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A chance alignment of planets during a passing gust of the solar wind has allowed scientists to compare the protective effects of Earth's magnetic field with that of Mars' naked atmosphere. They found that while the pressure of the solar wind increased at each planet by similar amounts, the increase in the rate of loss of martian oxygen was ten times that of Earth's increase.
Such a difference would have a dramatic impact over billions of years, leading to large losses of the martian atmosphere, perhaps explaining or at least contributing to its current tenuous state. The result proves the efficacy of Earth's magnetic field in deflecting the solar wind and protecting our atmosphere.
Now, by making measurements during a planetary alignment when the two planets were being hit by exactly the same part of the solar wind, the team have proved it in reality.
Venus will provide an important new perspective on the issue because like Mars, it has no global magnetic field, yet it is similar in size to Earth and has a much thicker atmosphere. There are a number of upcoming planetary alignments that will provide good opportunities for such studies. In addition, scientists are keen to observe how the increase in solar activity associated with the current solar cycle may affect the loss of atmospheric particles from all three planets. A chance alignment of planets during a passing gust of the solar wind has allowed scientists to compare the protective effects of Earth’s magnetic field with that of Mars’ naked atmosphere. They found that while the pressure of the solar wind increased at each planet by similar amounts, the increase in the rate of loss of martian oxygen was ten times that of Earth’s increase.
The result proves the efficacy of Earth’s magnetic field in deflecting the solar wind and protecting our atmosphere. They now hope to extend their work by incorporating data from ESA’s Venus Express spacecraft, which also carries a sensor that can measure the loss of its atmosphere.
This animation shows how a particular stream of the solar wind sweeps through space, interacting with both Earth and Mars. They found that while the pressure of the solar wind increased at each planet by similar amounts, the increase in the rate of loss of martian oxygen was ten times that of Earth’s increase. The result proves the efficacy of Earth’s magnetic field in deflecting the solar wind and protecting our atmosphere. They now hope to extend their work by incorporating data from ESA’s Venus Express spacecraft, which also carries a sensor that can measure the loss of its atmosphere.
This artist's impression shows how the solar wind shapes the magnetospheres of Venus (top), Earth (middle) and Mars (bottom).
A camera visiting Venus, onboard the Venus Express spacecraft, has sent back its first pictures of the planet.
ESAa€™s Science Programme Committee has extended the operations of ESAa€™s Mars Express, Venus Express and Cluster missions until 31 December 2009. Despite its magnetic field, Earth is losing its atmosphere to space at about the same rate as planets that lack this protective barrier against the solar wind. Planet-hunting is an ongoing process that's resulting in the discovery of more and more planets orbiting distant stars. SpaceX has made good on a high-priority delivery: the world's first inflatable room for astronauts.
Astrophysicists at the University of Bern have modelled the evolution of the putative planet in the outer solar system.
Technokontrol has designed via its R&D programme our unique Anti-EMPS technologies which can work in many different sectors for the protection and safety of the military, national security, strategic infrastructures and law enforcement sectors including strategic databases, cyber warfare and information technology bases including satellites, telecommunications, radars,financial services, government databanks and military installations.
Once the EMPS Bomb has been activated which could also include in any mode of transport for example and especially fuel transports systems whom rely on GPS,GMS,satellite technologies as rail, shipping, aircraft and even trucking causing accidents, explosions and full technical failures.
Not only would the EMPS Attack deterrent would be effective but it will be required as mandatory by all selected nations to create a balance of powers and not allowing this technology to fall into the wrong hands thus having technologies or safety products as manufactured by Technokontrol to protect and to hinder any type of attack from anywhere or anyone for whatever reason. The great savings from financial, logistical,military,social,geo-political using these technologies are extremely important and must be considered as another great positive point towards the production of these EMPS technologies and also the safety-security technologies to protect one owns nation, society, family,etc.
We should consider this technology as such as an important military deterrent as the nuclear aramament which has now been effective for more than seven decades and this could be the new long term safer but more strategic deterrent but will be harder to control as too much data and operational units have been shown as effective from private manufacturers without taking into account all the military technological and financial investment also during the last decades into this technology and even more extreme armament as lazers, etc. This present day cyber war can be understood by how the Iranians have suffered months or even years of continuous delays in their nuclear power program having introduced accidentally by purchasing corrupt technology or deliberately downloading internally viral software by anti-Iranian operatives into their operational technological operations industrial software programs which will never be recognized by any foreign military or nation but it?s obvious that cyber warfare  is active and increasing daily from internet fraud, to internet hackers to all types of terrorists.
Top secret and highly classified sensitive military documents as the technical plans of the new generation USA nuclear submarines are just one example how cyber warfare has been effective by the enemy as these plans were stolen from the USA government by means of cyber attacks. We must state that even though the norm for these types of EMPS can also be created by the solar heat, solar flares, solar radiation, etc.
Even in most related data to solar radiation may be very precise no one can really predict anything 100% when we can?t even forecast the weather in the next three to five days, how can us humans predict a solar flare or radiation sometime in the near future or ever. The Earth's magnetic field quickly deflects the electrons at right angles to the geomagnetic field, and the extent of the deflection depends upon the strength of the magnetic field. This interaction of the very rapidly-moving negatively-charged electrons with the magnetic field radiates a pulse of electromagnetic energy.
There are a number of secondary collisions which cause the subsequent electrons to lose energy before they reach ground level. These 2 MeV gamma rays will normally produce an EMP1 pulse near ground level at moderately high latitudes that peaks at about 50,000 volts per metre.
The process of the gamma rays knocking electrons out of the atoms in the mid-stratosphere causes this region of the atmosphere to become an electrical conductor due to ionization, a process which blocks the production of further electromagnetic signals and causes the field strength to saturate at about 50,000 volts per metre.
The EMP2 component is generated by scattered gamma rays and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons.
According to the United States EMP Commission, the main potential problem with the EMP2 component is the fact that it immediately follows the EMP1 component, which may have damaged the devices that would normally protect against EMP2. According to the EMP Commission Executive Report of 2004, "In general, it would not be an issue for critical infrastructure systems since they have existing protective measures for defence against occasional lightning strikes. There are at present proof of small EMPS attack weapons which emit short, high-energy pulses reaching 10 gigawatts, which could destroy complex electronics systems. Any type of EMPS attack from a thermonuclear warhead to a solar flare would cause ionospheric radiation and electronic effects to any national or international region, territory or nations. There are mainly two types of non-nuclear EMP (NNEMP) and one main nuclear High Altitude HEMP devices which have been developed since the Vietnam War mainly. The efficient execution of an Information Warfare campaign against a modern industrial or post-industrial opponent will require the use of specialized tools designed to destroy information systems. A Radio Frequency Weapon is one that uses intense pulses of RF energy to destroy or degrade the electronics in a target. The high temperatures and energetic radiation produced by nuclear explosions also produce large amounts of ionized (electrically charged) matter which is present immediately after the explosion. The formation EMP begins with the very intense, but very short burst of gamma rays caused by the nuclear reactions in the bomb.
In low altitude explosions the electrons, being very light, move much more quickly than the ionized atoms they are removed from and diffuse away from the region where they are formed. This creates a very strong vertical electric current which generates intense electro-magnetic emissions over a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHZ) that emanate mostly horizontally.
A separate effect is the ability of the ionized fireball to block radio and radar signals. The central idea behind the construction of FCGs is that of using a fast explosive to rapidly compress a magnetic field, transferring much energy from the explosive into the magnetic field. The coaxial arrangement is of particular interest in this context, as its essentially cylindrical form factor lends itself to packaging into munitions.
The fundamental principle behind the design of MHD devices is that a conductor moving through a magnetic field will produce an electrical current transverse to the direction of the field and the conductor motion. The fundamental idea behind the Vircator is that of accelerating a high current electron beam against a mesh (or foil) anode.

The major problem area in determining lethality is that of coupling efficiency, which is a measure of how much power is transferred from the field produced by the weapon into the target. Front door coupling occurs typically when power from an electro-magnetic weapon is coupled into an antenna associated with radar or communications equipment. Back Door Coupling occurs when the electro-magnetic field from a weapon produces large transient currents or electrical standing waves (when produced by a HPM weapon) on fixed electrical wiring and cables interconnecting equipment, or providing connections to mains power or the telephone network.
A low frequency bomb built around an FCG will require a large antenna to provide good coupling of power from the weapon into the surrounding environment. Microwave bombs have a broader range of coupling modes and given the small wavelength in comparison with bomb dimensions, can be readily focussed against targets with a compact antenna assembly.
Mobile or hidden targets which do not overtly radiate may present a problem, particularly should conventional means of targeting be employed. Whilst the demodulation of UE can be a technically difficult task to perform well, in the context of targeting electro-magnetic bombs this problem does not arise. Because UE occurs at relatively low power levels, the use of this detection method prior to the outbreak of hostilities can be difficult, as it may be necessary to over-fly hostile territory to find signals of usable intensity. Technokontrol Anti-EMPS Defence against EMPS-bombs and EMPS personal carried device attacks.
The most effective defence against electro-magnetic bombs is to prevent their delivery by destroying the launch platform or delivery vehicle, as is the case with nuclear weapons.
The most effective method is to wholly contain the equipment in an electrically conductive enclosure; Technokontrol has developed the Anti-EMPS Protection Panels for such protection systems termed a Faraday cages or TK-EMPS Panel Protected Bunker-Buildings, which prevents the electro-magnetic field from gaining access to the protected equipment.
Where an electrically conductive channel must enter the enclosure, electro-magnetic arresting devices must be fitted.
Intermittent faults may not be possible to repair economically, thereby causing equipment in this state to be removed from service permanently, with considerable loss in maintenance hours during damage diagnosis. Electromagnetic damage to any single element of a complex system could inhibit the function of the whole system. Other than hardening against attack, facilities which are concealed should not radiate readily detectable emissions. Complex and expensive experimental efforts are more timely and cost-effective if they are tested by theoretical and computational modelling. Electro-magnetic bombs are Weapons of Electronical Mass Destruction with applications across a broad spectrum of targets, spanning both the strategic and tactical. Using ESA's Cluster and Mars Express missions to provide data from Earth and Mars, respectively, scientists compared the loss of oxygen from the two planets' atmospheres as the same stream of solar wind hit them. They now hope to extend their work by incorporating data from ESA's Venus Express spacecraft, which also carries a sensor that can measure the loss of its atmosphere. We accept all space related events in our calendar and all it takes is about 5 minutes for your to fill out the online event form. Using ESA’s Cluster and Mars Express missions to provide data from Earth and Mars, respectively, scientists compared the loss of oxygen from the two planets’ atmospheres as the same stream of solar wind hit them. Unlike Earth, which has an internal magnetic field, Mars lacks a planet-wide magnetic field so the martian magnetosphere is smaller than the terrestrial one. Unlike Venus and Mars, Earth has an internal magnetic field which makes its magnetosphere bigger. For the first time, scientists are able to investigate from the top of its atmosphere, down nearly to the surface. The Sun's wind, which originates from its hot outer layer (corona), contains charged particles emitted at a rate equivalent to about one-millionth of the moon's mass each year.
Thus causing the downfall of the nations society, commerce, industry,government and all types of institutions as we understand it in today?s world. These new types of technological warfare won?t stop terrorism or sabotage attacks against important national infrastructures as pipelines, refineries, factories, jumbo tanks, rail freight transports, police stations, military bases,etc. Thus being paramount that as many as possible basic infrastructures operations centres must be protected at all costs in the event of the worst possible scenarios, especially power grids, water resources, telecommunications centres, civil protection, armed forces, government institutions,strategic fuel deposits, fuel delivery services and most importantly food and medical services to the general population. The contra-effect is then the use of IED?s to continue a never ending battle of will but the pyscological drama of all parties doesn?t stop once back home but only begins with the traumatic psychological battlefield stresses of all parties and for the rest of their lives, especially worse for the modern nations where living standards and human lives are more valuable socially. Who would of thought of modern warefare as todays cyber wars during the 1970?s Vietnam war?
However, this type of war can be done from a basement in New York to a specialist underground military bunker in Asia. We must then also take into consideration that even though we have prepared our Technokontrol Anti-EMPS Technology for a direct military, criminal or terrorist attack, we also must consider also natural disasters which may also occur at any time without any real firm precision even though scientific studies state that during 2014-2015 the sun solar activity will be at its highest in many years and we have already suffered in some parts of the world these effects as in Ottawa, Canada and in Australia where the solar radiation brought down many electronic base services.
The EMP1 component is a very brief but intense electromagnetic field that can quickly induce very high voltages in electrical conductors. The electrons generated by these subsequent collisions have such reduced energy that they do not contribute significantly to the EMP1 pulse. The strength of the EMP1 pulse depends upon the number and intensity of the gamma rays produced by the weapon and upon the rapidity of the gamma ray burst from the weapon. The reality and possible construction details of these weapons are classified, and therefore cannot be confirmed by scientists in the open scientific literature.
The most significant risk is synergistic, because the EMP2 component follows a small fraction of a second after the first component's insult, which has the ability to impair or destroy many protective and control features. The EMP3 component of the pulse is a very slow pulse, lasting tens to hundreds of seconds, that is caused by the nuclear detonation heaving the Earth's magnetic field out of the way, followed by the restoration of the magnetic field to its natural place. This EMPS bomb attacks systems can now already presently take out electronic systems of nuclear or electric power plants, banks, trains, or even a simple telephone switchboard.
One uses conventional explosives to induce the EMP; another uses a single-use, high-power microwave generation device. It destroys the electronics of all computer and communication systems in a quite large area. High Power Electro-magnetic Pulse generation techniques and High Power Microwave technology have matured to the point where practical electro-magnetic bombs are becoming technically feasible, with new applications in both Strategic and Tactical IW (Information Warfare). Under the right conditions, intense currents and electro-magnetic fields can be produced, generically called EMP (Electro-magnetic Pulse), that are felt at long distances. At the same time, the earth acts as a conductor allowing the electrons to flow back toward the burst point where the positive ions are concentrated.
About 3x10^-5 of the bomb's total energy goes into EMP in this case, 10^11 joules for a 1 Mt bomb. Enormous induced electric currents are generated in wires, antennas, and metal objects (like missiles, airplanes, and building frames). The initial magnetic field in the FCG prior to explosive initiation is produced by a start current.
In principle, any device capable of producing a pulse of electrical current of the order of tens of kilo Amperes to Mega Amperes will be suitable. In an explosive or propellant driven MHD device, the conductor is a plasma of ionized explosive or propellant gas, which travels through the magnetic field. Many electrons will pass through the anode, forming a bubble of space charge behind the anode.
Whilst weapons built this way are inherently wide band, as most of the power produced lies in the frequency band below 1 MHz compact antennas are not an option. Firstly, the glide-bomb can be released from outside effective radius of target air defences, therefore minimizing the risk to the launch aircraft. Mobile and relocatable air defence equipment, mobile communications nodes and naval vessels are all good examples of this category of target. To target such an emitter for attack requires only the ability to identify the type of emission and thus target type, and to isolate its position with sufficient accuracy to deliver the bomb. The use of stealthy reconnaissance aircraft or long range, stealthy Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) may be required.
This however may not always be possible, and therefore systems which can be expected to suffer exposure to the electro-magnetic weapons effects must be electro-magnetically hardened.

However, most such equipment must communicate with and be fed with power from the outside world, and this can provide entry points via which electrical transients may enter the enclosure and effect damage.
A range of devices exist, however care must be taken in determining their parameters to ensure that they can deal with the rise time and strength of electrical transients produced by electro-magnetic devices. This factor must also be considered when assessing the hardness of equipment against electro-magnetic attack, as partial or incomplete hardening may in this fashion cause more difficulties than it would solve. Such computations are made tractable by viewing the device as a system consisting of a pulsed power source, microwave source, and an antenna. As such their use offers a very high payoff in attacking the fundamental information processing and communication facilities of a target system.
This allowed a direct evaluation of the effectiveness of Earth's magnetic field in protecting our atmosphere. This allowed a direct evaluation of the effectiveness of Earth’s magnetic field in protecting our atmosphere.
This allowed a direct evaluation of the effectiveness of Earth’s magnetic field in protecting our atmosphere. This will only increase the spectrum of terror or piracy armament portfolio against normal stable nations, governments or corporations for whatever reason, from economical blackmail to political power control, simple eco-politcial-terrorism or to pure international criminal activities. The EMP1 component causes most of its damage by causing electrical breakdown voltages to be exceeded. The magnitude of this pulse typically decays to half of its peak value within 200 nanoseconds. The strength of the EMP1 pulse is also somewhat dependent upon the altitude of the detonation. The EMP2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the electromagnetic pulses produced by lightning, although the electromagnetic pulse induced by a nearby lightning strike may be considerably larger than the EMP2 component of a nuclear EMP.
The energy associated with the second component thus may be allowed to pass into and damage systems.
The EMP3 component has similarities to a geomagnetic storm caused by a very severe solar flare.[Like a geomagnetic storm, EMP3 can produce geo-magnetically induced currents in long electrical conductors, which can then damage components such as power line transformers. The EMP bomb can be smaller than a HERF gun to cause a similar amount of damage and is typically used to damage not a single target (not aiming in one direction) but to damage all equipment near the bomb. They are categorized as High Power Microwave Weapons (HPM) and Ultra Wide Band Weapon (UWB).
Living organisms are impervious to these effects, but electrical and electronic equipment can be temporarily or permanently disabled by them. This is because EMP is generated by the asymmetric absorption of instantaneous gamma rays produced by the explosion. The gamma rays emitted downward however are absorbed by the ground which prevents charge separation from occurring. EMP is formed in high altitude explosions when the downwardly directed gamma rays encounter denser layers of air below. Commercial electrical grids are immense EMP antennas and would be subjected to voltage surges far exceeding those created by lightning, and over vastly greater areas.
Fireball blackout can cause radar to be blocked for tens of seconds to minutes over an area tens of kilometers across.
The start current is supplied by an external source, such a high voltage capacitor bank (Marx bank), a smaller FCG or the MHD device.
Under the proper conditions, this space charge region will oscillate at microwave frequencies. Secondly, the large standoff range means that the aircraft can remain well clear of the bomb's effects. Buildings housing government offices and thus computer equipment, production facilities, military bases and known radar sites and communications nodes are all targets which can be readily identified through conventional photographic, satellite, imaging radar, electronic reconnaissance and humint operations. While radiating, their positions can be precisely tracked with suitable Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and Emitter Locating Systems (ELS) carried either by the launch platform or a remote surveillance platform.
The latter also raises the possibility of autonomous electro-magnetic warhead armed expendable UAVs, fitted with appropriate homing receivers.
While optical fibers address this requirement for transferring data in and out, electrical power feeds remain an on-going vulnerability. Reports from the US indicate that hardening measures attuned to the behaviour of nuclear EMP bombs do not perform well when dealing with some conventional microwave electro-magnetic device designs. Older equipment and systems may be impossible to harden properly and may require complete replacement.
Indeed, shielding which is incomplete may resonate when excited by radiation and thus contribute to damage inflicted upon the equipment contained within it. EMP1 is the component that can destroy computers and communications equipment and it changes too quickly for ordinary lightning protectors to provide effective protection against it. At intermediate altitudes the air absorbs these rays fairly uniformly and does not generate long range electro-magnetic disturbances.
Although only about 3x10^-10 of the total explosion energy is radiated as EMP in a ground burst (10^6 joules for 1 Mt bomb), it is concentrated in a very short pulse.
Modern VLSI chips are extremely sensitive to voltage surges, and would be burned out by even small leakage currents.
The electrical properties of the plasma are optimized by seeding the explosive or propellant with suitable additives, which ionize during the burn.
If the space charge region is placed into a resonant cavity which is appropriately tuned, very high peak powers may be achieved. Finally the bomb's autopilot may be programmed to shape the terminal trajectory of the weapon, such that a target may be engaged from the most suitable altitude and aspect.
These targets are typically geographically fixed and thus may be attacked providing that the aircraft can penetrate to weapon release range. UE has attracted most attention in the context of TEMPEST surveillance, where transient emanations leaking out from equipment due poor shielding can be detected and in many instances demodulated to recover useful intelligence. These would be programmed to loiter in a target area until a suitable emitter is detected, upon which the UAV would home in and expend itself against the target. The use of these protective systems with our own electromagnetic power supply as the TK-Omega RF5000 and TK-Orion RF5000 will also not to need to require external energy supply thus closing down all and any leaks thus allowing the base or bunker totally EMPS protected and anti EMPS attack proof.
Thus needing to use Technokontrols Anti-EMPS Protection Technology which as being simple and effective will not need to be applied to the internal electronics of any of the devices required for protection as the whole area, zone, section will be protected for all outside EMPS and thus needing to install an antenna to continue to operate with the outside world once the danger has been overcome or passed allowing normal operations to continue if desired. In simple terms, hardening by design is significantly easier than attempting to harden existing equipment.
This means that most of the electrons are stopped by collisions with air molecules before they can complete one full circle of its spiral around the Earth's magnetic field lines. The charge separation persists for only a few tens of microseconds, making the emission power some 100 gigawatts. The zone can extend all the way to the horizon, to 2500 km for an explosion at an altitude of 500 km.
Termed Van Eck radiation, such emissions can only be suppressed by rigorous shielding and emission control techniques, such as are employed in TEMPEST rated equipment. Thus using Technokontrol Anti-EMPS technology will avoid mass change-over investments and allowing all electronics to continue their normal operations reducing cost, time, burden and protecting classified data, locations or confidential interests to outside operators.
The field strengths for ground bursts are high only in the immediate vicinity of the explosion. For smaller bombs they aren't very important because they are strong only where the destruction is intense anyway. The Earth's magnetic field causes the electrons in this layer to spiral as they travel, creating a powerful downward directed electro-magnetic pulse lasting a few microseconds.

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