Every magnetic field has two polarities, North and South for example, and one might think that whatever is happening with one pole would be happening (in the inverse?) to it’s opposite pole. Not only that, but it is interesting to note that both the north and south magnetic poles are favoring one side of the earth – the south pole is heavily favoring one side, and continues to move further away from true south. The south magnetic pole is actually 1,800 miles (2,900 km) away from the earth’s true south pole! When the earth is visualized with its magnetic poles more offset and favored towards one side of the planet than the other (which it has been for some time – although the south magnetic pole is moving even further to the favored side), coupled with the large variance in shift speed between the north and south, explanations may seem bizarre. Since we know that the earth’s magnetic field is generated from the spinning liquid molten iron Outer Core (encapsulating a solid iron Inner Core), is one part of the Outer core churning differently than the other?
Could the Outer Core, or part of it, be offset somehow, causing the magnetic pole axis to pass through one side of the planet more than the other?
If the Outer Core is ‘centered’ with the rest of the earth, and the molten iron composition is considered to be relatively consistent, do these observations indicate that the magnetic axis is actually bending or warping as it passes through the planet? These are all interesting things to think about (for some of us), and while being just a logical minded casual observer, there is no doubt that these earth changes are powerful ones – even if only occurring relative to the time frame of the planets life. Take a look at the following graph and see the extreme difference in North versus South Pole Shift speed since about 1930.
Observe the magnetic pole axis tilt, and the fairly precise indication to the part of the planet that is favored more-so by proximity to the magnetic axis. Could crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanoes be affected differently on this side of the planet than the other? The liquid part of the earth’s core is the outer core, the inner core is believed to consist of solid iron, nickel and traces of heavy elements. This is completely incorrect, the transition between these two structures is very complex, being a mixture of solid, liquid and in-between states which may be 10s or hundreds of miles thick.
Many texts approximate the earth’s magnetic field as a bar magnet located between the two geographic poles, but this is an over simplification with the true magnetic field being very hard to describe. It is true that at this time the predominant field direction in the northern hemisphere is north, but the strength of this field varies significantly from location to location.
Silly me but it appears that the distance moved in the last 50 year period was less then the distance moved in the first 50 year period on the map.
Has anyone considered that our whole solar system passing through the galactic center might be having a significant effect on our planets magnetic core? Drawing a straight line from the North Magnetic Pole to the South Magnetic Pole seems the obvious thing to do, but is incorrect. Ever since I heard of the north pole moving, I have figured that it would one day lead to the earth flipping over and the top of the planet would be shifted to the bottom and vice versa. Most commenters here assume that these magnetic pole movements are caused by factors internal to the earth. Survival blog topics for a life of preparedness and risk awareness; emergency and disaster or threats thereof. The cataclysmic pole shift hypothesis suggests that there have been geologically rapid shifts in the relative positions of the modern-day geographic locations of the poles and the axis of rotation of the Earth, creating calamities such as floods and tectonic events.
There is evidence of precession and changes in axial tilt, but this change is on much longer time-scales and does not involve relative motion of the spin axis with respect to the planet. A high-velocity asteroid or comet which hits Earth at such an angle that the lithosphere moves independent of the mantle. A high-velocity asteroid or comet which hits Earth at such an angle that the entire planet shifts axis.
An unusually magnetic celestial object which passes close enough to Earth to temporarily reorient the magnetic field, which then "drags" the lithosphere about a new axis of rotation. Perturbations of the topography of the core-mantle boundary, perhaps induced by differential core rotation and shift of its axial rotation vector, leading to CMB mass redistributions. Pole Shift Theory has attracted pseudoscientific authors offering a variety of evidence, including psychic readings. Edgar Cayce's readings were the first non-scientific publications of the twentieth century to bring the 'pole shift' concept into mass consciousness. In my opinion, reality is a consciousness hologram in which the term "pole shift" is a metaphor for a shift in consciousness at the end of the illusion of linear time. Earth's last magnetic reversal took place 786,000 years ago and happened very quickly, in less than 100 years -- roughly a human lifetime. The end of the world as we know it could come in any number of ways, depending on who you ask. Scientists understand that Earth's magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. Earth's magnetic pole is shifting south and apparently it's affecting planes at Tampa International Airport in Florida. Earth's north magnetic pole is racing toward Russia at almost 40 miles (64 kilometers) a year due to magnetic changes in the planet's core, new research says. Satellite view of the aurora on October 8, 2012 stretching across Canada’s Quebec and Ontario Provinces. The northern auroral oval is centered on the north geomagnetic pole currently located in northern Canada. Stretching across Canada, the aurora there would have created a brilliant overhead display. Auroras form in two large rings centered on Earth’s geomagnetic poles which are not lined up with the geographic north and south poles. Earth’s magnetic field, generated by its outer iron core, creates invisible lines of magnetic force that concentrate at the poles. The Dragon ship, NASA’s first privately-contracted cargo delivery flight, docks this morning at the ISS. Thank you, it has nothing to do with the topic but the speed of light, if light travels 186k per second and we see galaxies that are for example 3000 light years away, wouldn’t that mean that what we are looking at is how it was 3000 years ago and not like it is today? Not really, Orion, Gemini and Taurus coming up in the west, Cassiopia in the North, Leo and virgo kind of in the upper south.
I like it because it’s a straightforward, easy-to-understand illustration of the oval.
I thought it was obvious that it was an illustration, and I never described it as a photo or implied that it was. That would be CCD photometry with a photometer.caralexCommented On Apr 12, 2016Measuring instruments have been refined, I guess! EARTH could be on the brink of a magnetic flip - causing what we know as north and south to turn upside down and switch, according to scientists.
The Earth's magnetic field could flip, warn scientists[GETTY]Our planet's magnetic poles have flipped before - with the last time being 780,000 years ago, say geophysicists. DESCRIPTION: The culmination of indigenous Chinese cartography is found in the contributions of Chu Ssu-Pen and his successors who, beginning in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1260 -1368), established a mapping tradition that provided the basis of Chinaa€™s cartographic knowledge which was not seriously challenged until the early 19th century. It should be mentioned that, at least by the time of Chu Ssu-Pen, the Chinese cartographers knew the principles of geometry and possessed instruments that would greatly facilitate their mapping activities. It may also be of some interest to note that Chu Ssu-Pen was himself a Taoist, and studied under famous Taoists such as Chang Jen-Ching and Wu Chhlian-Chieh.
Regarding the foreign countries of the barbarians southeast of the South Sea, and northwest of Mongolia, there is no means of investigating them because of their great distance, although they are continually sending tribute to the court. Chu Ssu-Pena€™s map was prepared by the method of indicating the distances by a network of squares, and thus the actual geographic picture was faithful.
Apart from the General Map of China (#227), there were sixteen sheets of the various provinces, sixteen of the border regions, three of the Yellow River, three of the Grand Canal, two of sea routes, and four sheets devoted to Korea, Annam, Mongolia and Central Asia. Two pages or sheets from the Kuang YA? Ta€™u form the general map of China on a grid scale of 400 li to the division or square. As can be seen in the illustrations presented here, the 16th century printed edition of Chua€™s map employs quite modern symbolism to indicate physical features and sizes of settlements. In addition to those referenced by Chu Ssu-Pen, Lo Hung-hsien naturally drew upon many other Yuan and Ming sources in his revision, including the schematic grid-map Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u [Map of the Countries of the Northwest], in the Yuan Ching Shih Ta Tien [History of Institutions of the Yuan Dynasty], 1329.

In spite of Chu Ssu-Pena€™s caution about far-distant regions, it is remarkable that, as Walter Fuchs has pointed out, Chu and his contemporaries had already recognized the triangular shape of Africa. On the upper right-hand corner of this map, one sees the southern portion of Asia, gridded by vertical and horizontal lines and bulging out toward Sumatra, the largest island on the map, with Java next on the right. In the absence of longitudinal and latitudinal estimations, distance between places is represented in two ways.
However, for distances over the ocean, the above methods are impractical in making approximations. A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River.
The four Khanates of the Mongol Empire (top); a geographical map from The Encyclopedia of Yuan Dynasty Institutions [Yuan Jingshi dadian], ca. The a€?Geographic Map of the Land of China to the Easta€?, from Zhipana€™s General Records of the Founders of Buddhism, ca. A A A  A map based on the work of two other Chinese cartographers which appeared in Korea (Cha€™uan Chin and Li Hui) in 1402 even adds a stream emerging on the continenta€™s southwest coast in the approximate position of the Orange River.
The location is certainly right on top of the pacific ring of fire, and very near the general vicinity of Indonesia (most active volcanoes in the world), and located in the part of the world that gets the majority of earthquakes. An assumption that many people make, is that the transition between the inner and outer core is smooth like the transition between the layers of an onion. This, and the Coriolis effect gives rise to very complex eddy currents within the liquid outer core which in turn create a very complex magnetic field which is constantly changing. If you investigate the magnetic field you will find that there are areas of north polarity (and always have been) in the southern hemisphere and likewise areas of south polarity in the northern hemisphere. Without disrespect, but what this reader is trying to tell me is ridiculous, and belongs to mainstream voodoo-pseudo-science. It was only discovered because of ships logs recording their passages,including magnetic variation at differing latitudes,the anomalie now extends to Brazil.
Many thanks!, also I have a question, does anyone know what happens to an energy field if the North and South Poles are forced together? Now that I hear that the south pole is moving slower than the north, I am interested in knowing how close to each other would they have to be to cause this, if that is what will actually happen. However, in what is known as true polar wander, the solid Earth can rotate with respect to a fixed spin axis. Eventually, the sun's magnetic field again determines the Earth's, after the intruding celestial object "returns" to a location from which it cannot influence Earth.
Other authors have published books with similar theories, but their predictions, like Cayce's, did not happen.
The rapid flip, much faster than the thousands of years most geologists thought, comes as new measurements show the planet's magnetic field is weakening 10 times faster than normal and could drop to zero in a few thousand years. In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to 'south.' This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth's poles.
In fact, one study suggests the planet's mantle, which surrounds the core, also plays a role.
The Earth-observing research satellite called Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP)  snapped this view of the aurora borealis from 512 miles up early on the morning of October 8, 2012. Could it be that those galaxies do not exist anymore and are only a reflection of maybe our own galaxy in the past? We do see them as they were years ago, however since most stars and especially galaxies have lifetimes measured in billions of years, a distance or 3,000 light years (or even 3 million light years) is a drop in the bucket in terms of their lifetimes.
It passes right next to Regulus, the brightest star in Leo, then glides down and east a short distance above Spica, Virgo’s brightest star.
But now it looks as though our magnetic field is set to switch again and according to new research, it could happen sooner than first thought.Scientists have warned this could affect power grids and communication devices across the world. The Mongol conquests, besides promoting the unification of Asia and extending its sphere of influence as far as the boundaries of Europe, also combined growing commercial and intellectual contacts with Persians and Arabs to bring to China a wave of fresh information about the countries beyond its borders. The instruments included the gnomon, and a device similar to the groma of the Romans, with plumb lines attached.
Chu says in his preface that among other sources he consulted the YA? Chi Ta€™u [Map of the Tracks of YA?] of 1137 A.D. Those who speak of them are unable to say anything definite, while those who say something definite cannot be trusted; hence I am compelled to omit them here.
For about two centuries this great map remained only in manuscript or epigraphic form (rare copies in manuscript and the Kuang YA? Ta€™u inscribed on stone in a Taoist temple lasted until the 19th century). The scale used was usually 100 li to the division (square), but sometimes other scales such as 40, 200, 400 or 500 li were employed (3 li = 1 mile). The large black band running from the northeast to the southwest, just above the Hwang Ho and Great Wall, represents the Gobi Desert This famous and influential map of China contains most of the previously mentioned symbols that Lo Hung-hsien used for physical and cultural features. Thus, as explained on the table shown on the right of this page, cities of the first order are indicated by a white square, those of the second rank by a white lozenge, and those of the third by a white circle; post-stages are represented by a white triangle and forts by a black square, etc. Beginning with the one printed in Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1609 (#404, Book IV), and further editions of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u continued to be published until 1799. Among the map sheets of Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas, one is entitled The Countries in the Southwestern Sea that covers a considerable portion of the Indian Ocean and a large part of Africa. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™ Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted.
Both maps place the southern part of Africa immediately opposite the Indonesian islands, with a string of smaller islands in between, and the tip of India tucked far away to the north. Chu Ssu-Pen admitted in his brief annotation under the caption of his map that a€?currents in the outer seas are difficult to predict and so is the estimation of distance.a€™A  Also, it is curious to note the absence of the grid-system on the portion of Africa that is depicted.
Presently it’s only moving 3 miles (5 km) per year, only a tenth the speed of the north! If you approximate the earth’s magnetism by a dipole, the ends are at the North and South Geomagnetic Poles.
Regarding the rest of your statement, no doubt that there are those capitalizing on this just for the sake of making money. Research shows that during the last 200 million years a total true polar wander of some 30? has occurred, but that no super-rapid shifts in the Earth's pole were found during this period. When north goes south, they say, the continents will lurch in one direction or the other, triggering massive earthquakes, rapid climate change and species extinctions. The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today's magnetic field were reversed. But researchers can infer the field's movements by tracking how Earth's magnetic field has been changing at the surface and in space. The loopy curls you see in the photo are a small fraction of a much larger ring-shaped structure called the auroral oval. When we see auroras in the northern hemisphere, they’re also active to the same degree in the southern hemisphere.
There they excite molecules of oxygen and nitrogen to glow green, pink, purple and red as aurora.
For times for other cities, please go to Spaceweather satellite flybys site or log in to Heavens Above. Essentially they appear the same now as they are if you could see them up close in real time. Right now the planet is too near the sun to see but will pop back out in the morning sky late next month. It is posted in many places as if it was taken from ISS, but it is too far from the earth to be the ISS. The Chinese also used sighting tubes and something akin to the European cross-staff for estimating height, as well as poles for leveling and chains and rope for ground measurement. In 1541 the YA? Ta€™u was enlarged, dissected and revised by the Ming scholar, Lo Hung-hsien (1504-1564) and published in the form of a printed atlas in about 1555, under the title Kuang YA? Ta€™u [Enlarged Terrestrial Atlas]. His map was seven feet long and therefore inconvenient to unroll; I have therefore now arranged it in book form on the basis of its network of squares.

The treatment of the ocean with its a€?angry linesa€™, a common representation in Chinese cartography, perhaps suggests perceptions of the sea as a hostile environment.
The use of colors to indicate areas and frontiers are known to have been employed in a military map as early as 1084 A.D. The atlas of Lo Hung-hsien also provided the foundation for the Novus Atlas Sinensis of Martin Martini published in 1655, the first European atlas of China. In the case of this map, the grid system is imposed only upon the Asian continent, each division or square representing 400 li, or the equivalent of about 133 miles. Possibly this follows from the philosophy expressed by Chu that it is better not to relay any information unless it can be reliably confirmed. On the west side of the continent is San-pa nu (the source of the Zanzibar slaves) and on other copies this is Sang-ku-pa this means Zanguebar (wrongly put on the west coast).
This could suggest that whoever supplied the data on Southern Africa did not get there from the Persian Gulf, by the established Muslim sailing route. Furthermore, in the interior of the continent, two rivers are shown flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north but terminated by the margin of the map. The empty portions in the lower left and at the bottom of the map naturally suggest areas totally unknown. This site however, we anchor ourselves in more realistic probabilities while at the same time occasionally touching on the more remote risks that are out there. The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history; they happen when patches of iron atoms in Earth's liquid outer core become reverse-aligned, like tiny magnets oriented in the opposite direction from those around them.
Many doomsday theorists have tried to take this natural geological occurrence and suggest it could lead to Earth's destruction. Since runway designations and other charting rely on such geomagnetic information, as the poles slide one way or another, adjustments have to be made. Now, newly analyzed data suggest that there's a region of rapidly changing magnetism on the core's surface, possibly being created by a mysterious "plume" of magnetism arising from deeper in the core. New Zealanders see their version of the northern lights called the aurora australis or southern lights.
Particles from the sun (or near Earth) follow the field lines into the upper atmosphere to create the auroral ovals. On October 28, astronauts will detach it and direct it earthward for a splashdown 6 hours later in the Pacific Ocean.
Comes up from the southwest and rises all the way up to the zenith before fading away in Earth’s shadow. I also am interested in astronomy but cannot see but a few stars where I live due to all the damn lights. It may represent where the auroras can appear, but I don’t think any scientist believes that they form a complete circle. Chu synthesized and collated the work of his predecessors with new knowledge acquired through both personal travel and the increased contact with the West to produce, between 1311 and 1320, a large roll-map of China and the surrounding regions.
The odometer or carriage-measuring instrument, by which distance is ascertained by the revolutions of the wheels, is referred to in China at least as early as in Europe. The reliability of the information on which his map was based was of the greatest concern to Chu, whose attitude was quite modern in this respect. This may be further evidenced by the rather generalized nature of the coastlines as compared to the detail of the interior possibly reflecting greater familiarity and concern for the land. The influence of this work can also be seen on Father Matteo Riccia€™s world map of 1602 (Ricci arrived in China a mere thirty years after the printing of the Kuang YA? Ta€™u) and the maps of China drawn by Michael Boym in the middle of the 17th century. The locations of major cities and states can best be ascertained in terms of their positions relative to major rivers and, to a lesser degree, mountains as well as coastlines.
In the interior of Africa he shows two rivers flowing north, one emptying into a large body of water and the other leading further north, terminating at the margin of the map. Beneath this is written Zhebuluma or Che-pu-lu-ma (in the beginning of which we recognize from Arabic Djebel, mountain). But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar. The name of the latter river was rendered as Ha-na-i-ssu-chin, which is a possible corruption of the Arabic words Al-Nil-Azrak, meaning the Blue Nile.
But crossed from Sumatra and followed the chain of southerly islands, Maldives, Chagos and Mascarene, which stretch across the western Indian ocean at conveniently short intervals all the way to Madagascar.A  There is really a good chance that this information came from Malay sailors going to their settlements in Madagascar and Africa. Between approximately 790 and 810 million years ago, when the supercontinent Rodinia existed, two geologically rapid phases of true polar wander may have occurred. When the reversed patches grow to the point that they dominate the rest of the core, Earth's overall magnetic field flips. And every so often, the field all-together flips on its head, turning the magnetic North Pole into the South Pole and vice versa. And it's this region that could be pulling the magnetic pole away from its long-time location in northern Canada, said Arnaud Chulliat, a geophysicist at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris in France. Since viewing opportunities are good through the end of the month, some of us will be able to watch its departure. And before I forget, that shiny object photographed by Curiosity on Mars earlier this week appears to be a piece of plastic that somehow got loose from the rover. Indeed Western knowledge of the geography of China, as expressed by or through the Jesuits, was derived exclusively from this atlas until the Jesuits themselves undertook their great survey of China for the emperor Cha€™ien-lung between 1756 and 1759. In the middle of the map is written twice Sang-ku or Sanggu [from Arab Zangue or black people].
The island off the east coast is called San-pa Nu, apparently designating the source of the Zanzibar Slaves. The last reversal happened 780,000 years ago during the Stone Age, and indeed there's evidence to suggest the planet may be in the early stages of a pole reversal right now.
They rotate at different rates, and the interaction between the regions creates what scientists call a "hydromagnetic dynamo." It's something like an electric motor, and it generates a magnetic field akin to a giant bar magnet.
It last happened 780,000 years ago, and is predicted to occur again in about 1,500 years, but that's a big "maybe." The overall frequency is hard to predict - there was one period in Earth's history when the field didn't reverse for 30 million years. Although Pa€™ei Hsiua€™s work has long since been lost, the established tradition is, again, reflected in the previously mentioned source of Lo Hung-hsien, the Hsi-Pei Pi Ti-Li Ta€™u grid map and is further evidenced in the YA? Chi Ta€™u also previously mentioned as a source used by Chu, which employed the same unit scale as Pa€™ei Hsiu, 100 li (#218.1).
Also on the east coast is an island called Ti-pa-nu [Island slaves, Ti-pa from diva and nu meaning slaves) and Shih-a-la ta€™u-li-cha€™ih meaning Siela-diba being Ceylon.
On the upper left corner of the map, the coastline turns sharply westward, suggesting the orientation of what appears to be the Guinea coast.
Between the west coast and the inland water body, one sees an area named Sang-ku, a Chinese transliteration of the Arabic term Zangue, or the Black People, hence the Congo. These, then, are the principles underlying Lo Hung-hsiena€™s atlas and, indeed, those of others such as Cha€™uan China€™s early 15th century map of the world (#236) that conceivably could have been seen by Lo Hung-hsien, especially with regards to its portrayal of Africa. Studies have suggested anywhere from 1,000 to 28,000 years are required to initiate and complete a reversal. Below the inland water area and to the southwest of the river discharging into the lake is a name pronounced as Che-pu-lu-ma. The first three syllables combined are recognizable as a corruption of the Arabic word djebel, meaning a€?mountainsa€?. An obvious conjecture is that it is an elevated area that the Arabs called the Ma Mountains, corresponding closely to the titled plateau of the Drakensberg, and evidenced by a later map produced in 1402 by the Ming cartographer named Cha€™A?an Chin (#236). Just like the intellectuals of the 19th century gave birth to the industrial and technical evolution.

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