By extending pressure pipeline in to the upstream reservoir, hydro power will boost in a hydro electric power plant.This new hydro power generation technology provides an extension of enclosed pipe in to the head waters from the combination of intake structure, penstock and turbine generator. To facilitate the pressure pipeline inside the reservoir, a channel or trench is excavated to extend the pressure pipe line in horizontal direction, if the reservoir bed is steep and intake level is dropped near the dam. Many dam based hydro power generators were built without providing sufficient length in penstock, between intake and turbine. Most current hydroelectric projects require a large hydraulic head to drive power turbines.
Required hydraulic head usually created by constructing a dam in a river bed, creating a reservoir. Another distinct advantage of this method is that we can find so many new locations for hydro power generation that cannot be utilized by the presently known hydro power generation techniques.
An experiment was carried out at our laboratories to investigate the flow through two pipes of same diameter fitted at the same height from water level inside of a water tank as shown. This method can be diversified further to minimize the extending distance from hydropower dam, by giving a spiral shape to the pressure pipe as shown below. Water entering at intake is having zero velocity and it has to accelerate to gain certain velocity when it reaches turbine blades.
Let us consider the flow of fluid through a pipe having inlet and outlet sectional area are A1, and A2 consecutively. According to present invention, an enclosed penstock (pressure pipe line) is constructed up to the power house, form a suitable distance to generate hydraulic pressure. Thus, the new technology can be employed to utilize hydro power from rivers having consistency of flow.
An application of Pressure pipe optimization technique is illustrated in the run-off river type of hydroelectric power plants is shown below. Shown above is a longitudinal section and cross section of a river with a consistency of flow where the gradient, conventional hydro power generation methods cannot adopt due the little pressure difference at higher location and the lower location point of the river flow. It requires less space with smaller powerhouse and free discharge without flow interruption due to power house construction. Preferably the generator and turbine are housed inside separate chambers while the elongated turbine shaft drives the generator in the power house. The designer suggests that maximum of half the river flow to use at any instance.The turbine can be a pit turbine which is a variation of the bulb turbine well suitable for hydropower plants with water head ranging from 2 m to 10 m and unit capacity in the range of 15MW to 30 MW. They are suitable for exploitation of tidal power and hydraulic power with low heads such as 2Meters and large flow rates, therefore suitable for generating tidal power as well. Besides, sending river flow through pressure pipes can prevent flooding in low laying regions. Pressure pipe optimization technique doubles the hydro power generating capability of the nation.

This technology differs from existing hydro power generation techniques for having a closed conduit (an extension of pipe line) projected in to the water source (head waters) from intake to improve the stream of water flow. For remote or costly locations concerning electric power lines, SEMI has developed a low-energy input system through renewable energies such as solar PV and wind power, storing energy in batteries with enough range to cover non-generating periods. For the sizing of stations in each project, the client defines the power and consumption times of radio equipment, beacons, ventilation, luminaires, etc., as well as the duration required in order to determine the power output of the batteries to be installed. The graphs and charts below feature statistics on Delaware electricity generation and consumption. For Delaware, looking at past consumption trends is one good indicator for projecting growth rates into the future. Source: Energy consumption by state is taken from the DOE Energy Information Administration State Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates (SEDS database).
The portion of electricity consumed in the major energy consuming sectors can provide energy analysts an indication about where the greatest potential for savings lies.
The fuel mix used by electric power companies to generate electricity points to the relative carbon intensity in the state electric power sector. The fuel mix used by electric power companies to generate electricity points to the relative carbon intensity in the state electric power sector. Idea of providing an extended pipe length is to stream line the flow, that is usually coming without speed. This way existing hydro power generators having short penstock lengths can be improved by providing additional pipe length inwards to the reservoir from intake.
Even these hydro power stations can be modified to boost power with the improvement described here. A hydraulic control tower is constructed towards the opposite end of the reservoir and a pressure pipe line (penstock) is drawn to the power house at the other end.
It is found the longer pipe line inside the water tank generates a higher speed resulting more powerful flow.
If the intake pipe is extended sufficiently the streamline flow can accelerate the flow speed inside the pipe line. The sum of dynamic pressure and kinetic pressure will be same at section A-A and section B-B of the streamline flow inside enclosed pipe. This hydro power development based on the fact that the flow through closed conduit (pipe) will be greater than flow through an open channel. This technology is inexpensive compared to hydro power projects built with massive hydraulic retaining structures.
This construction method based on the fact that water flow though a pipe line will be greater than the free flow of water in a river.
The water surface pressure at point A and point E are same and equal to atmospheric pressure.

The water flow passes in a radial and axial direction through turbine blades to generate power.
Therefore, no impact on aquatic life and water quality: No water impoundment and no flow changes are done.
An existing power generator can be easily modified to optimize its power using this method. Flow in this pressure pipe develops due to gravitational acceleration on a horizontally flowing water column also, when it is an enclosed stream of flow. Accordingly we can device a hydro power booster pipe connected at sluice gate end without extending the pipe to a distant location. Water flowing though a closed conduit (pipe) is a lamina flow in a river is a turbulent flow.
Sites for this purpose are available in many countries to double the power generating capability of the nation. Runner blades are made adjustable to provide the flexibility to adapt changing head and demand of different power output. So that, no embankment erosion and loss of land space for storage tanks and reservoirs consuming land space. Most low head, low flow hydro power sources are not exploited since standard hydro power generation techniques cannot be employed in such conditions.
Therefore in this energy system design the speed of flow will increase when it reaches the turbine blades, generating an additional kinetic energy. Therefore this is an affordable and green alternative for small scale waterway sites as well as rivers having large flow without sufficient water head.
Thus water of rivers also can be utilize to generate electricity where there is no facility for storing the water. Also this pressure pipe line optimization technique can be used in existing dams, weirs, waterways and irrigation canals. Bringing a part of river flow through the pipeline laid along the river bed would not do any harm to biological inhabitant, chemical characteristics or physical layout of the environment. But the pressure pipe (closed conduit) laid on river bed from point A to point D having reduced in pipe cross section and pressure accumulate at point D that can be applied to generation hydro electric power. And they predict electricity consumption will grow over this same period at a rate of 0.8% per year. That means electric power consumption, and the accompanying infrastructure to produce and deliver electricity, will be about 43% greater in 2030 than it is today.

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