If you are outdoors, find a clear spot that's away from buildings, trees and power lines. In reinforced concrete construction, the combination of concrete and steel provides the three most important properties for earthquake resistance: stiffness, strength, and ductility.
Studies of earthquake damage consistently show well-anchored shear walls are the key to earthquake resistance in low-rise buildings. Optimal design conditions include shear walls that extend the entire height and located on all four sides of a building. Low-rise buildings most vulnerable to earthquakes do have the necessary stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist the forces of an earthquake or had walls that were not well anchored to a solid foundation, or both. Most of these buildings were 3 to 4 stories tall with a parking garage or a living area with many large windows on the ground level.
Wood-framed buildings are inherently ductile (flexible), which is an attribute during an earthquake. Masonry or concrete walls not reinforced with steel bars were not ductile enough to be effective shear walls.
Reinforced concrete walls are a composite system: Concrete resists compression forces, and reinforcing steel resists tensile forces produced by an earthquake. It’s no wonder that modern reinforced concrete buildings were found to survive these recent earthquakes with rarely any significant damage. From the lessons of Haiti earthquake last year and the magnitude 9 earthquake and the tsunami it triggered in Japan this year, we really should prepare ourselves for the sudden disasters. When earthquake happens, find a safe place close to you, like a strong table or an interior wall.
Intro: Having experienced the 1994 earthquake that rattled Northridge, California and its surrounding areas, I can attest to the need to prepare for an earthquake. If you have to go through an earthquake, though, the preparation you under go beforehand will help you to deal with the aftermath when it can take days or weeks for assistance to arrive.
Warnings: Even with all your preparation, things could be bad enough that you won't be able to get to your stash.


If a leak cannot be stopped by turning off an appliance valve, turn off gas at the main valve at the meter.
Long walls are stronger than short walls, and solid walls are better than ones with a lot of opening for windows and doors.
The columns may have been strong enough to hold up the structure, but did not provide an adequate amount of racking resistance during a seismic event. And if there is no steel connecting them to their foundation, the joint between walls and foundation can be a weak point. The exceptional ductility of the steel to resist tensile forces, coupled with the rock-like ability of concrete to resist compression, results in an excellent combination of the three most important earthquake resistance properties: stiffness, strength, and ductility. These elements are designed to survive severe sideways (in-plane) forces, called racking and shear, without being damaged or bent far out of position.
When the earthquake shook the building side-to-side, the upper stories sometimes tipped over to one side. Whether built of wood, steel, or concrete—they all suffered damage.
Frequently, the shear walls were strong enough, but the connection to the foundation was a weak point that gave way. A study at Construction Technology Laboratories revealed that even a lightly reinforced concrete shear wall has over six times the racking load resistance as framed wall construction. You and your family are left scrambling to find shelter and safety when the truth is you don't know where is a structure that won't break during the quake or for that matter, where there is a safe place.
If the water system is damaged and stores are closed or looted, you may not have access to any water. Toilet paper, tampons, sanitary napkins, diapers, deodorant, shampoo, soap, tooth paste and tooth brushes are all necessary items that you may find you miss after an earthquake. Shear walls also must be well anchored to the foundation structure to work effectively. Properly installed steel reinforcing bars extend across the joint between the walls and the foundation to provide secure anchorage to the foundation. Getting ready before an earthquake strikes will help reduce damage to your home and business and help you survive. So you should locate your safe place now, then whenever it happens you would know where to go.


You should prepare an Emergency Survival Kit so that you can cope with being on your own for up to three days or more. It should be somewhere close to you, no more than a few steps, or two meters away, to avoid injury from flying debris. Make sure you have a sling, splints, Hydrogen Peroxide, cotton balls, band-aids, gauze with pads, tape, Neosporin, a thermometer and disposable ice packs.
Besides, you should get a flashlight inside, because it can get you some light to check the situation if you're stuck in some corner of the building.
You just need to wait for the rescue, and they would find you and save your life for sure, just be patient and save your strength. When people are kept in dark for a long time, they would feel desperate and anxious, so a flashlight is necessary. You can take out the flashlight and check the situation around you, see if you are injured and if you could move. If you cannot hear anything, then you should not shout for help or strike something to make any noises. You have no idea what situation you would confront so a knife which can cut or chop may save you.
What you should do is to save your energy because it may need several days when they finally find you.
And when you hear some sounds like footsteps, that's when you should make some noise and ask for help. If you are too weak to shout for help, you could blow a whistle, or use a laser pointer to point at the sound direction. Laser pointers are much brighter than normal light, and it can be seen within a long distance.




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