A windmill is an engine powered by the energy of wind to mill grain, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. Common applications of windmills are grain milling, water pumping, threshing, and saw mills.
The first true windmill, a machine with vanes attached to an axis to produce circular motion, may have been built as early as 2000 B.C. The windmill was introduced into England in the 12th century - probably by Crusaders returning from the wars in the Holy Land. The 14th and 15th centuries provide evidence of what the early mills looked like, with illustrations occuring in diverse media such as memorial brasses, stained glass, and wood carvings, as well as the expected manuscript records. The pinnacles of windmill design include those built by the Dutch (who used windmills extensively to pump water as well grind flour) and the British, who developed many advanced "automatic control" mechanisms over the centuries. As steam power developed, the uncertain power of the wind became less and less economic, and we are left today with a tiny fraction of the elegant structures that once extracted power from the wind. However the promise of power from the wind lives on, both in the form of wind turbines producing electricity, and in the form of small scale windpumps (often largely low-tech "appropriate technology" installations) still used extensively in world agriculture.
Millers who used common sails had to stop the mill working if the strength of the wind altered, so that the canvas could be adjusted. This idea made it easier to change a sail's wind resistance but the mill had to be stopped to alter each sail.
The development of the water-pumping windmill in the USA was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. A tower-top gearbox and crankshaft converted the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried downward through a pole or rod to the pump cylinder below.In areas not prone to freezing weather, a pump jack (or standard) was frequently mounted at the top of the well in the center of the base off the tower. The pump jack provided a means for manual operation of the pump when the wind was not blowing. The drop pipe and pump rod continued down deep into the well, terminating at the pump cylinder below the lowest likely groundwater level.
Windmills and related equipment are still manufactured and installed today on farms and ranches, usually in remote parts of the western United States where electric power is not readily available. The arrival of electricity in rural areas, brought by the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) in the 1930s through 1950s, contributed to the decline in the use of windmills in the US. Windmills that would float hundreds of miles out at sea could one day help satisfy our energy needs without being eyesores from land, scientists said today. Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed (or to completely turn that feature off). Posted on 19 March 2011 by James WightMy recent post about long-term CO2 targets was rather doom-and-gloom: I concluded that we must phase out fossil fuels to keep the climate in the range that humans have experienced. Last year, the University of Melbourne Energy Research Institute in conjunction with Beyond Zero Emissions produced the Zero Carbon Australia 2020 Stationary Energy Plan. The report that has been released only covers emissions from Stationary Energy (though it does refer to electrifying transport). A common approach is to define a quota of allowable future global emissions to limit warming to less than 2°C above preindustrial levels, and divide them up by nation per capita. That’s why Zero Carbon Australia 2020 is not a low emissions plan but a zero emissions plan.
The Plan chose only technologies that can meet demand, can be implemented within ten years, are already commercially available, and (obviously) are zero-carbon, not counting emissions from construction. The Sun doesn’t shine at night, but this is not a problem for a solar thermal plant because it has a store of energy ready to go at any time. As the cheapest form of renewable energy, wind can provide a generous portion of our electricity. Finally, the Plan includes more than enough backup biomass capacity to fill the gaps created by worst-case weather. The Plan proposes 12 CST sites, each with 13 major power towers, each power tower with 18,000 heliostats.
The proposed locations are near Bourke, Broken Hill, Carnarvon, Charleville, Dubbo, Kalgoorlie, Longreach, Mildura, Moree, Port Augusta, Prairie, and Roma. To provide enough reliable wind power for a 40% target, we need a total capacity of 50 GW, 25 times what it is now. To put all this in perspective, some other nations are investing in renewables on a large scale. Wind would be scaled up faster because it is cheaper and there are already a number of installations in the pipeline.
The Plan involves building 23,000 km of high voltage transmission – both to connect the new power stations to the grid, and to connect the multiple existing grids to each other (so supply does not depend on the weather in one place).
At peak construction, the Plan requires 600,000 heliostats and 1,000 wind turbines per year. The plan would also create 80,000 new construction-related jobs, and 45,000 ongoing jobs in operation and maintenance, replacing an equivalent 20,000 in fossil fuels. The concrete needed is a tiny fraction of Australia’s resources, and the steel a tiny fraction of our exports. About half of the money, $175 billion, would be spent on solar thermal plants, as well as $92 billion to upgrade the grid, $72 billion on wind turbines, $17 billion on off-grid solar, and $14 billion on biomass.
The investment pays itself back by 2040 or as soon as 2022, depending on which costs you count.
All the above completely ignores climate and environmental costs, which obviously would heavily favor ZCA2020. So far Australia has not shown leadership on clean energy, preferring to see itself as a mining nation. 1) Do you know if the ZCA analysis looked at Brayton cycle generation for the solar thermal (as the CSIRO is looking at in their prototype plant at Newcastle), rather than steam generation? 2) How would the generation output from the solar thermal be affected by a La Nina such as we're having now, with significantly higher cloud cover and cooler temperatures than 'average' for Australia? I know that point 2 can be partially solved by over-building capacity, but that comes at a significant cost, if you're looking at an extended period with, say, 20-30% less insolation.
The Plan does not call for zero emissions tomorrow but rather once the generation is built.
It is good to have you point out that many developed economies have lower carbon intensities than the USA and Australia.
I note with interest, Gilles, that you're again pushing fossil fuel industry propaganda down our throats. You need to get your head *out* of fossil fuel industry pamphlets, Gilles, & instead read the stuff being published in scientific & engineering journals. I just said that several countries had ALREADY achieved a zero or almost zero electricity production, and that their carbon emission weren't negligible at all, and I gave the figures. You think that just because things are done with fossil fuels now, that there is no way that they can be done *without* fossil fuels in the future. Well, the whole point of this article is to show that the opposite is true - there *are* ways of doing things without fossil fuels. Concentrating solar is the source discussed here, but literally any source of heat will work - including geothermal, biomass (the 'backup' ZCA option), or nuclear.
I downloaded demand data for Queensland from the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) website (demand data found here) for the month of December in 2009 and 2010. At the top end, that's a difference of 850MW of electricity generation - or more than the entire output of the Kogan Creek coal-fired power station. I have a couple problems with this ambitious plan that it will cost far more in the long run. Technology needs to be far cheaper to be viable or whoever puts this in place will be booted out of office when it collapse and cost even more to replace with something else. Considering how terrible that technology is that it needs a great deal of subsidizing for governments to buy them. I'm not familiar with the details of the project, but coal and nuclear powerstations have their own maintenance and depreciation costs too. Joe Lalonde - regarding your comment about salt corroding metal - I'd say that it's more like chloride salts corrode metal (chlorine ions do nasty stuff to steel). Why, I would even have to modify the complaint I see others making: not only is he "shoving FF propaganda down our throats", he is doing it so badly, it only inspires revulsion for his claims.
So it leaves me wondering if one of the reasons the plan works so well for Australia -- even eliminating a need for nuclear-- is that Australia gets more sun than even the American SouthWest.
As for the corrosive potential of salts, yes, Bern, it is less corrosive than chlorides, but at that temperature, it it still corrosive. I think asking "is it possible to decarbonise without relying on fossil fuels" is a good question that needs solid evidence. But it seems to me we're some way from understanding the full range of issues in energy transition.
There is even a relatively famous book on this sad phenomenon: "Where Have All the Leaders Gone?" by Lee Iacocca. MattJ #19 - the study addresses your CST overnight storage concern by noting that overnight demands are low. Rahul #23 - the plan is based on limiting warming to 2C, which is about 450 ppm, but only if every other major emitter follows suit.
Dana, I was thinking more in terms of alternative forms of concrete that do not release CO2 to the atmosphere as they set; or alternative transport solutions, such as solar powered derigibles instead of passenger ships, or modern automated sail for shipping. Well, Europe has ambitious plans for renewable energy, but I don't see any JFKs around there.
However, in addition to demand being substantially lower at night (about 40% lower, according to the figures I downloaded), you have to look at how that 7.5hrs of storage is achieved - it's a big insulated tank full of molten salt. Of course, that also requires an increase in the size of the collector to heat it up during the day, but it's not an intractable problem.

I think there's something we need to ask in relation to the title of this post-how are we defining "Zero Carbon"? While I appreciate the optimism and logic you display in your article, from what I can see going on politically in the U.S.
Air has mass, and when it is in motion it contains the energy of that motion (kinetic energy). A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. There are two basic designs of wind electric turbines: vertical-axis, or "egg-beater" style, and horizontal-axis (propeller-style) machines. The electricity generated by a utility-scale wind turbine is normally collected and fed into utility power lines, where it is mixed with electricity from other power plants and delivered to utility customers. Utility-scale wind turbines for land-based wind farms come in various sizes, with rotor diameters ranging from about 50 meters to about 90 meters, and with towers of roughly the same size. Offshore turbine designs now under development will have larger rotorsa€”at the moment, the largest has a 110-meter rotor diametera€”because it is easier to transport large rotor blades by ship than by land. The output of a wind turbine depends on the turbine's size and the wind's speed through the rotor. Example: A 10-kW wind turbine can generate about 10,000 kWh annually at a site with wind speeds averaging 12 miles per hour, or about enough to power a typical household. Example: A 250-kW turbine installed at the elementary school in Spirit Lake, Iowa, provides an average of 350,000 kWh of electricity per year, more than is necessary for the 53,000-square-foot school.
Wind speed is a crucial element in projecting turbine performance, and a site's wind speed is measured through wind resource assessment prior to a wind system's construction. The power available in the wind is proportional to the cube of its speed, which means that doubling the wind speed increases the available power by a factor of eight. Over the ages, windmills have evolved into more sophisticated and efficient wind-powered water pumps and electric power generators. The first known use of wind dates back 5,000 years to Egypt, where boats used sails to travel from shore to shore. These early Mills were quite small and we can glimpse some of their details from mediaeval manuscripts, stained glass and carved representations.
As the wind often changes direction it was necessary to be able to face the sails into the wind so that the mill could work. These remaining windmills, scattered throughout the world, are a historic, and certainly very photogenic, reminder of a past technological age.
It was made from a series of shutters which could be opened or closed by a system of levers. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems, throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam locomotives of those early times. These mills, made by a variety of manufacturers, featured a large number of blades so that they would turn slowly but with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds.
This was the connection between the windmill and the pump rod, which generally went through the drop pipe to the cylinder below.
Some pump jacks provided a sealed connection, allowing water to be forced out under pressure allowing a tank at a higher elevation to provide water for a home and other uses, but many had a simple spout allowing water to flow away in a trough by gravity. Today, with increases in energy prices and the expense of replacing electric pumps, has led to an increase in the repair, restoration and installation of new windmills.
Offshore wind turbines are not new, but they typically stand on towers that have to be driven deep into the ocean floor. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. The ZCA2020 Plan outlines an ambitious and inspiring vision: to power Australia with 100% renewable energy in ten years.
Five future reports are planned on how to eliminate emissions from other sectors (Transport, Buildings, Land Use and Agriculture, Industrial Processes, and Replacing Fossil Fuel Export Revenue). At Australia's current rate of emissions, we will use up our share of the global budget in just five years (the same goes for the US and Canada).
But obviously, further delay means ever increasing risks – and the risks are already very high. Technologies that become available in future could increase our options and reduce the cost. Because the wind isn’t blowing all the time, wind farms average only 30% of their capacity. They assumed a demand 40% higher than today (accounting for increased energy efficiency and electrification of transport and heating). Yellow squares are solar power plants, blue squares are wind power plants, red lines are high-voltage direct current transmission, and green lines are high-voltage alternating current transmission. Together, they would have a total capacity of 42.5 GW and be able to store enough energy to meet winter demand. These towns are far enough inland to have high sunlight throughout the year, but close enough to the populated coasts for it to be economical to build high-voltage transmission lines. The best commercially available wind turbines have a capacity of 7.5 MW, so we need to build 6,400 of them. The locations are widely dispersed so the grid is not dependent on the weather in any one place. The first stage would begin by constructing small power towers and gradually ramp up until 2015, when solar power costs become competitive with coal power.
In addition, the 30,000 manufacturing jobs could also be retained to export components to the world.
That’s about the amount of money spent on insurance, or the value added by the real estate sector, or the money spent on coal, gas and uranium.
The Net Present Cost over the period 2011-2040 is equal to business-as-usual (BAU) if you only include direct costs. The Stern Review estimated that a global effort to mitigate climate change could save 20% of GDP per year by 2050. In one possible scenario, they could rise by $8 per household per week, similar to what is expected under BAU. However, it does point out companies were aware of the risk to their industry when they invested in their assets. When Australia (and the world) finally wakes up to the climate crisis, Zero Carbon Australia 2020 provides a useful blueprint for decarbonising our energy sector. As an extremely high per capita emitter Australia has an imperative to take drastic mitigating action.
Every week I seem to learn about something that can now be done *without* the need for oil-or any other fossil fuel.
So can you explain me WHY all these countries (including Iceland that has no FF at all and must import everything) still keep using FF if they could suppress them? I'm sorry you're not able to get what I'm really saying - although as a teacher I am somewhat used to this kind of situation.
One should expect that there will be problems, hopefully tractable problems, discovered due to this corrosion as the technology gets more use. So personally I'd lay off Gilles: it's a fair question, and one that I've not seen any completely convincing framework for answering. But let's not forget: young and even immature though he was, and despite his lamentable weakness for women of questionable reputations, JFK was a great leader. Bennis has an even more indicting title, "Why Leaders Can't Lead", and an endorsement from the legendary Peter Drucker. Instead of leaders rising to the top, our whole human society has started to look more and more like the sickening decay leading up to the Russian Revolution, when high-placed government ministers, instead of addressing real problems with probable solutions, would sequester themselves in occult meetings to try to conjure up the ghost of Rasputin (this really happened), at the same time, throwing roadblocks in the way of those precious few who really did try to solve problems.
How do you produce them without FF (and even dissociation of calcium carbonate produce CO2) ? I've read about a number of low-carbon building techniques over the years-in a purely amateur fashion of course. It's just common sense that steel containing a large amount of material from recycled material will require less energy to manufacture than making it from raw iron ore. The sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at different rates - most notably during the day and night, but also when different surfaces (for example, water and land) absorb or reflect at different rates. Some portion of that energy can be converted into other forms mechanical force or electricity that we can use to perform work.
Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water in rural or remote locations - the "farm windmill" still seen in many rural areas of the U.S.
Horizontal-axis wind turbines are most common today, constituting nearly all of the "utility-scale" (100 kilowatts, kW, capacity and larger) turbines in the global market. This chart depicts a variety of historical turbine sizes and the amount of electricity they are each capable of generating (the turbine's capacity, or power rating). A 90-meter machine, definitely at the large end of the scale at this writing (2005), with a 90-meter tower would have a total height from the tower base to the tip of the rotor of approximately 135 meters (442 feet).
Most have rotor diameters of 8 meters or less and would be mounted on towers of 40 meters in height or less. Watts are very small units, so the terms kilowatt (kW, 1,000 watts), megawatt (MW, 1 million watts), and gigawatt (pronounced "jig-a-watt," GW, 1 billion watts) are most commonly used to describe the capacity of generating units like wind turbines or other power plants. A kilowatt-hour means one kilowatt (1,000 watts) of electricity produced or consumed for one hour.
Wind turbines being manufactured now have power ratings ranging from 250 watts to 5 megawatts (MW). A 5-MW turbine can produce more than 15 million kWh in a year--enough to power more than 1, 400 households. Excess electricity fed into the local utility system earned the school $25,000 in its first five years of operation. Thus, a turbine operating at a site with an average wind speed of 12 mph could in theory generate about 33% more electricity than one at an 11-mph site, because the cube of 12 (1,768) is 33% larger than the cube of 11 (1,331).

This website is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a solicitation to buy or sell securities. The modern wind power machines used for generating electricity are more properly called wind turbines.
They are still used today for the same purpose in some areas of the world where a connection to electric power lines is not a realistic option. This arrangement allowed wells as deep as 1200 feet (370 m) to be constructed, though most were much more shallow. This arrangement only works in water depths of about 50 feet or less - close enough to shore that they are still visible. The ultimate form of this energy chain is wind energy but the sun’s radiation causes the wind.The sun heats different parts of the earth at different times (day and night).
It goes straight to zero emissions technologies, without a detour through low emissions ones which would waste time and resources.
The modeling confirmed the proposed portfolio of solar, wind, hydro, and biomass would indeed supply demand. The majority of the power supply would come online during the second stage, with a constant rate of manufacture to 2019. A three-year ramp-up should lower the cost to European levels, also followed by a constant rate of construction.
Most of the money is spent in the latter half of the decade, after the public has already seen some of the benefits of the initial investment.
It leaves open the question of where the funding would come from, suggesting a combination of public and private sources.
Though the capital costs of ZCA2020 are much higher than BAU, more money is saved because solar power plants do not need a constant supply of coal and gas for fuel. ZCA2020 shows powering Australia with renewable energy is feasible using commercially available technology.
How do you produce them without FF (and even dissociation of calcium carbonate produce CO2) ?
Scientists and engineers in other countries around the world are undoubtedly addressing their unique challenges in creative and ingenious ways and are not likely to be troubled with your pessimistic, can't do attitude. Of course we've already told you-though you're *clearly* not listening-that our transportation needs can be achieved, with a much, much lower CO2 footprint, using either bio-diesel (from algae) or electricity from renewable energy sources-indeed, Iceland is on the verge of cutting its per capita CO2 emissions still further by shifting the bulk of its transportation from fossil fuels to hydrogen. Plastics & Fertilizers are already available that don't have a single ounce of petrochemicals in them. Then there are the famous Dilbert insights into the "mastodon dung" that passes for managers these days. Every single post you extol the virtues of fossil fuels & tell everyone how civilization can't exist without them. Sheesh, I reckon if I went back in time about 120 years, I'd be able to gleefully "predict" that petroleum & Internal Combustion Engines were a total dead end-because there would have been no petroleum distribution network yet & very few people making use of what little petroleum dispensing centers currently existed at that time.
Like I said, the Romans made their cement out of Aluminium Silicate-which was to be found in abundance on at areas of high volcanic activity. To make the kinds of changes you suggest will require a different mind-set of the majority of citizens-- something akin to a "war footing" and that is not currently in place. One 50-watt light bulb left on for 20 hours consumes one kilowatt-hour of electricity (50 watts x 20 hours = 1,000 watt-hours = 1 kilowatt-hour).
The US Department of Energy lists several dozen solar thermal plants currently in operation. CST works well with wind power, because the stored solar energy can be used when there is not enough wind. If you also take into account the Net Present Cost of oil and (possibly) priced emissions under BAU, ZCA2020 could potentially save $1.5 trillion.
Given that many of the nations on that list you supply generate 2 to 3 (if not 4 to 5) times as much CO2 per capita as the nations you selected, I'd argue that its far better that we try & cut our CO2 emissions down to those of Iceland or Norway, rather than keep them at the level of Australia or the US-which will result in CO2 emissions of closer to 150 billion tonnes per annum, not 64 billion. You constantly assert-or at best imply-that energy efficiency is a worthless endeavour-so I'm not sure what there is to misunderstand? Secondly, Molten Storage is great, but I'm surprised there isn't more work going into so-called "Thermo-chemical storage". Ironically, fly-ash waste from burning coal is also a rich source of aluminium silicate as well (& there must be *billions* of tonnes of the stuff buried around the world after at least 30 years of the stuff being collected in flue stacks, rather than released into the atmosphere). Also, I've read of attempts by the some steel manufacturers to capture the waste heat from making steel, & converting it into electricity (so-called co-generation). Hot air rises, reducing the atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface, and cooler air is drawn in to replace it. Wind electric turbines generate electricity for homes and businesses and for sale to utilities.
This project has been so successful that the Spirit Lake school district has since installed a second turbine with a capacity of 750 kW. Also, there is little energy to be harvested at very low wind speeds (6-mph winds contain less than one-eighth the energy of 12-mph winds). To produce electricity, the hot salt is pumped into a generator, where the heat is transferred to steam which drives a turbine.
The transition would stimulate the economy, save up to $1.5 trillion by 2040, create jobs, and make Australia a leader in clean energy.
May be some buses stop there from time to time , but I missed the time; no information in the tourism office, unfortunately. Maybe if you want to be better understood, you need to be a more effective communicator of what your actual views are on this subject, because so far you've done an exceptional job of portraying yourself as an unreconstructed supporter of all things fossil fuel. A number of ubiquitous chemicals-like Methane, sulfur trioxide, ammonia & apparently even water-can be broken down into their constituent components at the temperatures achieved by Concentrated Solar Power (though its true that some require a catalyst as well). This highlights how pointless *all* of your questions regarding *current* use of renewable fuels actually is. Anyway, the stuff we've been using since the 19th century makes use of Calcium Carbonate which, when baked at high temperature, releases CO2 & leaves behind Calcium Oxide-which is what they actually use to make the cement. All combined, this could make the manufacture of renewable energy generation systems much less CO2 intensive.
Hot air rises, creating a vacuum below it.As we know, nature abhors a vacuum, so cooler air rushes in to replace it.
Once the salt is cooled to 290°C (still warm enough to be molten), it returns to the tank to be reheated.
I never heard of anything concerning hydrogen when I travelled across the country - I cannot imaging hydrogen refuelling in all the small villages and lunar landscapes I went through. Methane can be broken down to CO2 & H2, Sulfur Trioxide can be broken down to SO2 & O2, ammonia can be broken down into N2 & H2 & even water can (with a nickel catalyst) apparently be broken down into H2 & O2. It doesn't *matter* what the current situation is, as the technology is still relatively new-only the future potential of the technology is what matters. Aluminium Silicate, by contrast, releases no CO2 when it is made into cement-so is effectively CO2 free. If its defined as net CO2e, then I think Bio-gas is an oft overlooked option for base-load energy production. That rush of air we term wind, and that wind has the property of kinetic energy which can in turn be converted into other forms of energy, such as electricity.There is plenty of wind about but humankind has hardly made a dent in its potential as a generator of energy for practical purposes. Now, once broken down, the energy can be retained as long as you want, until you re-react them together again-which will, of course, re-release the heat as an exothermic reaction. Coal & Oil were, in their beginnings, the only real game in town, yet they took several *decades*, even with 100% government support, to go from the drawing boards to commercial viability-& even today these industries enjoy very healthy subsidies courtesy of tax payers. After all, human waste streams are *always* going to produce methane, which is an 8 times worse GHG than CO2. Until the twentieth century wind power was used mainly to power water pumps, mills, saws and sailboats, but not until the twentieth century was it used to create salable raw electricity by means of wind power generators designed specifically for this purpose. Not only does it represent an excellent source of long-term storage of solar heat for night time & very cloudy days, but some of the by-products can even be used as feedstock for other industrial processes.
Yet people like you frequently *demand* that renewable energy technologies be 100% commercially viable, subsidy free, *yesterday*. So every tonne of methane converted to a tonne of CO2 means 7 tonnes of CO2e effectively saved (at least as I understand it). The first time modern seriously considered wind power as a viable alternative to the conventional means of energy production was in the 1970s when petroleum shortages forced economists and technologists to investigate other forms of power generation. Also, every tonne of CO2 produced from burning bio-gas to generate around 2 MW-h of electricity saves around 2t of CO2 produced by burning coal to generate the same amount of electricity. The environmentally-aware nineties and the awareness that the damage fossil fuels are causing to the earth gave further impetus to the movement to wind power. So, unless I misunderstand it, burning 1t of methane to generate around 2 MW-h of electricity saves approximately 9t CO2e. No air or water pollution results from the operation of a wind farm, because wind power generators burn no fuel.Yet wind farms, as large collections of these modern windmills are termed, are still a comparative rarity.
By 2005 wind machines in the United States, the world’s third largest producer of wind power (the first two are Spain and Germany) generated only 0.4 percent of the nation’s total electricity in just over half of the country’s states. Even so the growth in this type of power production increased an impressive threefold in the US between 1998 and 2005. Environmentalists claim that wind power generators have an effect on wild bird populations.
The aesthetically inclined complain about the visual impact of wind farms on the landscape.The truth of the beauty of wind power generators is in the eye of the beholderSome may see the swirling blades of windmills on a hilltop as an eyesore.

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