Knowing how to prepare and best respond to an emergency situation is key for proper collections care. There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in.
The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy.
Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view. Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later. Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear.
Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo.
The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion. Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist. Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing.
Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles.
By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles.
What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past.
Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past! Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image.
His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627).
Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687. Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy.
To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom. Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes.
Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture. Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian. List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution.
Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin. Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual.
Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed. The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth. If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them?
If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives. There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws! The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes.
The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers.
If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists.
However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town.
In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays. Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government.
He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king.
Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman.
Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society. He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI. After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule. Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy. He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare.
Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler.
Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters.
Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history. As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland. Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being.
His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great. Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle. Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly.
The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices.
Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs.
Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture. In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society. He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years.
A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other.
By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity. The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe. Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free. However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed. Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke). Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church.
He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life.
And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract. The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry. Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776.
In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy. Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition.
Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers.
Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits.
Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit.
Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science.
Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe. Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself.
The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination.
Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own.
If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason. The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history. The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason?
There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France.
The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France. Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life.
Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community.
Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches. When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches. Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart.
Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c.
As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England. The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry.
Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes.
Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans. It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England. It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions. List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason.
Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason.
Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government. Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason. Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. Sacramento Station (SAC) is an Amtrak and Amtrak California train station which serves the city of Sacramento, California. The capital of California, situated on the Sacramento River, northeast of San Francisco; pop.
Flax is especially grown in herb and flower gardens as an ornamental, particularly in borders, since the plant grows only a couple of feet tall and is in bloom for a long period. Ferry-Morse has been serving up the best in seed and gardening supplies for over 100 years, and we-footre proud to still be innovating and improving. Working as an investigative photographer for the National Child Labor Committee, Lewis Hine (1874-1940) documented working and living conditions of children in the United States between 1908 and 1924. The use of wine tasting descriptors allow the taster an opportunity to put into words the aromas and flavors that they experience and can be used in assessing the overall quality of wine. Wedding ceremony participants, also referred to as the wedding party are the people that participate directly in the wedding ceremony itself. To celebrate the final concert tour of Barbra Streisand's unparalleled career, here is the complete version of her critically acclaimed "Timeless Concerts," which were the highlight of the Millennium celebration. Lydia works hard to make sure that each outfit is very well made and that you are getting a top quality custom outfit. Getting married, which literally means living and getting along with a boy, doesn't sound like a bad idea in the end.


For all I know, it was a Saturday mornin' photo shoot filled with laughter and intimate moments. Lilies is a British period-drama television series, written by Heidi Thomas, which ran for one eight-episode series in early 2007 on BBC One. A bulbous plant with large trumpet-shaped, typically fragrant, flowers on a tall, slender stem.
The lily is one of the most beautiful and popular flowers in the garden and despite having a reputation for being "temperamental", lilies can actually be very easy to grow. Featuring an Academy AwardA(r)-winning performance by Poitier*, and nominated** for four additional OscarsA(r), including Best Picture, Lilies of the Field is a funny, sentimental, charming and uplifting film (The Hollywood Reporter). Scrapbooking is a method for preserving personal and family history in the form of a scrapbook.
This is an easy-to-follow guideline that will lead you step-by-step to creating a beautiful and quite unusual pointed tsumami kanzashi flower, which special feature is a stripe of a different color fabric inserted into a petal of the flower. This is the first time I have seen this particular flower whcih is named "Centaurea John Coutts ", at least that's what the voice memo I recorded said it was! Again I took this shot on aperture priority with macro and decided not to apply any editing effects or enhancements. DAILY TOURS EPHESUS BY PLANE ,A Daytrip to Ephesus ,This is a daytrip to Ephesus from Istanbul by plane returning back on the same day.
History Of Ephesus,According to tradition, Efes (Ephesus), one of the most important cities of antiquity, was founded by Androclos, although it has been established that the Lelegians and Carians inhabited the place earlier. The Vedius Gymnasium was located to the north end of the city, right next to the Byzantine era city ramparts.
The cave of the Seven Sleepers is reached through the asphalt road which goes through the east of the Vedius Gymnasium.
The town of Selcuk is dominated by a Byzantine citadel overlooking the Basilica of St.John (presently under restoration). The Efes Archaeological Museum in Selcuk has been enlarged and diplays now the impressive works of art recovered from and around Efes. Neolithic age,The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BCE), as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici.Bronze age,Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill. Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BCE on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s).
The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. Archaic period,About 650 BCE, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians, who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis.
Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase, called the Decelean War, or the Ionian War, with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians. In 356 BCE the temple of Artemis was burned down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BCE, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. As the river Cayster silted up the harbor, the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the Syrian king Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BCE. When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he came in conflict with Rome. When Augustus became emperor in 27 BCE, he made Ephesus instead of Pergamum the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered western Asia Minor. The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (Diana), who had her chief shrine there, the Library of Celsus, and its theatre, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries. The importance of the city as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the river (today, KA?A§A?k Menderes) despite repeated dredging during the city's history. Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further. The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers.
Anatolia was associated with John one of the chief apostles, and the Gospel of John might have been written in Ephesus, c 90-100.
Two decades later, the church at Ephesus there was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD, that begins with, "Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians).
The house of the Virgin Mary, about 7 km (4 mi) from SelA§uk, is believed to have been the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus. The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius.
The Library of Celsus, the faA§ade of which has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces, was built ca.
The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column, revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s.
The Odeon was a small roofed theate constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife around 150 CE. The Temple of Hadrian dates from the 2nd century but underwent repairs in the 4th century and has been reerected from the surviving architectural fragments.
At an estimated 44,000 seating capacity, the Theater is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world. The history of archaeological research in Ephesus stretches back to 1863, when British architect John Turtle Wood, sponsored by the British Museum, began to search for the Artemision. Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. Felt Making Workshop in Istanbul,elt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library. Les Arts Turcs Photo Safari Tour,istanbul,turkey,estambul,photo safari tour,Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Let the experts and artists of Les Arts Turcs take you on a tour of this diverse city, specially tailored for the photographer or videographer. An Earthquake Survival Kit List According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, 45 U. Earthquake emergency supplies should be kept in an easily accessible photocopies of birth certificates, deeds, social. Water damage due to flooding and severe weather, fire, and earthquakes all pose potential risk to buildings and collections. No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them.
The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many. He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth. He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own. The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error!
There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong. He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body.
At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly?
Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity.
He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light. This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more. The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds.
He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end.
He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God.
Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war. The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method.
The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner.
The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil.
For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780. Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs.
If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture.
Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech.
There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven. He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule. What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty. The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church. Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe. As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic. They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities. Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it.
This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695).
Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy. If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress.
The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy.
Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development. When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them.
While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848. So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England.
Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith.
It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener.
He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family.
Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America.
He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans.
Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students. There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church.
And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet!
He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia.
They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes. It stands for desire, love, and the metaphysical striving for the infinite and unreachable.
A tea made from the stems and leaves was used to treat various medical problems such as eye infections, stomach disorders, and swellings. Hidden amongst this mass of green, (which I suspect was rape seed) were millions of these tiny little blue flowers.
Whether you-footre looking for the finest in flowers or gourmet garden vegetables, you will find all your answers here. These photos are useful for the study of labor, reform movements, children, working class families, education, public health, urban and rural housing conditions, industrial and agricultural sites, and other aspects of urban and rural life in America in the early twentieth century. Recorded at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas on December 31, 1999 and January 1, 2000, the program contains performances of over 40 songs that span Barbra's illustrious career.
This white flower girl basket is beautifully woven in a diamond pattern with quality smooth Satin accented with faux pearls at each intersection. This concise, illustrated handbook contains detailed information on the care of a variety of lilies. Homer Smith (Sidney Poitier), an itinerant handyman, is driving through the Arizona desert when he meets five impoverished nuns.
You will learn what origami is, its origins, whether origami is for you, what you can make using origami, the skills required to succeed with origami, together with materials required, basic origami folds, terms and techniques AND the significant educational and therapeutic benefits of origami.This book is for anyone interested in the art of origami. This bed in a bag set will add a touch of warmth and it will create a calm and relaxed atmosphere for your bedroom. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc.
After lunch you will visit The House of Virgin Mary, where it is believed she spent her last days.
The oval shaped stadium was built during the time of Emperor Neron and located to the south of the Vedius Gymnasium. In 1954 a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500-1400 BCE) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kadros. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbors as well as the movement of the Kayster River meant that the location never remained the same. But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BCE), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set about restoring the temple and even planned a larger and grander one than the original. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph.
The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two kilometers further on, when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers. After the murder of king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, pharaoh Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town to Hagios Theologos. They added important architectural works such as the A°sa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam). The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402, and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. From AD 52-54, Paul lived in Ephesus, working with the congregation and apparently organizing missionary activity into the hinterlands. Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (2:1a€“7), indicating that the church at Ephesus was still strong.
The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius, who was taken to Rome for execution. A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449, but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. John, was built in the 6th century CE, under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed a€“ some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul. The reliefs in the upper sections are casts, the originals being now exhibited in the SelA§uk Archaeological Museum.
The story of the Seven Sleepers, who are considered saints by Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Muslims, tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and that they slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries.
In 1869 he discovered the pavement of the temple, but since further expected discoveries were not made the excavations stopped in 1874. Explore Old Istanbul, from the ancient tradition of the Turkish bath to the mystic Whirling Dervishes, from the Egyptian Spice Market to the trade secrets of the Silk Road linking Europe with China. Calligraphy Lesson in Istanbul,Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. We will transfer to your hotel MINA Hotel ,3 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,Discover Istanbul with us. The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2,500 in A°zmir and other smaller groups located in the rest of Turkey. We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbula€™s scenic panoramas. Below is a list of organizations that provide valuable assistance and on-line resources for disaster planning and response.
The American Institute for Conservation (AIC), the national association of conservation professionals, offers emergency response assistance to cultural organizations. They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention.
He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun. His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.
Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it.
Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure. His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup.
The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth.
Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733).
In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God.
However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them.
In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children.
This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans!


The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery. As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others. The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed. His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts. Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth.
The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield.
They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians.
The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed. Take a minute and explore the product categories to the right for planning and inspiration, or visit the Gardeners Corner for over a century-foots worth of wisdom. On each side of the basket at the base of the handle, there are wide satin ribbons and thinner satin ribbons that has a center that is decorated with a floral design made of eight faux pearls. Stopping to fix their leaky farmhouse roof, Homer discovers that not only will the Mother Superior not pay him for the job, but she also wants him to build their chapelfor free!
As any other kanzashi, it can have multiple uses starting from the traditional hair embellishment and finishing with scrapbooking or purse decoration.This is an easy-to-follow guideline that will lead you step-by-step to creating a beautiful and quite unusual pointed tsumami kanzashi flower, which special feature is a stripe of a different color fabric inserted into a petal of the flower. Comforter sets are designed to keep you updated and fashionable in the most convenient and inexpensive way.
Then you will visit the world famous ancient Greco-Roman City of Ephesus, the most well preserved example in the world.
The Gate of Mazaeus and Mithridates has been restored and is the most beautiful entrance to the Agora. According to legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way"). Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus before the arrival of the Ionians. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire.
In 479 BCE, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to oust the Persians from Anatolia. When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front.
As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BCE). It became the seat of the governor, growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce. The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. In 406 John Chrysostom, archbishop of Constantinople, ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis.[20] Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade.
Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from whence the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions. He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans, whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23a€“41). It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendor, and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. Designed with an exaggerated entrance a€” so as to enhance its perceived size, speculate many historians a€” the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light.
A number of figures are depicted in the reliefs, including the emperor Theodosius I with his wife and eldest son. In 1895 German archaeologist Otto Benndorf, financed by a 10,000 guilder donation made by Austrian Karl Mautner Ritter von Markhof, resumed excavations. Each of these intimate half-day and full-day tours will immerse you in a unique aspect of Turkish history and culture.Get expert help choosing the best hotels for yor needs and budget for your stay in A°stanbul and Turkey, Fethiye, Antalya, Marmaris, Bodrum, A°zmir, Gaziantep, Canakkale, Cappadocia, Black Sea, Gallipoli, Ephesus, East Turkey. Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbu,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip.
Sephardic Jews make up approximately 96% of Turkey's Jewish population, while the rest are primarily Ashkenazic.
With your own private guide, you will know where to go, when to go, how to get there and exactly how to get the most out of your visit a€“ from behind the lens. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™).
He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit.
Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen. Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people. Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans. Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate.
His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. It produces beautiful silky 3-4 inch brilliant blue flowers that shade garden enthusiasts really love. The straightforward approach to essential techniques, together with advice on tackling pests and other problems and the directory of recommended species will ensure successful results.
Hesitant at first, Homer soon finds himself single-handedly raising the chapel and the financing. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. One of the most interesting buildings in Ephesus, the Serapis Temple, is located right to the west of the Agora. This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and 13th centuries BCE. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder.
The city prospered again, producing a number of important historical figures, such as the iambic poet Callinus and the satirist Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus.,About 560 BCE Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus. In 478 BCE, the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta into the Delian League against the Persians. But the inhabitants of Ephesus demurred, claiming that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BCE, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.
In 88 BCE Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered western Anatolia. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts. Crusaders passing through were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. After a period of unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1425. He wrote between 53 and 57 AD the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour, where he was imprisoned for a short time). The upper part of the theater was decorated with red granite pillars in the Corinthian style. In all those areas in Turkey you can find different variations of tour programmes from walking tour to Full package tours according to our all budget guests. 4 Days Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,There is no another city which has 2 contients in the world so are you ready to see this fabulous city ??, Vip Transfer & Rent A Car Service in Istanbul,Expertise in the automotive field, the innovative concept of quality-oriented car rental and chauffeur driven hire service as soon as possible.. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world?
Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles.
Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church. Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. Although they are known to thrive in the Pacific Northwest, they are worth a try anywhere that Rhododendrons grow, as the Himalayan Blue Poppy has very similar needs.
Ferry-Morse Seed Company offers gardener's over 350 varieties of flower, vegetable, and herb seed. Then those hands--and their owners, Barbra Streisand and 15-year-old look-alike and singing sensation Lauren Frost--ascend a flight of stairs that leads (sestively, at least) to destiny itself.
But although hewill not receive a monetary reward, Homer knows that when his work is done, he'll leave that dusty desert town a much better place than when he found it. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.
Set on the hillside above the street are the restored Terraced Houses, containing interesting, often well preserved frescoes from the 2nd century A.D. These were constructed near the quay in order to receive with hospitality dignitaries who arrived from the sea. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa), a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th-century BCE Hittite sources as in the land of Ahhiyawa.Dark age,Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of SelA§uk, near Ephesus. He was a successful warrior, and as king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. He treated the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protectress of Athens. After Alexander's death in 323 BCE, Ephesus in 290 BCE came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals, Lysimachus.
This led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia Minor, or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day. With our professional team you will spend a nice and well organised holiday, TURKEY TOURS,tour,tours in istanbul,istanbul in tour,turkey tours,tours in turkey,istanbul hotels,istanbul hotel,hotels of turkey,anzac day tours,Tours in Istanbul,Welcome to Istanbul - Our company is recommended in Lonely Planet guide book & trusted since 2000. Nurdogan, who kindly explained and showed me what he works on in his establishment "Les Arts Turcs". It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under SA?leyman I the Magnificent.
We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away! Paul gave sermons in the Grand Theatre, seating 25,000 - the most spectacular monument of Efes. The Church of the Holy Virgin Mary was constructed in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and it played an important role in the early expansion of Christianity; this church symbolized one of seven Churches of the Apocalypse.
Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
Sufism Speech with Dervish EROL,Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.
CCAHA also maintains a list of over 100 vendors and associations for whom to call to assist with your recovery needs. Tea made of about an ounce of seed to a pint of boiling water and taken with lemon juice and a little honey is often recommended for colds and coughs. The renowned actor is highly entertaining in his combative exchanges with Lilia Skala, playing a Mother Superior who survived Hitler and makes no bones about bullying the goodhearted, itinerant worker into doing more and more for her. The ruins remaining are of the city established by Lyssimachos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great in the 3rd century B.C. The Theatre beautifully restored and now serves as a setting for the artistic and folkloric shows of the international Efes Festival, held every year in spring. Officially sanctioned by the Vatican, it is now popular site of pilgrimage, visited by Christians and Muslims from all over the world. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League.[10] Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the second century. In later times, Pliny the Elder mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata, the daughter of a painter. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. The Order wrote of tolerance, forgiveness, and enlightenment.Istanbul Day Tours, Istanbul city tours, Sultanahmet Tours, Walkig Tours in istanbul, Art Tours in istanbul, walking tours in istanbul, group tours in istanbul, private tours in istanbul, hire a guide in istanbul, off the paths tour in istanbul, excursions in istanbul, ottoman tour, byzantine tour in istanbul, classical sightseeing tours in istanbul Swimming Tour in Istanbul,Kilyos is a small Black Sea village which is surrounded by green forests. Knowing who to call saves time and allows staff to respond as quickly as possible in an emergency. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
We are unable to offer a price adjustment on items originally purchased in a sale or on any special promotion items that are temporarily reduced in price. The film has an ambling, easygoing style with several memorable moments, not least of all is Poitier leading his holy hostesses through verses of the gospel song "Amen." Lilies is directed by the late Ralph Nelson, a pioneering director of live television who also made a number of popular feature films with notable performances (Jackie Gleason in Requiem for a Heavyweight, Cary Grant in Father Goose, Cliff Robertson in Charly) in the 1960s and 1970s. Our comforters come in many sizes, including king comforters, queen comforters, and even California King comforter sets. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and the poet Kallinos, and the historian Herodotos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monima, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. The village is just a forty five minutes drive from Istanbul.Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbul,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip.
However, even though temperamental, difficult and troublesome, this is a plant worth trying. Who else but Streisand could still pull off such an audacious moment of sentimental psychodrama, the way that only a true star could? Once an item has been purchased at a discounted sale price, no price adjustment will be offered should the item be further marked-down. We've included everything you need to make over your bedroom such as comforter, pillow shams, and bed skirts.
The Arcadian Way was the long main road, paved with marble and lined with columns on both sides, that stretched from the Grand Theatre to the old port, now totally silted.
Not only will you be rewarded by the fantastic flowers, but you will be the envy of every green-fingered friend in your neck of the woods.
Yet nestled within the autobiographical meringue of the legendary singer's Millennium's-End concert, performed at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas on December 31, 1999, that scene--and many other such self-referential moments reliving the sundry chapters of Streisand's life and career--is quite moving in its laid-bare honesty.
On this road was the Four Evangelists Monument - four columns upon which stood statues of the four evangelists. Once numbered amongst the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, it was constructed entirely of marble.
This new app makes the Wheel's invaluable guidance accessible to anyone who is in need of practical advice for saving collections in the first 48 hours after disaster strikes.
A fuller experience than listening to the double CD of the concert, this video record of a magical night (does anyone remember our collective Y2K anxieties that New Year's Eve?) provides the most bang for the buck when it comes to reliving all those special scenes: surprise guest appearances (Barry Gibb, Bryan Adams, Neil Diamond, and Streisand's son, Jason Gould), duets with Judy Garland and Frank Sinatra (via video footage, of course), an appearance by dance master Savion Glover as Brother Time, a humorous bit with Shirley MacLaine, and several collaborations with Frost. When the Seljuks and later Ottomans claimed the control of the city, it had already lost its commercial and political significance. The marvelous Hellenistic Fountain stood just across the Theater and next to the eastern end of the Arcadian Way. The marble road which was connecting the Temple of Artemis to the State Agora through the Magnesia Gate was considered to be the holy road of the city. Yoga Lesson in Istanbul,Yoga is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India.
If Timeless: Live from the MGM Grand was indeed, as Streisand claimed, the first step of a short farewell tour that ended in early 2000, it was the perfect way to exit the stage forever.
Today, a visit to Ephesus is one of the highlights of any visit to Turkey.Visits to the ruins of Efes usually begin in the eastern part of the city through the Magnesia Gate, around the important Upper Agora or also known as the State Agora. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came back under Roman rule in 86 BCE.
Jewish community have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor for more than 2,400 years.
Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor. At the end of the 15th century, a large number of Sephardic Jews fleeing persecution in Spain and Portugal settled in Asia Minor on the invitation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population. When agency records are believed to constitute a hazard to human safety or health, or to property, the agency records management officer may request authorization from the State Archives to destroy or dispose of such records immediately.
Local governments may be eligible for up to $20,000 in disaster recovery funding for damaged records. Contact the State Library at (518) 486-4864 or the State Archives at (518) 474-6926 or (518) 473-4254.The State Office of Emergency Management also provides assistance, including advisories and access to resources and recovery services. The website includes resources for homeowners, current events and news, recovery success stories, anda blog devoted to New Orleans. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later.
EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound.
Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.




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