, Venezuela.
It includes monitoring of signs and symptoms of whole-body (systemic) toxicity, which can be fatal. Calcium- or magnesium-containing antacids (which bind fluoride ion) have been suggested for use in the treatment of ingestion exposure. After skin exposure, healing of skin burns may be prolonged, and extensive scarring may result. This chapter describes a five-step process for developing or refining coordination procedures or plans. A plan is a comprehensive description of activities, resources, roles, and responsibilities with additional detailed consideration for updates and testing. First, the Emergency Response Coordinator at the SDOT should develop an inventory and an understanding of current procedures or plans, identify the organizational structure or format for developing the procedures, and identify key participants or agencies. The magnitude of any discrepancies or differences between current procedures and needs should be noted for later review and consideration.
At the other extreme, a formal planning body or group may address military deployment coordination and activities. Because of the past working relationship among State agencies, military needs should be relatively routine and well defined. In step three, these roles and responsibilities will be further refined during detailed discussions of activities, information flow, agency coordination, and decision making. The intent is to build an understanding of major responsibilities and a trusting relationship among agencies prior to the need for any special multiagency response during convoy movements (Figure 21). The following topical outline of a set of coordination procedures or plan is offered as a means of organizing and documenting the products from this step (Figure 22). If field sensors of the TMC indicate a change in traffic flow along a designated convoy route, the TMC operators may choose to observe the possible causes of the delay through closed circuit TV (CCTV). This independent review will serve as a check for internal agency coordination procedures and that all of the key offices or departments have or can provide the necessary information or decisions to support the preparedness and actual convoy movements. Specialized cross-agency training may be necessary using the coordination procedures as a guide. It differs from Level A in that it incorporates a non-encapsulating, splash-protective, chemical-resistant splash suit that provides Level A protection against liquids but is not airtight.
At high exposure levels, irritation of the upper respiratory tract and accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) contribute to a sensation of choking.


Your Incident Commander will provide you with decontaminants specific for the agent released or the agent believed to have been released. One decontamination corridor is used to enter the warm zone and the other for exiting the warm zone into the cold zone. Labeled, durable 6-mil polyethylene bags should be available for disposal of contaminated PPE.
For example, exposure to chlorine may cause reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), a chemical irritant-induced type of asthma. Quaternary ammonium compounds or calcium-containing gels may be used topically in the treatment of skin burns.
For minor exposures with very dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF): mix 10 mL of 10% calcium gluconate with 100 mL of normal saline to give an approximately 1% calcium gluconate solution. The elements of the procedures or plans are built on the roles and responsibilities of key agencies described in chapter 2 as well as a detailed understanding of military deployment planning and movements on public roads described in chapter 3.
Both approaches are appropriate; they should be chosen based on the needs and requirements of each State or jurisdiction. Additional data may need to be collected from others to gather sufficient background information about military deployment routes, current permitting processes, contact lists, communication practices (technical and organizational), and recent validation of the current procedures or plan.
Such formal bodies may exist in some States and reside in agencies with responsibility for statewide emergency management or homeland security functions. However, depending on the military mission, special needs may also be highlighted, such as unusual time-of-day movement needs, use of special vehicles, unconventional convoy operations or sizing, use of alternative or restricted routes different from the standard routes, and enhanced force protection and convoy monitoring. This alignment of needs will provide the basis for identifying agency activities and documenting a plan or a set of coordination procedures. For example, once a notice to deploy has been received, public affairs officers in all supporting agencies should be made aware of the impending convoy movements. If the delay is increasing and is above a threshold value of importance to the DMC (for example, the delay is expected to be greater than 20 percent of the average travel time through the affected corridor), the TMC operator would contact the DMC via telephone to warn of potential convoy travel delays. Another approach is to conduct a tabletop exercise with several representatives from the military installation and supporting agencies. Once completed, the documented plan or procedures should be submitted for formal approval (signature) and distribution to the supporting agencies. The lowest level at which humans can smell chlorine and notice its irritant properties generally provides sufficient warning of exposure; however, chronic exposure to chlorine causes adaptation of the sense of smell (olfactory fatigue) and tolerance to its irritant effects.
Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tanks. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organic Methods Evaluation Branch, OSHA Analytical Laboratory.
The decontamination zone for exiting should be upwind and uphill from the zone used to enter. For exposed individuals who have underlying cardiopulmonary disease or for those who suffer complications (for example, pneumonia) during therapy, the risk for developing chronic airway inflammation is increased. Multiple exposures to chlorine have produced flu-like symptoms and a high risk of developing reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Treatment is a continuum of care: removal from site, followed by rapid decontamination, followed by rapid treatment with a fluoride binding agent. The use of iced benzalkonium chloride 0.13% soaks has been advocated as the treatment of choice for both concentrated and dilute dermal hydrofluoric acid (HF) exposure.
With a syringe, irrigate the eye intermittently for a period of 15 to 30 minutes or until relief of pain occurs. After eye exposure, prolonged or permanent visual defects, blindness, or total eye destruction may occur. If your emergency response team members are not .Principal Emergency Response and Preparedness Requirements and Guidance. In either case, the development of a plan or set of succinct procedures will require cross-agency and jurisdictional coordination and collaboration for military convoy movements to be effective. The Emergency Response Coordinator should then distribute the coordination procedures or plan with a proposed approach for further testing and updates. This format would simulate the deployment process, including the use of specialized scenarios to test the robustness and completeness of the coordination procedures. Some agencies include the coordination procedures as part of statewide emergency transportation management procedures. Because of this, persons with a history of prolonged exposure lose the ability to identify when they are being exposed to chlorine.
Pulmonary injury may progress for several hours and accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) may be delayed up to 24 hours. For more serious hydrofluoric acid (HF) eye burns, mix 50 mL of 10% calcium gluconate with 500 mL of normal saline to give an approximately 1% calcium gluconate solution. Ingestion may damage the esophagus and stomach progressively for weeks, and it may cause persistent narrowing of the esophagus. In any case, a determination must be made as to the type of planning approach and the use of formal or informal organizational structures. For example, for substantial convoy movements planned through a metropolitan area, traffic operation centers may need to be alerted about the timing and volume on the convoy routes.
Similarly, interagency communications procedures and protocols during normal and emergency situations should be confirmed.
This information would allow the DMC to make a decision on the need to reroute the convoy to meet destination orders and requirements. Still another approach might include one or two experts offering detailed review and comment. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. After administering local anesthetic eye drops, instill the solution over a period of 1 to 2 hours.
These deployment needs and supporting agency services should be identified because they may affect staffing and workload assignments.
It is released into the environment from manufacturing and welding processes, volcanoes, and sea salt aerosol. It has a strong irritating odor; however, odor should not be depended on to provide sufficient warning of exposure. For inhalation exposure administer a 2.5% calcium gluconate solution as a nebulized treatment with oxygen.
It is considered a weak acid but is still extremely harmful due to its ability to penetrate tissue.
Injection of 5% calcium gluconate is indicated as the primary medical treatment for large burns. If benzalkonium chloride soaks or calcium gluconate gel do not provide significant relief of pain within 30 to 40 minutes, injection of calcium gluconate solution is indicated. Injection of calcium gluconate may also be indicated for burns in which treatment has been delayed. Sterile 5% aqueous calcium gluconate should be injected beneath, around, and into the burned area (0.5 ml per square centimeter). Intra-arterial injection of calcium gluconate may be necessary for treatment of burned digits and the upper extremity. Local anesthetics are not recommended in burn treatment, because the degree of pain is an indicator of treatment efficacy. Hemodialysis with fluoride free water (and normal to low potassium and slightly higher calcium concentrations) should be considered in all cases of serious burns and may need to be repeated.
Hypomagnesemia (low magnesium level in the blood) may be corrected with 50% magnesium sulfate (2 to 4 mL IV over 40 minutes). Severe lung injury may require treatment with bronchodilators and inhaled and injected steroids.



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